Abstract

Long-term calibration monitoring of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of Spectralon diffusers in the air-ultraviolet is presented. Four Spectralon diffusers were monitored in this study. Three of the diffusers, designated as H1, H2, and H3, were used in the prelaunch radiance calibration of the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet∕2 (SBUV∕2) satellite instruments on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 14 and 16. A fourth diffuser, designated as the 400 diffuser, was used in the prelaunch calibration of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument scheduled for initial flight in 2009 on the National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project. The BRDF data of this study were obtained between 1994 and 2005 using the scatterometer located in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Diffuser Calibration Laboratory. The diffusers were measured at 13 wavelengths between 230 and 425  nm at the incident and scatter angles used in the prelaunch calibrations of SBUV∕2 and OMPS. Spectral features in the BRDF of Spectralon are also discussed. The comparison shows how the air-ultraviolet BRDF of these Spectralon samples changed over time under clean room deployment conditions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, and R. A. Barnes, "The calibration and characterization of Earth remote sensing and environmental monitoring instruments," in Optical Radiometry, A. C. Parr, R. U. Datla, and J. L. Gardner, eds. (Academic, 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. J. Butler, H. Park, P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, C. van Eijk-Olijd, A. E. Zoutman, S. van Leeuwend, and J. G. Schaarsbergd, "Comparison of ultraviolet bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements of diffusers used in the calibration of the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS)," Proc. SPIE 4881, 345-354 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. D. King, M. G. Strange, P. Leone, and L. R. Blaine, "Multiwavelength scanning radiometer for airborne measurements of scattered radiation within clouds," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 3, 513-522 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. S. Spyak, and M. M. Pavlov, "Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth observing system program," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1077-1091 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. J. Bruegge, A. E. Stiegman, R. A. Rainen, and A. W. Springsteen, "Use of Spectralon as a diffuse reflectance standard for in-flight calibration of Earth orbiting sensors," Opt. Eng. 32, 805-814 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Chommeloux, G. Baudin, G. Gourmelon, J.-L. Bezy, C. van Eijk-Olij, J. G. Schaarsberg, H. Werij, and E. Zoutman, "Spectralon diffusers used as in-flight optical calibration hardware," Proc. SPIE 3427, 382-393 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. B. Petroy, J. E. Leland, B. Chommeloux, C. J. Bruegge, and G. Gourmelon, "Phase 1. Analysis of Spectralon material for use in on-board calibration systems for the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS)," Proc. SPIE 2210, 616-624 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. E. Stiegman, C. J. Bruegge, and A. W. Springsteen, "Ultraviolet stability and contamination analysis of Spectralon diffuse reflectance material," Opt. Eng. 32, 799-804 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Moeller, K.-P. Nikolaus, and A. Hoepe, "Degradation of the diffuse reflectance of Spectralon under low-level irradiation," Metrologia 40, S212-S215 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsburg, and T. Limperis, "Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance," National Bureau of Standards (NBS) monograph 160 (NBS, 1977).
  11. J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (SPIE, 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, "A guideline for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results," NIST Technical Note 1297 (U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1997).
  13. T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, and J. J. Butler, "A design review of a high accuracy UV to near infrared scatterometer," Proc. SPIE 1995, 121-130 (1993).
  14. J. R. Proctor and P. Y. Barnes, "NIST High accuracy reference reflectometer--spectrophotometer," J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619-627 (1996).

2003

J. J. Butler, H. Park, P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, C. van Eijk-Olijd, A. E. Zoutman, S. van Leeuwend, and J. G. Schaarsbergd, "Comparison of ultraviolet bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements of diffusers used in the calibration of the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS)," Proc. SPIE 4881, 345-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Moeller, K.-P. Nikolaus, and A. Hoepe, "Degradation of the diffuse reflectance of Spectralon under low-level irradiation," Metrologia 40, S212-S215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. S. Spyak, and M. M. Pavlov, "Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth observing system program," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1077-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. Chommeloux, G. Baudin, G. Gourmelon, J.-L. Bezy, C. van Eijk-Olij, J. G. Schaarsberg, H. Werij, and E. Zoutman, "Spectralon diffusers used as in-flight optical calibration hardware," Proc. SPIE 3427, 382-393 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. R. Proctor and P. Y. Barnes, "NIST High accuracy reference reflectometer--spectrophotometer," J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619-627 (1996).

1994

S. B. Petroy, J. E. Leland, B. Chommeloux, C. J. Bruegge, and G. Gourmelon, "Phase 1. Analysis of Spectralon material for use in on-board calibration systems for the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS)," Proc. SPIE 2210, 616-624 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. E. Stiegman, C. J. Bruegge, and A. W. Springsteen, "Ultraviolet stability and contamination analysis of Spectralon diffuse reflectance material," Opt. Eng. 32, 799-804 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, and J. J. Butler, "A design review of a high accuracy UV to near infrared scatterometer," Proc. SPIE 1995, 121-130 (1993).

C. J. Bruegge, A. E. Stiegman, R. A. Rainen, and A. W. Springsteen, "Use of Spectralon as a diffuse reflectance standard for in-flight calibration of Earth orbiting sensors," Opt. Eng. 32, 805-814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986

M. D. King, M. G. Strange, P. Leone, and L. R. Blaine, "Multiwavelength scanning radiometer for airborne measurements of scattered radiation within clouds," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 3, 513-522 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

M. D. King, M. G. Strange, P. Leone, and L. R. Blaine, "Multiwavelength scanning radiometer for airborne measurements of scattered radiation within clouds," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 3, 513-522 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. S. Spyak, and M. M. Pavlov, "Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth observing system program," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1077-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol.

J. R. Proctor and P. Y. Barnes, "NIST High accuracy reference reflectometer--spectrophotometer," J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619-627 (1996).

Metrologia

W. Moeller, K.-P. Nikolaus, and A. Hoepe, "Degradation of the diffuse reflectance of Spectralon under low-level irradiation," Metrologia 40, S212-S215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

C. J. Bruegge, A. E. Stiegman, R. A. Rainen, and A. W. Springsteen, "Use of Spectralon as a diffuse reflectance standard for in-flight calibration of Earth orbiting sensors," Opt. Eng. 32, 805-814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Stiegman, C. J. Bruegge, and A. W. Springsteen, "Ultraviolet stability and contamination analysis of Spectralon diffuse reflectance material," Opt. Eng. 32, 799-804 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, and J. J. Butler, "A design review of a high accuracy UV to near infrared scatterometer," Proc. SPIE 1995, 121-130 (1993).

J. J. Butler, H. Park, P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, C. van Eijk-Olijd, A. E. Zoutman, S. van Leeuwend, and J. G. Schaarsbergd, "Comparison of ultraviolet bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements of diffusers used in the calibration of the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS)," Proc. SPIE 4881, 345-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Chommeloux, G. Baudin, G. Gourmelon, J.-L. Bezy, C. van Eijk-Olij, J. G. Schaarsberg, H. Werij, and E. Zoutman, "Spectralon diffusers used as in-flight optical calibration hardware," Proc. SPIE 3427, 382-393 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Petroy, J. E. Leland, B. Chommeloux, C. J. Bruegge, and G. Gourmelon, "Phase 1. Analysis of Spectralon material for use in on-board calibration systems for the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS)," Proc. SPIE 2210, 616-624 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsburg, and T. Limperis, "Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance," National Bureau of Standards (NBS) monograph 160 (NBS, 1977).

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (SPIE, 1995).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, "A guideline for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results," NIST Technical Note 1297 (U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1997).

J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, and R. A. Barnes, "The calibration and characterization of Earth remote sensing and environmental monitoring instruments," in Optical Radiometry, A. C. Parr, R. U. Datla, and J. L. Gardner, eds. (Academic, 2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

BRDF incident and scattered radiation geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Scatterometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) H2 Spectralon diffuser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) BRDF of H1 at 63.2° incident and 28° scatter angles, and the standard deviation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) BRDF of H2 and H3 at 54° incident and 28° scatter angles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) BRDF of OMPS 400 diffuser at 0° incident and 28° scatter angles.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) H1 difference from average BRDF at 63.2° incident and 28° scatter angles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) H1 difference from average BRDF at 63.2° incident and 28° scatter angles without 1995 and 1997.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) H1 difference from average BRDF at 51.8° incident and 28° scatter angles.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) H2 difference from average BRDF at 54° incident and 28° scatter angles.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) BRDF difference H2 versus H3 2003 and H2 2001 versus H3 2003, experimental and fitting.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Difference from the average BRDF of 400 at 0° incident and 28° scatter angles.

Equations (5)

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BRDF = d L s ( θ i , ϕ i , θ s , ϕ s ; E i ) d E i ( θ i , ϕ i ) ,
BRDF = P s / Ω P i cos θ s ,
Ω = π r 2 / R 2 ,
BRDF H1 Average = ( BDRF H1 1994 + BRDF H1 1995 + BRDF H1 1997 + BRDF H1 1999 + BRDF H1 2000 5 ) ,
BRDF H1Diff 1994 = ( BRDF H1 1994 BRDF H1 Average BRDF H1 1994 ) 100 .

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