Abstract

Using a scanning near-field optical microscope, we visualize, in three dimensions, the electromagnetic field distribution near an isolated slit aperture in a thin gold film. At the metal-air interface and for a TM incident polarization, we confirm some recently observed results and show that the slit generates two kinds of surface waves: a slowly decaying surface plasmon polariton and a quasi-cylindrical wave that decreases more rapidly when moving away from the slit. These waves are not generated for a TE incident polarization. In a noncontact mode, we also observe how the transmitted light diverges in free space. At a small distance from the slit (<2μm), we find that the emerging light spreads in all directions for TM, forming an electromagnetic cloud, whereas it is concentrated above the slit for TE, forming a more directive light jet. The experimental images are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and W. C. Kinball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467-469 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct evidence for surface plasmon-mediated enhanced light transmission through metallic nanohole arrays," Nano. Lett. 6, 2104-2108 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julié, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, "Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Gay, B. V. de Lesegno, R. Mathevet, J. Weiner, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Atomic fluorescence mapping of optical field intensity profiles issuing from nanostructured slits milled into subwavelength metallic layers," Appl. Phys. B 81, 871-874 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, "High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance," Opt. Lett. 31, 1528-1530 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2, 551-556 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface wave generation and propagation on metallic subwavelength structures measured by far-field interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Kalkum, G. Gay, O. Alloschery, J. Weiner, H. J. Lezec, Y. Xie, and M. Mansuripur, "Surface-wave interferometry on single subwavelength slit-groove structures fabricated on gold films," Opt. Express 15, 2613-2621 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W.'tHooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Elliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young's experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761-7774 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Aigouy, Y. De Wilde, and M. Mortier, "Local optical imaging of nanoholes using a single fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particle as a probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 147-149 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404-406 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Verhagen, A. L. Tchebotareva, and A. Polman, "Erbium luminescence imaging of infrared surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121121 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Approximate model for surface-plasmon generation at slit apertures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1608-1615 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. The gold permittivity is extracted from the tabulated data in E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985), Part II(1).
  21. L. Chen, J. T. Robinson, and M. Lipson, "Role of radiation and surface plasmon polaritons in the optical interactions between a nano-slit and a nano-groove on a metal surface," Opt. Express 14, 12629-12636 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. E. Silberstein, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and Q. Cao, "Use of grating theories in integrated optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2865-2875 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2040-2042 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julié, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, "Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kalkum, G. Gay, O. Alloschery, J. Weiner, H. J. Lezec, Y. Xie, and M. Mansuripur, "Surface-wave interferometry on single subwavelength slit-groove structures fabricated on gold films," Opt. Express 15, 2613-2621 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (8)

H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct evidence for surface plasmon-mediated enhanced light transmission through metallic nanohole arrays," Nano. Lett. 6, 2104-2108 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, A. L. Tchebotareva, and A. Polman, "Erbium luminescence imaging of infrared surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2, 551-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface wave generation and propagation on metallic subwavelength structures measured by far-field interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, "High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance," Opt. Lett. 31, 1528-1530 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Approximate model for surface-plasmon generation at slit apertures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1608-1615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, J. T. Robinson, and M. Lipson, "Role of radiation and surface plasmon polaritons in the optical interactions between a nano-slit and a nano-groove on a metal surface," Opt. Express 14, 12629-12636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W.'tHooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Elliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young's experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gay, B. V. de Lesegno, R. Mathevet, J. Weiner, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Atomic fluorescence mapping of optical field intensity profiles issuing from nanostructured slits milled into subwavelength metallic layers," Appl. Phys. B 81, 871-874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and W. C. Kinball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2040-2042 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. Aigouy, Y. De Wilde, and M. Mortier, "Local optical imaging of nanoholes using a single fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particle as a probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 147-149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404-406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

E. Silberstein, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and Q. Cao, "Use of grating theories in integrated optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2865-2875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761-7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Gay, B. V. de Lesegno, R. Mathevet, J. Weiner, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Atomic fluorescence mapping of optical field intensity profiles issuing from nanostructured slits milled into subwavelength metallic layers," Appl. Phys. B 81, 871-874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and W. C. Kinball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Aigouy, Y. De Wilde, and M. Mortier, "Local optical imaging of nanoholes using a single fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particle as a probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 147-149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404-406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, A. L. Tchebotareva, and A. Polman, "Erbium luminescence imaging of infrared surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2040-2042 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761-7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nano. Lett. (2)

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct evidence for surface plasmon-mediated enhanced light transmission through metallic nanohole arrays," Nano. Lett. 6, 2104-2108 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2, 551-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface wave generation and propagation on metallic subwavelength structures measured by far-field interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W.'tHooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Elliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young's experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julié, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, "Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

The gold permittivity is extracted from the tabulated data in E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985), Part II(1).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Experimental setup. Excitation is performed at λ = 975   nm and fluorescence is recorded at λ = 550   nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) Topography and (b) SNOM images for TM, and (c) TE incident polarizations. The “background” observed on the whole TM image is due to surface waves launched on the metallic interface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Near-field fluorescence data as a function of the slit distance extracted from the TE and TM images of Fig. 2. The data were obtained by averaging all the column data in the images of Fig. 2. The dotted curve represents the theoretical decay of the squared intensity of a SPP on gold. The inset represents computational data obtained under TM polarization, for the total field, the SPP contribution, and the CW contribution. The calculation is performed at 50   nm above the metal surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Near-field optical images in a plane perpendicular to the surface for TM and TE polarizations: (a), (b) experimental data; (c), (d) computational results. The images are slightly intensity saturated to show the presence of surface waves.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Experimentally measured signal on a circle of radius r = 5 μ m from the slit center (a) analyzed zone. (b) Experimental data for TM polarization. (c) Same for TE. The curves are extracted from the experimental images in Fig. 4.

Metrics