Abstract

The kinogram-based single-phase decryption technique is experimentally demonstrated. Only one phase spatial light modulator is used to simultaneously display the encrypted information and the decrypting key. The intensity decrypted image is obtained by Fourier transforming the phase decrypted information. We investigate the effect of the binary and multiphase keys on the security level of the encrypted information. The accepted displacement of the decrypting key within the system is determined. The influence of the optical system bandwidth and noise on the decryption quality is also investigated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2007 (2)

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

H. T. Chang, W. C. Lu, and C. J. Kuo, "Multiple-phase retrieval for optical security systems by use of random-phase encoding," Appl. Opt. 41, 4815-4834 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Yoon and N. Kim, "Triple encryption packaging scheme for preserving from the reproduction and protecting the information," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 41, L305-L306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Yamazaki and J. Ohtsubo, "Optimization of encrypted holograms in optical security systems," Opt. Eng. 40, 132-137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mogensen and J. Gluckstad, "Phase-only optical encryption of a fixed mask," Appl. Opt. 40, 1226-1235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

1999 (2)

G. Zhou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, and H. Song, "Genetic local search algorithm for optimization design of diffractive optical elements," Appl. Opt. 38, 4281-4290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Han, C.-S. Park, D.-H. Ryu, and E.-S. Kim, "Optical image encryption based on XOR operations," Opt. Eng. 38, 47-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H.-G. Yang and E.-S. Kim, "Practical image encryption scheme by real-valued data," Opt. Eng. 35, 2473-2478 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1987 (1)

1983 (1)

S. Kirpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, "Optimization by simulated annealing," Science 220, 671-679 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J.-S. Yoon and N. Kim, "Triple encryption packaging scheme for preserving from the reproduction and protecting the information," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 41, L305-L306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

G. Situ and J. Zhang, "A lensless optical security system based on computer-generated phase only masks," Opt. Commun. 232, 115-122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mogensen and J. Gluckstad, "A phase-based optical encryption system with polarization encoding," Opt. Commun. 173, 177-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

M. Yamazaki and J. Ohtsubo, "Optimization of encrypted holograms in optical security systems," Opt. Eng. 40, 132-137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Han, C.-S. Park, D.-H. Ryu, and E.-S. Kim, "Optical image encryption based on XOR operations," Opt. Eng. 38, 47-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H.-G. Yang and E.-S. Kim, "Practical image encryption scheme by real-valued data," Opt. Eng. 35, 2473-2478 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Science (1)

S. Kirpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, "Optimization by simulated annealing," Science 220, 671-679 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, "Iterative design techniques for DOEs," in Microoptics, S.Sinzinger, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), 2nd ed., pp. 168-169.

J. W. Goodman, "Wave-optics analysis of coherent optical systems," in Introduction to Fourier Optics, L. Cox and J. M. Morriss, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1996), pp. 105-106.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the single-phase decryption system using phase masks.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the decryption system in which two dynamic phase masks are displayed on a single SLM with a large active area.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Original image that needs to be encrypted.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RMSE after each iteration of the DBS algorithm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Generated kinogram and the corresponding reconstructed images: (a) binary kinogram; (b) numerically reconstructed image of (a); (c) 4-phase kinogram; gray levels from black to white represent the phase shifts 0, π / 2 , π, 3 π / 2 ; (d) numerically reconstructed image of (c); and (e) experimentally reconstructed image of (a).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

RMSE versus the relative phase shift of the binary key.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reconstructed images of the binary kinogram after being scrambled by the keys with the different relative phase shifts of (a) 0, (b) π / 2 , (c) 3 π / 4 , and (d) π.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of multiphase keys on reconstructed images. The maximum phase shift represents the phase range in which the phase key is uniformly distributed.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Encrypting key and (b) encrypted image of the binary kinogram in Fig. 5.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Reconstructed images obtained by applying two different decrypting keys: (a) the correct key and (b) the incorrect key.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Reconstructed images with respect to different displacements between the encrypted information and the decrypting key. The displacement is (a) one cell, (b) two cells, (c) three cells, and (d) four cells.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Geometry for investigation of limited system bandwidth. The blocking mask is placed in contact with the input. The blocking percentage of the mask is variable.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Influence of limited bandwidth on the quality of the reconstructed images: (a) errors versus blocking percentage, (b), (c), and (d) reconstructed images of the four-phase kinogram blocked 12.1%, 43.8%, and 85.9%, respectively.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Effect of phase noises on the decryption quality: (a) uniform noise and (b) zero-mean Gaussian noise.

Equations (9)

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E ( υ , ν ) = F ( υ , ν ) K e ( υ , ν ) ,
K e ( υ , ν ) = exp [ i 2 π R ( υ , ν ) ] .
D ( υ , ν ) = E ( υ , ν ) K d ( υ , ν ) , = F ( υ , ν ) K e ( υ , ν ) K d ( υ , ν ) , = F ( υ , ν ) .
g ( x , y ) = | F T 1 { D ( υ , ν ) } | 2 f ( x , y ) .
g m n = | R S   sinc ( m M , n N ) k = M / 2 M / 2 1 l = N / 2 N / 2 1 F k l × exp [ i 2 π ( m k M + n l N ) ] | 2 .
e = [ 1 A B m = A / 2 A / 2 1 n = B / 2 B / 2 1 | f m n α g m n | 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
α = m = A / 2 A / 2 1 n = B / 2 B / 2 1 f m n g m n m = A / 2 A / 2 1 n = B / 2 B / 2 1 g m n 2 .
f n 1 ( x , y ) = | F T 1 { D ( υ , ν ) exp [ j 2 π n ( x , y ) ] } | 2 ,
f n 2 ( x , y ) = 1 2 1 2 cos { π [ f ( x , y ) + 2 n ( x , y ) ] } ,

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