Abstract

We quantify the impact of eye clearance requirement on the performance of eyepieces utilizing doublets versus diffractive optical elements on aspheric substrates. In this study, the doublets were designed to be cemented on-axis elements. Specifically, four different values of eye clearance were implemented: 17, 20, 23, and 26   mm. For each value, axial and lateral color, spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism, field curvature, and distortion were compared. Each system under comparison was optimized for the same focal length, a 9   mm exit pupil, photopic wavelengths (513608  nm), and a 40° full field of view. We demonstrate that the single-layer diffractive optical element supports an eye clearance value of approximately 80% of the effective focal length, while the doublet drops below desired specifications at approximately 65% of the effective focal length.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2007 (1)

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, "Design and fabrication of a dual-element off-axis near-eye optical magnifier," Opt. Lett. 32 (2007).

2006 (1)

O. Cakmakci and J. P. Rolland, "Head-worn displays: a review," J. Disp. Technol. 2, 199-216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, "Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative Augmented Reality Applications," Presence: SI Immersive Projection Technology 14, 528-549 (2005).

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

T. Nakai, "Research on multi-layer diffractive optical elements and their application to photographic lenses," Proceedings ODF 2002, Technical Digest APO22144, Optical Society of Japan (2002).

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

I. Weingartner, "Real and achromatic imaging with two planar holographic optical elements," Opt. Commun. 58, 385-388 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1976 (1)

1963 (1)

1758 (1)

J. Dollond, "An account of some experiments concerning the different refrangability of light," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 50, 733-743 (1758).

Appl. Opt. (6)

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

O. Cakmakci and J. P. Rolland, "Head-worn displays: a review," J. Disp. Technol. 2, 199-216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. Weingartner, "Real and achromatic imaging with two planar holographic optical elements," Opt. Commun. 58, 385-388 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London (1)

J. Dollond, "An account of some experiments concerning the different refrangability of light," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 50, 733-743 (1758).

Presence: SI Immersive Projection Technology (1)

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, "Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative Augmented Reality Applications," Presence: SI Immersive Projection Technology 14, 528-549 (2005).

Other (10)

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, "Design and fabrication of a dual-element off-axis near-eye optical magnifier," Opt. Lett. 32 (2007).

W. Chen, "Biocular eyepiece optical system employing refractive and diffractive optical elements," U.S. patent 5,151,823 (29 September 1992).

O. Cakmakci, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, "Design of a compact optical see-through head-worn display with mutual occlusion capability," in Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VIII, SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics, San Diego, California (2005).

T. Nakai, "Research on multi-layer diffractive optical elements and their application to photographic lenses," Proceedings ODF 2002, Technical Digest APO22144, Optical Society of Japan (2002).

S. H. Lee, ed., Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics, SPIE Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology, Vol. CR49 (1993).

G. M. Morris, "Recent advances in diffractive- and micro-optics technology," in Proc. of Optika '98: Fifth Congress on Modern Optics, Proc. SPIE 3573, 370-375 (1998).

J. A. Cox, T. A. Fritz, and T. Werner, "Application and demonstration of diffractive optics for head-mounted displays," in Helmet- and Head-Mounted Displays and Symbology Design Requirements, R. J. Lewandowski, W. Stephens, and L. A. Haworth, eds., Proc. SPIE 2218, 32-40 (1994).

W. D. Welch, M. R. Feldman, and R. D. Tekolste, "Diffractive optics for head-mounted displays," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems II, Proc. SPIE 2409, 209-210 (1995).

M. J. Kidger, Fundamental Optical Design (SPIE Press, 2002).

D. Faklis and M. J. Hoppe, "Effects of diffraction on the performance of diffractive relay optics," in Helmet- and Head-Mounted Displays and Symbology Design Requirements, Proc. SPIE 2218, 115-119, 32-40 (1994).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical layout of the two-lens DOE solution at 17   mm eye clearance and (b) MTF of the two-lens DOE solution at 17   mm eye clearance evaluated at a 3   mm pupil.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scalar diffraction efficiency across the spectrum for 16 level masks for the design wavelength of 558.98   nm across 513–608   nm .

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Optical Layout, MTF, and Field Curve Comparison for 17 mm Eye Clearance

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Table 2 Optical Layout, MTF, and Field Curve Comparison for 20 mm Eye Clearance

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Table 3 Optical Layout, Modulation Transfer Function, and Field Curve Comparison for 23 and 26 mm Eye Clearance

Tables Icon

Table 4 Aberrations in the (a) Doublet-Based Systems and (b) Diffractive Optical Elements-Based Systems as a Function of Eye Clearance: (1) Spherical Aberration, (2) Coma, (3) Axial Color, (4) Astigmatism, (5) Field Curvature, (6) Lateral Color

Tables Icon

Table 5 Prescription of a Sample Lens, DOE 23 mm

Equations (1)

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η int,poly = λ min λ max η int ( λ ) d λ λ max - λ min ,

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