Abstract

We report on a cost-effective optical setup for characterizing light-emitting semiconductor devices with optical-feedback confocal infrared microscopy and optical beam-induced resistance change. We utilize the focused beam from an infrared laser diode to induce local thermal resistance changes across the surface of a biased integrated circuit (IC) sample. Variations in the multiple current paths are mapped by scanning the IC across the focused beam. The high-contrast current maps allow accurate differentiation of the functional and defective sites, or the isolation of the surface-emitting p-i-n devices in the IC. Optical beam-induced current (OBIC) is not generated since the incident beam energy is lower than the bandgap energy of the p-i-n device. Inhomogeneous current distributions in the IC become apparent without the strong OBIC background. They are located at a diffraction-limited resolution by referencing the current maps against the confocal reflectance image that is simultaneously acquired via optical-feedback detection. Our technique permits the accurate identification of metal and semiconductor sites as well as the classification of different metallic structures according to thickness, composition, or spatial inhomogeneity.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Dietzel, B. K. Bein, and J. Pelzl, "Double modulated thermoreflectance microscopy of semiconductor devices," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9043-9047 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Saloma, A. Tarun, M. Bailon, and M. Soriano, "Rapid subsurface detection of nanoscale defects in live microprocessors by functional infrared emission spectral microscopy," Appl. Opt. 44, 7302-7306 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Oblefias, M. Soriano, A. Tarun, and C. Saloma, "Individual classification of buried transistors in live microprocessors by functional infrared emission spectral microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Tessier, G. Jerosolimski, S. Holé, D. Fournier, and C. Filloy, "Measuring and predicting the thermoreflectance sensitivity as a function of wavelength on encapsulated materials," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 495-499 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Bautista, C. Blanca, S. Delica, B. Buenaobra, and C. Saloma, "Spectral microthermography for component discrimination and hot spot identification in integrated circuits," Opt. Express 14, 1021-1026 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. J. Cemine, B. Buenaobra, C. M. Blanca, and C. Saloma, "High contrast microscopy of semiconductor and metals sites in integrated circuits via optical feedback detection," Opt. Lett. 29, 2479-2481 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. J. Miranda and C. Saloma, "Four-dimensional microscopy of defects in integrated circuits," Appl. Opt. 42, 6520-6524 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. M. Blanca, V. J. Cemine, V. M. Sastine, and C. Saloma, "High-resolution differential thermography of integrated circuits with optical feedback laser scanning microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Xu and W. Denk, "Comparison of one- and two-photon optical beam-induced current imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 2226-2230 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Ramsay, D. Reid, and K. Wilsher, "Three-dimensional imaging silicon flip chip using the two-photon optical beam-induced current effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 7-9 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Bautista, C. Blanca, and C. Saloma, "Tracking the emergence of defect in light emitting semiconductor diodes with two-photon excitation microscopy and spectral microthermography," Appl. Opt. 46, 855-860 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Nikawa and S. Inoue, "New laser beam neating methods applicable to fault localization and defect detection in VLSI devices," IEEE Int. Reliab. Phys. Symp. Proc. 346-354 (1996).
  13. E. I. Cole Jr., P. Tangyunyong, and D. L. Barton, "Backside localization of open and shorted IC Interconnections," IEEE Int. Reliab. Phys. Symp. Proc. 129-136 (1998).
  14. K. Nikawa, C. Matsumoto, and S. Inoue, "Novel method for defect detection in Al stripes by means of laser beam heating and detection of changes in electrical resistance: Part 1," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2260-2265 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Nikawa, T. Saiki, S. Inoue, and M. Ohtsu, "Imaging of current paths and defects in Al and TiSi interconnects on very-large-scale integrated-circuit chips using near-field optical-probe stimulation and resulting resistance change," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1048-1050 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed., Chapter 13 (John Wiley, 1981).
  17. C. T. Dervos, P. D. Skafidas, J. A. Mergos, and P. Vassiliou, "p-n junction photocurrent modelling evaluation under optical and electrical excitation," Sensors 5, 58-70 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. J. Cemine, C. Blanca, and C. Saloma, "High-resolution quantum efficiency mapping of silicon photodiode via optical-feedback laser microthermography," Appl. Opt. 45, 6947-6953 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

C. Saloma, A. Tarun, M. Bailon, and M. Soriano, "Rapid subsurface detection of nanoscale defects in live microprocessors by functional infrared emission spectral microscopy," Appl. Opt. 44, 7302-7306 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Blanca, V. J. Cemine, V. M. Sastine, and C. Saloma, "High-resolution differential thermography of integrated circuits with optical feedback laser scanning microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

V. J. Cemine, B. Buenaobra, C. M. Blanca, and C. Saloma, "High contrast microscopy of semiconductor and metals sites in integrated circuits via optical feedback detection," Opt. Lett. 29, 2479-2481 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Dervos, P. D. Skafidas, J. A. Mergos, and P. Vassiliou, "p-n junction photocurrent modelling evaluation under optical and electrical excitation," Sensors 5, 58-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. J. Miranda and C. Saloma, "Four-dimensional microscopy of defects in integrated circuits," Appl. Opt. 42, 6520-6524 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dietzel, B. K. Bein, and J. Pelzl, "Double modulated thermoreflectance microscopy of semiconductor devices," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9043-9047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Tessier, G. Jerosolimski, S. Holé, D. Fournier, and C. Filloy, "Measuring and predicting the thermoreflectance sensitivity as a function of wavelength on encapsulated materials," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 495-499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. Ramsay, D. Reid, and K. Wilsher, "Three-dimensional imaging silicon flip chip using the two-photon optical beam-induced current effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 7-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Nikawa, T. Saiki, S. Inoue, and M. Ohtsu, "Imaging of current paths and defects in Al and TiSi interconnects on very-large-scale integrated-circuit chips using near-field optical-probe stimulation and resulting resistance change," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1048-1050 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

E. I. Cole Jr., P. Tangyunyong, and D. L. Barton, "Backside localization of open and shorted IC Interconnections," IEEE Int. Reliab. Phys. Symp. Proc. 129-136 (1998).

1997 (1)

C. Xu and W. Denk, "Comparison of one- and two-photon optical beam-induced current imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 2226-2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Nikawa and S. Inoue, "New laser beam neating methods applicable to fault localization and defect detection in VLSI devices," IEEE Int. Reliab. Phys. Symp. Proc. 346-354 (1996).

1995 (1)

K. Nikawa, C. Matsumoto, and S. Inoue, "Novel method for defect detection in Al stripes by means of laser beam heating and detection of changes in electrical resistance: Part 1," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2260-2265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

K. Nikawa, T. Saiki, S. Inoue, and M. Ohtsu, "Imaging of current paths and defects in Al and TiSi interconnects on very-large-scale integrated-circuit chips using near-field optical-probe stimulation and resulting resistance change," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1048-1050 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Oblefias, M. Soriano, A. Tarun, and C. Saloma, "Individual classification of buried transistors in live microprocessors by functional infrared emission spectral microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Blanca, V. J. Cemine, V. M. Sastine, and C. Saloma, "High-resolution differential thermography of integrated circuits with optical feedback laser scanning microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Ramsay, D. Reid, and K. Wilsher, "Three-dimensional imaging silicon flip chip using the two-photon optical beam-induced current effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 7-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Int. Reliab. Phys. Symp. Proc. (2)

K. Nikawa and S. Inoue, "New laser beam neating methods applicable to fault localization and defect detection in VLSI devices," IEEE Int. Reliab. Phys. Symp. Proc. 346-354 (1996).

E. I. Cole Jr., P. Tangyunyong, and D. L. Barton, "Backside localization of open and shorted IC Interconnections," IEEE Int. Reliab. Phys. Symp. Proc. 129-136 (1998).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. Xu and W. Denk, "Comparison of one- and two-photon optical beam-induced current imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 2226-2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Dietzel, B. K. Bein, and J. Pelzl, "Double modulated thermoreflectance microscopy of semiconductor devices," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9043-9047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Nikawa, C. Matsumoto, and S. Inoue, "Novel method for defect detection in Al stripes by means of laser beam heating and detection of changes in electrical resistance: Part 1," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2260-2265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Tessier, G. Jerosolimski, S. Holé, D. Fournier, and C. Filloy, "Measuring and predicting the thermoreflectance sensitivity as a function of wavelength on encapsulated materials," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 495-499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

C. T. Dervos, P. D. Skafidas, J. A. Mergos, and P. Vassiliou, "p-n junction photocurrent modelling evaluation under optical and electrical excitation," Sensors 5, 58-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed., Chapter 13 (John Wiley, 1981).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) OBIRCH configurations. (a) Conventional setup for interconnect system showing (1) insulator, (2) metal interconnects, (3) metal vias, and (4) semiconductor; (b) Surface-emitting setup illustrating (1) top metal contact, (2) p-region, (3) i-layer, (4) n-substrate, and (5) bottom metal contact. Arrows inside the device cross section are electric field lines intersecting the illuminating focused beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) OF infrared microscope for OBIRCH imaging: LD, laser diode; PD, photodiode; C, collimator; AP, anamorphic prism; D, diaphragm; O, objective lens; and scan stage. (b) Cross section of p - i - n device showing (1) Au metal contact, (2) p-layer, (3) GaAs quantum well, (4) polyimide, (5) n-GaAs substrate; (c) Confocal reflectance image of surface-emitting p - i - n sample. Image size: 0.5 × 0.5 mm 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Imaging of functional and defective p - i - n devices. (a) No functional discrimination under (a) confocal reflectance, which can be highly differentiated under (b) OBIRCH and (c) forward-biased and (d) reversed-bias OBIC imaging. Image size: 1.0 × 1.0 mm 2 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Localized current images for (a) reverse-biased OBIC, (b) forward OBIC and (c) OBIRCH measurements for different bias voltages. The gradient images (d)–(f) illustrate the sensitivity of OBIRCH to map out inhomogeneities that cannot be detected using OBIC imaging. Image size: 0.5 × 0.5 mm 2 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) (a) Calculated relative resistance map enable material discrimination of (b) the active layer, (c) metal line and pad. (d) Maximum, minimum, and average resistances, R max , R min , and R ave , respectively, taken from resistance maps. Deviation of R ave from the bulk resistance R 0 at higher bias voltage implies domination of the semiconductor's decrease in resistance with heating at higher V bias . Image size: 0.5 × 0.5 mm 2 .

Equations (4)

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I ( λ , T ) = I 0 ( T ) [ exp ( q V bias / k B T ) 1 ] I ph ( λ , T ) = I D ( T ) I ph ( λ , T ) ,
I fwd ( λ , T ) = I 0 ( T ) [ exp ( e V fwd / k B T ) 1 ] I ph ( λ , T ) ,
I rev ( λ , T ) = I 0 ( T ) + I ph ( λ , T ) ,
Δ R = R 0 Δ I I o b ,

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