Abstract

A new method to improve the design of the panoramic annular lens (PAL) optical system with long focus is introduced. Cemented lenses are used in a PAL block to improve the design freedom. A multilayer diffractive optical element (MDOE) is used in relay optics to simplify the structure of the system and to increase diffractive efficiency of the design spectral range. The diffractive efficiency of MDOE in a wide spectral range is investigated theoretically. A seven piece PAL system with a total effective focal length of 10.8  mm is realized, and the diffractive efficiency of the whole design wavelength is above 99.3%. A PAL system with all spherical surfaces is described as a comparison.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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