Abstract

The described instrument is a new reflectometer designed to check the normal specular reflectance of 40000 reflectors necessary for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ). This new reflectometer has a high accuracy over the 400950  nm wavelength range and allows the delicate measurement of shaped parts. The measurements are relative and several reference mirrors, which are low loss dielectric mirrors [R(λ)>99.9%], are used for the standardization. The apparatus gives an excellent repeatability (<0.06% at 2σ) thanks to its design and automatic focalization imaging system. After a brief review that is related to performance evolution of the spectrophotometers, our facility and its components are described. The methodology of focusing and calibration are explained. The capabilities of our device are illustrated through some measurements realized on flat or shaped samples.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Sabary, D. Marteau, P. Hamel, and H. Piombini, "High reflectivity protected silver coatings on stainless steel and aluminium substrates," in Society of Vacuum Coaters, 47th Annual Technical Conference, Dallas, Tex. (April 2004), pp. 24-29.
  3. H. Piombini and P. Voarino, "Dispositif et procédé de mesure de caractérisation par réflectométrie," FR patent 0651951 (30 May 2006).
  4. M. Jobin and G. Yvon, "Improvements in apparatus for photometric, polarimetric and spectrometric determinations," G.B. patent 204693 (7 August 1924).
  5. H. H. Cary, "Double folded-z-configuration monochromator," U.S. patent 3,098,408 (23 July 1963).
  6. J. Strong, Procedures in Experimental Physics (Prentice Hall, 1938), p. 376.
  7. H. E. Bennett and W. F. Koehler, "Precision measurement of absolute specular reflectance with minimized systematic errors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1-5 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  14. P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, and A. C. Parr, NIST Measurement Services: Spectral Reflectance, NIST Spec. Publ. 250-48 (U.S. GPO, 1998).
  15. D. Allen and M. E. Nadal, "Facilities," http://physics.nist.gov/Divisions/Div844/facilities/specphoto/facilities.html.
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    [PubMed]
  17. A. E. Norton, C. L. Mallory, H. V. Pham, and P. Rasmussen, "Broadband microspectroreflectometer," U.S. patent 5,747,813 (5 May 1998).
  18. P. G. Borden, J. Li, and J. Madsen, "Calibration as well as measurement on the same workpiece during fabrication," U.S. patent 6,940,592 (6 September 2005).
  19. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants (Academic, 1985).
  20. P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, "High-precision measurements of reflectance," Proc. SPIE 6342, 63421Z (2006).
  21. S. Petitrenaud, P. Voarino, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, "High-precision measurements of the LMJ's reflectors," OSA Annual Meeting, Optical Fabrication & Testing, Rochester, N.Y., 9-11 October 2006.
  22. P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, "Spectrophotometer for high-precision measurements of heterogeneities," TOM 4, EOS Annual Meeting 2006, Paris, France, 16-19 October 2006.
  23. H. Piombini, P. Voarino, F. Sabary, D. Marteau, J. Dubard, J. Hameury, and J. R. Filtz, "High-precision measurements of the specular reflectivity," OIC 2007, Tucson, Ariz., 3-8 June 2007.
  24. "Traitements antireflet multicouches large bande," Catalog Général 2006/2007 (Micro-Controle, 91006 Evry Cedex, France), p. 510.

1999 (1)

M. L. André, "The french Laser Megajoule project (LMJ)," Fusion Eng. Des. 44, 43-49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

1973 (1)

1960 (1)

H. E. Bennett and W. F. Koehler, "Precision measurement of absolute specular reflectance with minimized systematic errors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1-5 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Fusion Eng. Des. (1)

M. L. André, "The french Laser Megajoule project (LMJ)," Fusion Eng. Des. 44, 43-49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

H. E. Bennett and W. F. Koehler, "Precision measurement of absolute specular reflectance with minimized systematic errors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1-5 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

A. E. Norton, C. L. Mallory, H. V. Pham, and P. Rasmussen, "Broadband microspectroreflectometer," U.S. patent 5,747,813 (5 May 1998).

P. G. Borden, J. Li, and J. Madsen, "Calibration as well as measurement on the same workpiece during fabrication," U.S. patent 6,940,592 (6 September 2005).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants (Academic, 1985).

P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, "High-precision measurements of reflectance," Proc. SPIE 6342, 63421Z (2006).

S. Petitrenaud, P. Voarino, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, "High-precision measurements of the LMJ's reflectors," OSA Annual Meeting, Optical Fabrication & Testing, Rochester, N.Y., 9-11 October 2006.

P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, "Spectrophotometer for high-precision measurements of heterogeneities," TOM 4, EOS Annual Meeting 2006, Paris, France, 16-19 October 2006.

H. Piombini, P. Voarino, F. Sabary, D. Marteau, J. Dubard, J. Hameury, and J. R. Filtz, "High-precision measurements of the specular reflectivity," OIC 2007, Tucson, Ariz., 3-8 June 2007.

"Traitements antireflet multicouches large bande," Catalog Général 2006/2007 (Micro-Controle, 91006 Evry Cedex, France), p. 510.

R. Francis, Measuring Photometric Accuracy Using the Double Aperture Method (Varian UV-62, 1993).

P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, and A. C. Parr, NIST Measurement Services: Spectral Reflectance, NIST Spec. Publ. 250-48 (U.S. GPO, 1998).

D. Allen and M. E. Nadal, "Facilities," http://physics.nist.gov/Divisions/Div844/facilities/specphoto/facilities.html.

F. Sabary, D. Marteau, P. Hamel, and H. Piombini, "High reflectivity protected silver coatings on stainless steel and aluminium substrates," in Society of Vacuum Coaters, 47th Annual Technical Conference, Dallas, Tex. (April 2004), pp. 24-29.

H. Piombini and P. Voarino, "Dispositif et procédé de mesure de caractérisation par réflectométrie," FR patent 0651951 (30 May 2006).

M. Jobin and G. Yvon, "Improvements in apparatus for photometric, polarimetric and spectrometric determinations," G.B. patent 204693 (7 August 1924).

H. H. Cary, "Double folded-z-configuration monochromator," U.S. patent 3,098,408 (23 July 1963).

J. Strong, Procedures in Experimental Physics (Prentice Hall, 1938), p. 376.

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Pattern and typical spectral response of the treatment developed in CEA∕Le Ripault.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Definition in the object space and image space of the geometrical extents.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Aim of the oversized condenser lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Photograph of the optical system. The components are set on marble: a detector for the measurement path is at the left, behind the camera is a sample holder at the right, two beam splitters are behind the detector of the reference path, and a monochromator and optical source are at the back of the picture.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Schematic representation of the experimental setup.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Spectral output distribution measured after filters and beam splitter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Computed longitudinal chromatic aberration and experimental displacement.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Images of the sample as a function of its location along the optical axis.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Employed numerical filters for both criteria.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Initial image and both (b) spot and (c) halo images resulting from our image processing.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Results from the (a) halo image and (b) spot image.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Decomposition of the focalization method.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Repeatability of self-focusing during a mapping of a dielectric mirror.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Reflectivity versus wavelength and focusing.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) Repeatability of the experiment: study of twice the standard deviation (2σ) versus wavelength.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) K ( λ ) variation upon wavelength.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

(Color online) Five measurements made at different locations by our reflectometer onto a reflector compared with one measurement made by a traditional spectrophotometer (device 1) using an integrating sphere.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

(Color online) Comparison of the reflectivity of a silicon wafer among two spectrophotometers, one ellipsometer, and our device.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

(Color online) Three measurements in reflectivity of a lens f = 150   mm with antireflective coating.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

(Color online) Similar reflectivity mappings performed on the same reflector on a 40 × 40  mm 2 .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Reflection Given by Palik [19] and Measured with an Ellipsometer, Two Commercial Spectrophotometers, and by Our System for Six Wavelengths from 450 to 900 nm

Equations (3)

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n y   sin   α M = n R   sin   θ M = n y   sin   α M = n R   sin   θ M ,
R ( λ ) = K ( λ ) V Measure ( λ ) V Backgroundmeasure ( λ ) V Reference ( λ ) V Backgroundreference ( λ ) ,
K ( λ ) = R Etalon ( λ ) V Reference ( λ ) V Backgroundreference ( λ ) V Measure ( λ ) V Backgroundmeasure ( λ ) .

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