Abstract

The optical surface of a large optical flat can be measured using an autocollimator and scanning pentaprism system. The autocollimator measures the slope difference between a point on the mirror and a reference point. Such a system was built and previously operated at the University of Arizona. We discuss refinements that were made to the hardware, the alignment procedure, and the error analysis. The improved system was demonstrated with a 1.6m flat mirror, which was measured to be flat to 12nm rms. The uncertainty in the measurement is only 9nm rms.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Mallik, C. Zhao, and J. H. Burge, "Measurement of a 2-m flat using a pentaprism scanning system," Opt. Eng. 46, 023602 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Qian, P. Takacs, G. Sostero, and D. Cocco, "Portable long trace profiler: concept and solution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3198-3204 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Qian, W. Jark, and P. Z. Takacs, "The penta-prism LTP: a long-trace-profiler with stationary optical head and moving penta prism," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2562-2569 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. D. Geckeler, "ESAD shearing deflectometry: potential for synchrotron beamline metrology," Proc. SPIE 6317, 63171H (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. V. Mantravadi, "Newton, Fizeau, and Haidinger interferometers," in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 1992), pp. 1-49.
  6. J. Ojeda-Castaneda, "Foucault, wire, and phase modulation tests," in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 1992), pp. 265-320.
  7. R. D. Geckeler, "Error minimization in high-accuracy scanning deflectometry," Proc. SPIE 6293, 62930O (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. D. Geckeler, "Optimal use of pentaprisms in highly accurate deflectometric scanning," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 115-125 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Yellowhair and J. H. Burge, "Measurement of optical flatness using electronic levels," Opt. Eng. (to be published).
  10. J. Yellowhair, College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721, R. Sprowl, P. Su, R. Stone, and J. H. Burge are preparing a manuscript to be called "Development of a 1 meter vibration-insensitive Fizeau interferometer."

2007

P. Mallik, C. Zhao, and J. H. Burge, "Measurement of a 2-m flat using a pentaprism scanning system," Opt. Eng. 46, 023602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. D. Geckeler, "ESAD shearing deflectometry: potential for synchrotron beamline metrology," Proc. SPIE 6317, 63171H (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Geckeler, "Error minimization in high-accuracy scanning deflectometry," Proc. SPIE 6293, 62930O (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Geckeler, "Optimal use of pentaprisms in highly accurate deflectometric scanning," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 115-125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Qian, P. Takacs, G. Sostero, and D. Cocco, "Portable long trace profiler: concept and solution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3198-3204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Qian, W. Jark, and P. Z. Takacs, "The penta-prism LTP: a long-trace-profiler with stationary optical head and moving penta prism," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2562-2569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. V. Mantravadi, "Newton, Fizeau, and Haidinger interferometers," in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 1992), pp. 1-49.

J. Ojeda-Castaneda, "Foucault, wire, and phase modulation tests," in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 1992), pp. 265-320.

Burge, J. H.

P. Mallik, C. Zhao, and J. H. Burge, "Measurement of a 2-m flat using a pentaprism scanning system," Opt. Eng. 46, 023602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Yellowhair and J. H. Burge, "Measurement of optical flatness using electronic levels," Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Burge are preparing a manuscript to be called, J. H.

J. Yellowhair, College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721, R. Sprowl, P. Su, R. Stone, and J. H. Burge are preparing a manuscript to be called "Development of a 1 meter vibration-insensitive Fizeau interferometer."

Cocco, D.

S. Qian, P. Takacs, G. Sostero, and D. Cocco, "Portable long trace profiler: concept and solution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3198-3204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Geckeler, R. D.

R. D. Geckeler, "ESAD shearing deflectometry: potential for synchrotron beamline metrology," Proc. SPIE 6317, 63171H (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Geckeler, "Error minimization in high-accuracy scanning deflectometry," Proc. SPIE 6293, 62930O (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Geckeler, "Optimal use of pentaprisms in highly accurate deflectometric scanning," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 115-125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jark, W.

S. Qian, W. Jark, and P. Z. Takacs, "The penta-prism LTP: a long-trace-profiler with stationary optical head and moving penta prism," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2562-2569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mallik, P.

P. Mallik, C. Zhao, and J. H. Burge, "Measurement of a 2-m flat using a pentaprism scanning system," Opt. Eng. 46, 023602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mantravadi, M. V.

M. V. Mantravadi, "Newton, Fizeau, and Haidinger interferometers," in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 1992), pp. 1-49.

Ojeda-Castaneda, J.

J. Ojeda-Castaneda, "Foucault, wire, and phase modulation tests," in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 1992), pp. 265-320.

Qian, S.

S. Qian, P. Takacs, G. Sostero, and D. Cocco, "Portable long trace profiler: concept and solution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3198-3204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Qian, W. Jark, and P. Z. Takacs, "The penta-prism LTP: a long-trace-profiler with stationary optical head and moving penta prism," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2562-2569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sostero, G.

S. Qian, P. Takacs, G. Sostero, and D. Cocco, "Portable long trace profiler: concept and solution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3198-3204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sprowl, R.

J. Yellowhair, College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721, R. Sprowl, P. Su, R. Stone, and J. H. Burge are preparing a manuscript to be called "Development of a 1 meter vibration-insensitive Fizeau interferometer."

Stone, R.

J. Yellowhair, College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721, R. Sprowl, P. Su, R. Stone, and J. H. Burge are preparing a manuscript to be called "Development of a 1 meter vibration-insensitive Fizeau interferometer."

Su, P.

J. Yellowhair, College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721, R. Sprowl, P. Su, R. Stone, and J. H. Burge are preparing a manuscript to be called "Development of a 1 meter vibration-insensitive Fizeau interferometer."

Takacs, P.

S. Qian, P. Takacs, G. Sostero, and D. Cocco, "Portable long trace profiler: concept and solution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3198-3204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takacs, P. Z.

S. Qian, W. Jark, and P. Z. Takacs, "The penta-prism LTP: a long-trace-profiler with stationary optical head and moving penta prism," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2562-2569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yellowhair, J.

J. Yellowhair and J. H. Burge, "Measurement of optical flatness using electronic levels," Opt. Eng. (to be published).

J. Yellowhair, College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721, R. Sprowl, P. Su, R. Stone, and J. H. Burge are preparing a manuscript to be called "Development of a 1 meter vibration-insensitive Fizeau interferometer."

Zhao, C.

P. Mallik, C. Zhao, and J. H. Burge, "Measurement of a 2-m flat using a pentaprism scanning system," Opt. Eng. 46, 023602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

R. D. Geckeler, "Optimal use of pentaprisms in highly accurate deflectometric scanning," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 115-125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

P. Mallik, C. Zhao, and J. H. Burge, "Measurement of a 2-m flat using a pentaprism scanning system," Opt. Eng. 46, 023602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. Yellowhair and J. H. Burge, "Measurement of optical flatness using electronic levels," Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Proc. SPIE

R. D. Geckeler, "Error minimization in high-accuracy scanning deflectometry," Proc. SPIE 6293, 62930O (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

R. D. Geckeler, "ESAD shearing deflectometry: potential for synchrotron beamline metrology," Proc. SPIE 6317, 63171H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. Qian, P. Takacs, G. Sostero, and D. Cocco, "Portable long trace profiler: concept and solution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3198-3204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. Qian, W. Jark, and P. Z. Takacs, "The penta-prism LTP: a long-trace-profiler with stationary optical head and moving penta prism," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2562-2569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. V. Mantravadi, "Newton, Fizeau, and Haidinger interferometers," in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 1992), pp. 1-49.

J. Ojeda-Castaneda, "Foucault, wire, and phase modulation tests," in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 1992), pp. 265-320.

J. Yellowhair, College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721, R. Sprowl, P. Su, R. Stone, and J. H. Burge are preparing a manuscript to be called "Development of a 1 meter vibration-insensitive Fizeau interferometer."

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the scanning pentaprism test system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Coordinate system and definition of the degrees of freedom for the autocollimator, scanning pentaprism, and test surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Solid model of the scanning pentaprism rail system showing the mounting platforms and the three-point kinematic base.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pentaprism assemblies integrated into the system. Electronically controlled shutters are located at the exit face of each prism. The autocollimator system (not visible) is mounted to the left.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fully integrated and operational scanning pentaprism test system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Initial alignment of the pentaprisms in yaw. The laser is reflected off the front faces of the prisms.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Pentaprism scan arrangement. This example shows the mirror being rotated in 120° steps for each scan.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Surface slope measurements with the scanning pentaprism system and a low order polynomial fit. A linear component of the polynomial fit on the slope data gives information on power in the surface (12 nm rms).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of the scanning pentaprism slope data and the interferometer slope data.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Interferometer measurement on the 1.6 m flat mirror.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Circumferential scans, where both prisms are fixed and the mirror is continuously rotated, measure astigmatism, and other θ dependent aberrations in the mirror surface.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Circumferential scans at the center and edge of the large flat mirror, and (b) difference in the center and edge scans and curve fit. The error bars in the scans indicate stability of the rotary air bearing table.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Setup to test for the effect of beam divergence on prism motion.

Tables (6)

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Table 1 Contributions to Line-of-Sight Error

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Table 2 Aberrations Measured with Circumferential Scans

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Table 3 Budget for Alignment Errors for the Pentaprism∕Autocollimator System

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Table 4 Misalignment and Perturbation Influences on the Line of Sight

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Table 5 Independent Measurement Errors Assumed to be Uncorrelated

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Table 6 Measurement Accuracy for the Low-Order Zernike Aberrations with the Scanning Pentaprism System

Equations (79)

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1.6 m
12 nm
9 nm
10 cm
2 m
9 nm
50 μrad
10 nrad
M scan yaw = α TS α AC ,
H scan roll = β PP β AC + 0.5 M scan yaw ,
280 nrad
1 mm
0.5 mm
140 nrad
2.5 m
20 cm
0.05 mm m
50 μrad
40 mm
50 μrad
50 nrad
200 kg
0.25 mm m
2 mm
120 μrad
120 μrad
5 cm
120 μrad
± 200 μrad
50 μrad
± 200 μrad
50 μrad
1.6 m
1.6 m
12 nm
1.6 m
160 nrad
1 m
1.6 m
12 nm
1 θ
f = a 0 + a 1 sin ( θ ) + b 1 cos ( θ ) + a 2 sin ( 2 θ ) + b 2 cos ( 2 θ ) + a 3 sin ( 3 θ ) + b 3 cos ( 3 θ ) .
Δ α LOS = 2 γ PP × Δ γ PP + Δ γ AC ( γ PP + β PP + γ TS ) + γ AC ( Δ γ PP + Δ β PP + Δ γ PP ) + Δ γ TS ( γ PP + β PP ) + γ TS ( Δ γ PP + Δ β PP ) ,
2 nrad mm
2 mm
4 nrad
( 7.1 × 10 6 / ° C )
0.01 ° C / m
17 nrad
± 0.04 ° C / m
± 0.02 ° C / m
34 nrad
17 nrad
0.5 mm
80 nrad
13 mm
18 mm
10 μrad
15 μrad
280 nrad
1 mm
0.5 mm
140 nrad
± 70 nrad
8 nm
0.3 μrad
2 m
16 nm
8 nm
9 nm
9 nm
16 nm
2 m
4 m
γ P P 2
a 0
a 1 sin ( θ ) + b 1 cos ( θ )
a 2 sin ( 2 θ ) + b 2 cos ( 2 θ )
a 3 sin ( 3 θ ) + b 3 cos ( 3 θ )

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