Abstract

Shadow-band radiometers in general, and especially the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadow-band Radiometer (MFRSR), are widely used for atmospheric optical depth measurements. The major programs running MFRSR networks in the United States include the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring and Research Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) Network, and NASA Solar Irradiance Research Network (SIRN). We discuss a number of technical issues specific to shadow-band radiometers and their impact on the optical depth measurements. These problems include instrument tilt and misalignment, as well as some data processing artifacts. Techniques for data evaluation and automatic detection of some of these problems are described.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
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  4. L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. Michalsky, and Q. L. Min, "The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715-1718 (1999).
  5. P. W. Kiedron, L. Harrison, J. J. Michalsky, J. Schlemmer, and J. L. Berndt, "Data and signal processing of rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) data," Proc. SPIE 4815, 51-57 (2002).
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  11. R. M. Mitchell and B. W. Forgan, "Aerosol measurement in the Australian Outback: intercomparison of Sun photometers," J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 20, 54-66 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. Q. Min and M. Duan, "Simultaneously retrieving cloud optical depth and effective radius for optically thin clouds," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D21201, doi: (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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  15. L. Harrison, P. Kiedron, J. Berndt, and J. Schlemmer, "Extraterrestrial solar spectrum 360-1050 nm from rotating shadowband spectroradiometer measurements at the Southern Great Plains (ARM) site," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4424, doi: (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Harrison and J. Michalsky, "Objective algorithms for the retrieval of optical depths from ground-based measurements," Appl. Opt. 33, 5126-5132 (1994).
  17. J. J. Michalsky, L. C. Harrison, and W. E. Berkheiser, "Cosine response characteristics of some radiometric and photometric sensors," Sol. Energy 54, 397-402 (1995).
  18. M. Alexandrov, A. Marshak, B. Cairns, A. Lacis, and B. Carlson, "Automated cloud screening algorithm for MFRSR data," Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L04118, doi: (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Alexandrov, A. Lacis, B. Carlson, and B. Cairns, "Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by means of Multi-Filter Rotating Shadow-band Radiometer. Part I: retrieval algorithm," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 524-543 (2002).
  20. M. Alexandrov, B. Carlson, A. Lacis, and B. Cairns, "Separation of fine and coarse aerosol modes in MFRSR data sets," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D13204, doi: (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Alexandrov, A. Lacis, B. Carlson, and B. Cairns, "Characterization of atmospheric aerosols using MFRSR measurements" (submitted to J. Geophys. Res.).

2005 (3)

J. A. Augustine, G. B. Hodges, C. R. Cornwall, J. J. Michalsky, and C. I. Medina, "An update on SURFRAD--the GCOS Surface Radiation Budget Network for the continental United States," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 22, 1460-1472 (2005).

Q. Min and M. Duan, "Simultaneously retrieving cloud optical depth and effective radius for optically thin clouds," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D21201, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Alexandrov, B. Carlson, A. Lacis, and B. Cairns, "Separation of fine and coarse aerosol modes in MFRSR data sets," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D13204, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Alexandrov, A. Marshak, B. Cairns, A. Lacis, and B. Carlson, "Automated cloud screening algorithm for MFRSR data," Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L04118, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Min, E. Joseph, and M. Duan, "Retrievals of thin cloud optical depth from a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D02201, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

L. Harrison, P. Kiedron, J. Berndt, and J. Schlemmer, "Extraterrestrial solar spectrum 360-1050 nm from rotating shadowband spectroradiometer measurements at the Southern Great Plains (ARM) site," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4424, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Mitchell and B. W. Forgan, "Aerosol measurement in the Australian Outback: intercomparison of Sun photometers," J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 20, 54-66 (2003).

P. W. Kiedron and J. J. Michalsky, "Measurement errors in diffuse irradiance with non-Lambertian radiometers," Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 237-247 (2003).

T. P. Ackerman and G. Stokes, "The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program," Phys. Today 56(1), 38-44 (2003).

2002 (2)

P. W. Kiedron, L. Harrison, J. J. Michalsky, J. Schlemmer, and J. L. Berndt, "Data and signal processing of rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) data," Proc. SPIE 4815, 51-57 (2002).

M. Alexandrov, A. Lacis, B. Carlson, and B. Cairns, "Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by means of Multi-Filter Rotating Shadow-band Radiometer. Part I: retrieval algorithm," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 524-543 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. J. Michalsky, F. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, and J. C. Barnard, "Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement and Quantitative Links Programs," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12099-12107 (2001).

1999 (1)

L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. Michalsky, and Q. L. Min, "The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715-1718 (1999).

1998 (3)

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, and J. H. Gibson, "The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601-615 (1998).

A. Ohmura, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, G. Muller, M. Wild, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Frohlich, R. Philipona, A. Heimo, G. Konig-Langlo, B. McArthur, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, and K. Dehne, "Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN/WCRP): new precision radiometry for climate research," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115-2136 (1998).

B. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).

1995 (1)

J. J. Michalsky, L. C. Harrison, and W. E. Berkheiser, "Cosine response characteristics of some radiometric and photometric sensors," Sol. Energy 54, 397-402 (1995).

1994 (2)

1989 (1)

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (2)

A. Ohmura, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, G. Muller, M. Wild, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Frohlich, R. Philipona, A. Heimo, G. Konig-Langlo, B. McArthur, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, and K. Dehne, "Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN/WCRP): new precision radiometry for climate research," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115-2136 (1998).

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, and J. H. Gibson, "The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601-615 (1998).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

M. Alexandrov, A. Marshak, B. Cairns, A. Lacis, and B. Carlson, "Automated cloud screening algorithm for MFRSR data," Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L04118, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. Michalsky, and Q. L. Min, "The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715-1718 (1999).

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

P. W. Kiedron and J. J. Michalsky, "Measurement errors in diffuse irradiance with non-Lambertian radiometers," Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 237-247 (2003).

J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. (1)

R. M. Mitchell and B. W. Forgan, "Aerosol measurement in the Australian Outback: intercomparison of Sun photometers," J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 20, 54-66 (2003).

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

J. A. Augustine, G. B. Hodges, C. R. Cornwall, J. J. Michalsky, and C. I. Medina, "An update on SURFRAD--the GCOS Surface Radiation Budget Network for the continental United States," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 22, 1460-1472 (2005).

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

M. Alexandrov, A. Lacis, B. Carlson, and B. Cairns, "Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by means of Multi-Filter Rotating Shadow-band Radiometer. Part I: retrieval algorithm," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 524-543 (2002).

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

M. Alexandrov, B. Carlson, A. Lacis, and B. Cairns, "Separation of fine and coarse aerosol modes in MFRSR data sets," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D13204, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Harrison, P. Kiedron, J. Berndt, and J. Schlemmer, "Extraterrestrial solar spectrum 360-1050 nm from rotating shadowband spectroradiometer measurements at the Southern Great Plains (ARM) site," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4424, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Min, E. Joseph, and M. Duan, "Retrievals of thin cloud optical depth from a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D02201, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Min and M. Duan, "Simultaneously retrieving cloud optical depth and effective radius for optically thin clouds," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D21201, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Michalsky, F. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, and J. C. Barnard, "Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement and Quantitative Links Programs," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12099-12107 (2001).

Phys. Today (1)

T. P. Ackerman and G. Stokes, "The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program," Phys. Today 56(1), 38-44 (2003).

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. W. Kiedron, L. Harrison, J. J. Michalsky, J. Schlemmer, and J. L. Berndt, "Data and signal processing of rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) data," Proc. SPIE 4815, 51-57 (2002).

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

B. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).

Sol. Energy (1)

J. J. Michalsky, L. C. Harrison, and W. E. Berkheiser, "Cosine response characteristics of some radiometric and photometric sensors," Sol. Energy 54, 397-402 (1995).

Other (1)

M. Alexandrov, A. Lacis, B. Carlson, and B. Cairns, "Characterization of atmospheric aerosols using MFRSR measurements" (submitted to J. Geophys. Res.).

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