Abstract

Spectral surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors with absorbance measurement were prepared. Resonant wavelengths (λR) versus effective refractive indexes of the SPR mode were measured with different media in contact with the gold layer. An investigation into the refractive-index sensitivity of the sensor at a fixed angle reveals a linear dependence of λR on the refractive index of the solution (nc), with ΔλR/Δnc=3553.6  nm in a small range of 1.333nc1.347. It was observed that the effective refractive index slowly decreases with increasing nc, attributable to wavelength-induced modulation of optical dielectric constant for the gold layer. Adsorption of bromothymol blue (BTB) on the gold layer leads to a redshift of ΔλR=3.7  nm, larger than ΔλR=2.5  nm induced by myoglobin (Mb) adsorption. On the basis of Fresnel equations, calculations with d1  nm and n=1.69 for BTB and d3  nm and n=1.40 for Mb also demonstrate that the SPR band shift induced by full-monolayer adsorption of BTB is larger than that for full-monolayer Mb adsorption. The combination of both measured and calculated results suggests that the contribution of the adlayer index of refraction to the sensitivity of the sensor is greater than that of the adlayer thickness.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (2)

Z. Qi, M. Wei, H. Matsuda, I. Honma, and H. Zhou, "Broadband surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy for determination of refractive-index dispersion of dielectric thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, I. Honma, and H. Zhou, "Nanoporous leaky waveguide based chemical and biological sensors with broadband spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. S. Yuk, H. Kim, J. Jung, S. Jung, S. Lee, W. Kim, J. Han, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, "Analysis of protein interactions on protein arrays by a novel spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 1521-1528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Chiang, J. Lin, and Z. Chen, "High sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on phase interrogation at optimal incident wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Piruska, I. Zudans, W. R. Heineman, and C. J. Seliskar, "Investigations of the optical properties of thin, highly absorbing films under attenuated total reflection conditions: Leaky waveguide mode distortions," Talanta 65, 1110-1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, J. Jung, S. Jung, J. Han, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, "Sensitivity of ex situ and in situ spectral surface plasmon resonance sensors in the analysis of protein arrays," Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 2189-2196 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, A. Takatsu, and K. Kato, "In situ investigation of coadsorption of myoglobin and methylene blue to hydrophilic glass by broadband time-resolved optical waveguide spectroscopy," Langmuir 20, 778-784 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. J. Saarinen, E. M. Vartiainen, and K. Peiponen, "Retrieval of the complex permittivity of spherical nanoparticles in a liquid host material from a spectral surface plasmon resonance measurement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 893-895 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

A. Laschitsch, B. Menges, and D. Johannsmann, "Simultaneous determination of optical and acoustic thickness of protein layers using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and quartz crystal microweighing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2252-2254 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

I. Stemmler, A. Brecht, and G. Gauglitz, "Compact surface plasmon resonance-transducers with spectral readout for biosensing applications," Sens. Actuators B 54, 98-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Akimoto, S. Sasaki, K. Ikebukuro, and I. Karube, "Refractive-index and thickness sensitivity in surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 38, 4058-4064 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. Homola, "On the sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance sensors with spectral interrogation," Sens. Actuators B 41, 207-211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Kajenski, "Tunable optical filter using long-range surface plasmons," Opt. Eng. 36, 1537-1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

A. Laschitsch, B. Menges, and D. Johannsmann, "Simultaneous determination of optical and acoustic thickness of protein layers using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and quartz crystal microweighing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2252-2254 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Chiang, J. Lin, and Z. Chen, "High sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on phase interrogation at optimal incident wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Saarinen, E. M. Vartiainen, and K. Peiponen, "Retrieval of the complex permittivity of spherical nanoparticles in a liquid host material from a spectral surface plasmon resonance measurement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 893-895 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, M. Wei, H. Matsuda, I. Honma, and H. Zhou, "Broadband surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy for determination of refractive-index dispersion of dielectric thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, I. Honma, and H. Zhou, "Nanoporous leaky waveguide based chemical and biological sensors with broadband spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

J. S. Yuk, J. Jung, S. Jung, J. Han, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, "Sensitivity of ex situ and in situ spectral surface plasmon resonance sensors in the analysis of protein arrays," Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 2189-2196 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Yuk, H. Kim, J. Jung, S. Jung, S. Lee, W. Kim, J. Han, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, "Analysis of protein interactions on protein arrays by a novel spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 1521-1528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

Z. Qi, N. Matsuda, A. Takatsu, and K. Kato, "In situ investigation of coadsorption of myoglobin and methylene blue to hydrophilic glass by broadband time-resolved optical waveguide spectroscopy," Langmuir 20, 778-784 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. J. Kajenski, "Tunable optical filter using long-range surface plasmons," Opt. Eng. 36, 1537-1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sens. Actuators B (2)

I. Stemmler, A. Brecht, and G. Gauglitz, "Compact surface plasmon resonance-transducers with spectral readout for biosensing applications," Sens. Actuators B 54, 98-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, "On the sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance sensors with spectral interrogation," Sens. Actuators B 41, 207-211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Acutators B (1)

R. Slavik, J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, and E. Brynda, "Novel spectral fiber optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Acutators B 74, 106-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Talanta (1)

A. Piruska, I. Zudans, W. R. Heineman, and C. J. Seliskar, "Investigations of the optical properties of thin, highly absorbing films under attenuated total reflection conditions: Leaky waveguide mode distortions," Talanta 65, 1110-1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Vol. 1. (Academic, 1998), pp. 286-295.

Ocean Optics, Inc., see http://www.oceanoptics.com/products/spectrometers.asp.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the spectral SPR sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) Reflectance spectra calculated at θ = 10 ° corresponding to three media in contact with the gold layer: air ( n c = 1 ) , water ( n c = 1.333 ) , and an aqueous solution whose refractive index is assumed as n c = 1.335 ; and (b) SPR absorption spectra derived with the air reference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) Reflectance spectra calculated at θ = 10 ° corresponding to air ( n c = 1 ) and water ( n c = 1.333 ) in contact with the gold layer; and (b) SPR absorption spectrum derived with the water reference.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Absorption spectra for the SPR mode at the gold-layer∕air interface measured with the water reference at different negative values of the angle θ; and (b) resonant wavelengths measured and calculated as a function of the effective refractive indexes of the SPR mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) (a) Absorption spectra for the SPR mode at the gold-layer∕water interface measured at different positive values of the angle θ with the air reference; and (b) resonant wavelengths (filled marks) and the peak absorbances (empty marks) as a function of the effective refractive index (circles: water cladding; squares: ethanol cladding).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Resonant-wavelength shifts (filled circles) and the effective-refractive-index changes (filled squares) versus the angle θ. Changes were induced by substitution of the pure water in the chamber with the pure ethanol.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) (a) SPR absorption spectra measured at θ = 10 ° with different concentrations of aqueous sucrose solution in the chamber; and (b) resonant wavelengths (red circles) and the effective refractive indexes (blue squares) as a function of the solution index of refraction.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Comparison of the SPR absorption bands measured at θ = 10 ° with the air reference before and after molecular adsorption [(a) Mb adsorption; and (b) BTB adsorption].

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) SPR absorption spectra for both the gold-layer∕air-cladding (black curve) and gold-layer∕BTB-adlayer∕air-cladding systems (red curves) measured at θ = 10 ° and 12 ° with the pure water reference.

Equations (3)

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φ = arcsin [ n P ( λ ) n S ( λ ) sin ( π 4 + arcsin ( sin θ n P ( λ ) ) ) ] ,
N = n S ( λ ) sin φ = n P ( λ ) sin [ π 4 + arcsin ( sin θ n P ( λ ) ) ] ,
N ( λ R ) ε ( λ R ) n c ( λ R ) 2 ε ( λ R ) + n c ( λ R ) 2 ,

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