Abstract

In the context of the space-based nulling mission ESA-Darwin, Thales Alenia Space has developed a nulling breadboard for the European Space Agency (ESA): the multiaperture imaging interferometer (MAII) to demonstrate deep and stable nulling and to investigate various subsystems of the ESA-Darwin interferometer. Recently, we have extended our investigations to the multiaxial beam combination. This combination scheme presents many advantages: simplicity, compactness, and a high coupling efficiency for a three-beam combination. The near-infrared (λ1.55  μm) MAII breadboard has been upgraded to the multiaxial beam combination. Polarization and stability issues have been thoroughly investigated. Wereporton the recent results we have obtained with the multiaxial configuration of MAII in unpolarized light with a relative spectral bandwidth of 5%: nulling ratios of mean value N=1.7×105, stable over 1 h with a standard deviation σN=5.7×107. These results indicate that the multiaxial beam combination has the potential to meet Darwin requirements.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Fridlund, "DARWIN, concept and feasibility study report," M. Fridlund, ed., ESA-SCI 12, pp. 1-218 (2000).
  2. R. N. Bracewell, "Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer," Nature 274, 780-781 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. ESA, "Darwin Mission Requirement Document," ESA SCI-A/2005/287/Darwin/DMS, issue 10, pp. 1-23 (2005).
  4. M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, V. Weber, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, and Z. Sodnik, "MAI2 nulling breadboard based on integrated optics: test results," in ICSO 2004: 5th International Conference on Space Optics, ESA SP-554 (European Space Agency, 2004).
  5. V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. R. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, "Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optic beam combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 842-860 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Absil, A. Karlsson, and L. Kaltenegger, "Inherent modulation: a fast chopping method for nulling interferometry," Proc. SPIE 4852, 431-442 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. L. Karlsson, O. Wallner, J. M. Perdigues Armengol, and O. Absil, "Three telescope nuller based on multibeam injection into single-mode waveguide," Proc. SPIE 5491, 831-841 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Wallner, J. M. Perdigues Armengol, and A. L. Karlsson, "Multiaxial single-mode beam combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 798-805 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Buisset, X. Rejeaunier, Y. Rabbia, C. Ruilier, M. Barillot, L. Lierstuen, and J. M. Perdigues Armengol, "Multi-axial nulling interferometry: demonstration of deep nulling and investigations of polarization effects," Proc. SPIE 6268, 626819 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Buisset, X. Rejeaunier, Y. Rabbia, C. Ruilier, M. Barillot, L. Lierstuen, and J. M. Perdigues Armengol, "Multi-axial interferometry: demonstration of deep nulling," in Proceedings of ESA/CNES ICSO 2006--Sixth International Conference on Space Optics, ESA SP-621 (European Space Agency, 2006).
  11. E. Serabyn, "Nulling interferometry: symmetry requirements and experimental results," Proc. SPIE 4006, 328-339 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Mège, "Interférométrie avec des guides d'ondes optiques. Théories et applications," Ph.D. dissertation(Université Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I, 2002).
  13. B. Chazelas, F. Brachet, P. Bordé, B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, O. Absil, A. Labèque, C. Valette, and A. Léger, "Instrumental stability requirements for exoplanet detection with a nulling interferometer: variability noise as a central issue," Appl. Opt. 45, 984-992 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Ruilier, M. Sghedoni, and R. Krawczyk, "Darwin system assessment study, summary report," pp. 1-30 (European Space Agency, 2007), http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=40875.
  15. C. Ruilier, Thales Alenia Space, Cannes, France (personal communication, 2007).

2007

C. Ruilier, M. Sghedoni, and R. Krawczyk, "Darwin system assessment study, summary report," pp. 1-30 (European Space Agency, 2007), http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=40875.

2006

B. Chazelas, F. Brachet, P. Bordé, B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, O. Absil, A. Labèque, C. Valette, and A. Léger, "Instrumental stability requirements for exoplanet detection with a nulling interferometer: variability noise as a central issue," Appl. Opt. 45, 984-992 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Buisset, X. Rejeaunier, Y. Rabbia, C. Ruilier, M. Barillot, L. Lierstuen, and J. M. Perdigues Armengol, "Multi-axial nulling interferometry: demonstration of deep nulling and investigations of polarization effects," Proc. SPIE 6268, 626819 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

ESA, "Darwin Mission Requirement Document," ESA SCI-A/2005/287/Darwin/DMS, issue 10, pp. 1-23 (2005).

2004

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. R. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, "Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optic beam combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 842-860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Karlsson, O. Wallner, J. M. Perdigues Armengol, and O. Absil, "Three telescope nuller based on multibeam injection into single-mode waveguide," Proc. SPIE 5491, 831-841 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Wallner, J. M. Perdigues Armengol, and A. L. Karlsson, "Multiaxial single-mode beam combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 798-805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

O. Absil, A. Karlsson, and L. Kaltenegger, "Inherent modulation: a fast chopping method for nulling interferometry," Proc. SPIE 4852, 431-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Fridlund, "DARWIN, concept and feasibility study report," M. Fridlund, ed., ESA-SCI 12, pp. 1-218 (2000).

E. Serabyn, "Nulling interferometry: symmetry requirements and experimental results," Proc. SPIE 4006, 328-339 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1978

R. N. Bracewell, "Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer," Nature 274, 780-781 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Nature

R. N. Bracewell, "Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer," Nature 274, 780-781 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

E. Serabyn, "Nulling interferometry: symmetry requirements and experimental results," Proc. SPIE 4006, 328-339 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. R. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, "Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optic beam combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 842-860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Absil, A. Karlsson, and L. Kaltenegger, "Inherent modulation: a fast chopping method for nulling interferometry," Proc. SPIE 4852, 431-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Karlsson, O. Wallner, J. M. Perdigues Armengol, and O. Absil, "Three telescope nuller based on multibeam injection into single-mode waveguide," Proc. SPIE 5491, 831-841 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Wallner, J. M. Perdigues Armengol, and A. L. Karlsson, "Multiaxial single-mode beam combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 798-805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Buisset, X. Rejeaunier, Y. Rabbia, C. Ruilier, M. Barillot, L. Lierstuen, and J. M. Perdigues Armengol, "Multi-axial nulling interferometry: demonstration of deep nulling and investigations of polarization effects," Proc. SPIE 6268, 626819 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. Buisset, X. Rejeaunier, Y. Rabbia, C. Ruilier, M. Barillot, L. Lierstuen, and J. M. Perdigues Armengol, "Multi-axial interferometry: demonstration of deep nulling," in Proceedings of ESA/CNES ICSO 2006--Sixth International Conference on Space Optics, ESA SP-621 (European Space Agency, 2006).

P. Mège, "Interférométrie avec des guides d'ondes optiques. Théories et applications," Ph.D. dissertation(Université Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I, 2002).

ESA, "Darwin Mission Requirement Document," ESA SCI-A/2005/287/Darwin/DMS, issue 10, pp. 1-23 (2005).

M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, V. Weber, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, and Z. Sodnik, "MAI2 nulling breadboard based on integrated optics: test results," in ICSO 2004: 5th International Conference on Space Optics, ESA SP-554 (European Space Agency, 2004).

C. Ruilier, M. Sghedoni, and R. Krawczyk, "Darwin system assessment study, summary report," pp. 1-30 (European Space Agency, 2007), http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=40875.

C. Ruilier, Thales Alenia Space, Cannes, France (personal communication, 2007).

M. Fridlund, "DARWIN, concept and feasibility study report," M. Fridlund, ed., ESA-SCI 12, pp. 1-218 (2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multiaxial beam combination in a two-beam interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MAII setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Metrology and science signals.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

N(t) in polychromatic unpolarized light ( λ S 1.55   μm , Δ λ / λ 5% ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of N between January 2007 and April 2007.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Extract of OPD fluctuations, closed loop, f = 1   kHz .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Nulling ratios N + and N at noncentral dark fringes in the presence of significant chromatic aberration.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Nulling versus relative spectral bandwidth.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nulling Results Obtained by Setting One Polarizer in the Star Simulator and One Analyzer in Front of the Detector

Tables Icon

Table 2 Performance Budget

Tables Icon

Table 3 Extrapolation of the Nulling Standard Deviation σ N to Wavelengths λ S = 1.55 μm and λ D = 6.5 μm and at the Integration Times τ0 = 1 s and τ1 = 125 s

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N = N δ I + N OPD + N Φ λ + N biref + N polar ,
σ N ( λ , τ ) = σ N ( λ S , τ 0 ) ( λ S λ ) 2 τ 0 τ .

Metrics