Abstract

We investigate the effects of the parasitic phase of imperfect band-limited occulting masks on the broadband contrast performance of a high-contrast imaging system through modeling and simulations. We also examine the effects of the phase and the optical-density dispersions of occulting masks whose parasitic phase has been compensated at the center wavelength but is nonzero at other wavelengths. Two types of occulting masks are considered: gray-scale masks such as those made on a high-energy beam-sensitive glass, and recently proposed spatially profiled metal masks, both having 1D Sinc2 (linear -Sinc2) amplitude transmission coefficient (Sinc4 intensity transmittance) profiles. We determine the conditions for obtaining 1×109 and 1×1010 contrast values with a light centered at a 785  nm wavelength and having a 10% bandwidth in a coronagraphic telescope having ideal optical surfaces but imperfect band-limited image-plane occulting masks.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. Terrestrial Planet Finder website, http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/TPF/tpf_index.cfm.
  2. J. T. Trauger and W. A. Traub, "A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet," Nature 446, 771-773 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter-Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, "High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Sidick and D. W. Wilson, "Behavior of imperfect band-limited coronagraphic masks in a high-contrast imaging system," Appl. Opt. 46, 1397-1407 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Balasubramanian, E. Sidick, D. W. Wilson, D. J. Hoppe, S. B. Shaklan, and J. T. Trauger, "Band-limited masks for TPF coronagraph," C. R. Phys. 8, 288-297 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Balasubramanian, is preparing a manuscript to be called "Band-limited image masks for TPF coronagraph--materials and designs for broadband performance."
  9. E. Sidick, F. Shi, S. Basinger, D. Moody, A. E. Lowman, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in--Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J. C. Mather, H. A. MacEven, and M. . M. de Graauw, eds., Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653L (2006).
  10. Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems User's Manual, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.
  11. P. G. Halverson, M. Z. Ftaclas, K. Balasubramanian, D. J. Hoppe, and D. W. Wilson, "Measurement of wavefront phase delay and optical density in apodized coronagraphic mask materials," in Techniques and Instrument for Detection of Exoplanets II, D. R. Coulter, ed., Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051I (2005).
  12. J. J. Green and S. B. Shaklan, "Optimizing coronagraph designs to minimize their contrast sensitivity to low-order optical aberrations," in Techniques and Instrument for Detection of Exoplanets, D. R. Coulter, ed., Proc. SPIE 5170, 25-37 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Sidick, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Broadband performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in Advanced Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications IV, M. K. Giles, J. D. Gonglewski, and R. A. Carreras, eds., Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060U (2006).
  14. D. Moody, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (personal communications, 2007).

2007 (3)

J. T. Trauger and W. A. Traub, "A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet," Nature 446, 771-773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Balasubramanian, E. Sidick, D. W. Wilson, D. J. Hoppe, S. B. Shaklan, and J. T. Trauger, "Band-limited masks for TPF coronagraph," C. R. Phys. 8, 288-297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Sidick and D. W. Wilson, "Behavior of imperfect band-limited coronagraphic masks in a high-contrast imaging system," Appl. Opt. 46, 1397-1407 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

E. Sidick, F. Shi, S. Basinger, D. Moody, A. E. Lowman, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in--Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J. C. Mather, H. A. MacEven, and M. . M. de Graauw, eds., Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653L (2006).

2005 (1)

P. G. Halverson, M. Z. Ftaclas, K. Balasubramanian, D. J. Hoppe, and D. W. Wilson, "Measurement of wavefront phase delay and optical density in apodized coronagraphic mask materials," in Techniques and Instrument for Detection of Exoplanets II, D. R. Coulter, ed., Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051I (2005).

2004 (3)

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter-Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, "High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. J. Green and S. B. Shaklan, "Optimizing coronagraph designs to minimize their contrast sensitivity to low-order optical aberrations," in Techniques and Instrument for Detection of Exoplanets, D. R. Coulter, ed., Proc. SPIE 5170, 25-37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, K.

K. Balasubramanian, E. Sidick, D. W. Wilson, D. J. Hoppe, S. B. Shaklan, and J. T. Trauger, "Band-limited masks for TPF coronagraph," C. R. Phys. 8, 288-297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Halverson, M. Z. Ftaclas, K. Balasubramanian, D. J. Hoppe, and D. W. Wilson, "Measurement of wavefront phase delay and optical density in apodized coronagraphic mask materials," in Techniques and Instrument for Detection of Exoplanets II, D. R. Coulter, ed., Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051I (2005).

K. Balasubramanian, is preparing a manuscript to be called "Band-limited image masks for TPF coronagraph--materials and designs for broadband performance."

Basinger, S.

E. Sidick, F. Shi, S. Basinger, D. Moody, A. E. Lowman, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in--Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J. C. Mather, H. A. MacEven, and M. . M. de Graauw, eds., Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653L (2006).

Burrows, C.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carreras, R. A.

E. Sidick, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Broadband performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in Advanced Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications IV, M. K. Giles, J. D. Gonglewski, and R. A. Carreras, eds., Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060U (2006).

Coulter, D. R.

P. G. Halverson, M. Z. Ftaclas, K. Balasubramanian, D. J. Hoppe, and D. W. Wilson, "Measurement of wavefront phase delay and optical density in apodized coronagraphic mask materials," in Techniques and Instrument for Detection of Exoplanets II, D. R. Coulter, ed., Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051I (2005).

J. J. Green and S. B. Shaklan, "Optimizing coronagraph designs to minimize their contrast sensitivity to low-order optical aberrations," in Techniques and Instrument for Detection of Exoplanets, D. R. Coulter, ed., Proc. SPIE 5170, 25-37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Graauw, M. . M.

E. Sidick, F. Shi, S. Basinger, D. Moody, A. E. Lowman, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in--Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J. C. Mather, H. A. MacEven, and M. . M. de Graauw, eds., Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653L (2006).

Ford, V. G.

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter-Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ftaclas, M. Z.

P. G. Halverson, M. Z. Ftaclas, K. Balasubramanian, D. J. Hoppe, and D. W. Wilson, "Measurement of wavefront phase delay and optical density in apodized coronagraphic mask materials," in Techniques and Instrument for Detection of Exoplanets II, D. R. Coulter, ed., Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051I (2005).

Giles, M. K.

E. Sidick, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Broadband performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in Advanced Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications IV, M. K. Giles, J. D. Gonglewski, and R. A. Carreras, eds., Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060U (2006).

Gonglewski, J. D.

E. Sidick, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Broadband performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in Advanced Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications IV, M. K. Giles, J. D. Gonglewski, and R. A. Carreras, eds., Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060U (2006).

Gordon, B.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, "High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, J. J.

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, "High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Green and S. B. Shaklan, "Optimizing coronagraph designs to minimize their contrast sensitivity to low-order optical aberrations," in Techniques and Instrument for Detection of Exoplanets, D. R. Coulter, ed., Proc. SPIE 5170, 25-37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Halverson, P. G.

P. G. Halverson, M. Z. Ftaclas, K. Balasubramanian, D. J. Hoppe, and D. W. Wilson, "Measurement of wavefront phase delay and optical density in apodized coronagraphic mask materials," in Techniques and Instrument for Detection of Exoplanets II, D. R. Coulter, ed., Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051I (2005).

Ho, T.

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter-Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, D.

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter-Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, D. J.

K. Balasubramanian, E. Sidick, D. W. Wilson, D. J. Hoppe, S. B. Shaklan, and J. T. Trauger, "Band-limited masks for TPF coronagraph," C. R. Phys. 8, 288-297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Halverson, M. Z. Ftaclas, K. Balasubramanian, D. J. Hoppe, and D. W. Wilson, "Measurement of wavefront phase delay and optical density in apodized coronagraphic mask materials," in Techniques and Instrument for Detection of Exoplanets II, D. R. Coulter, ed., Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051I (2005).

Kuhnert, A. C.

E. Sidick, F. Shi, S. Basinger, D. Moody, A. E. Lowman, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in--Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J. C. Mather, H. A. MacEven, and M. . M. de Graauw, eds., Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653L (2006).

E. Sidick, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Broadband performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in Advanced Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications IV, M. K. Giles, J. D. Gonglewski, and R. A. Carreras, eds., Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060U (2006).

Lisman, P. D.

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter-Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lowman, A. E.

E. Sidick, F. Shi, S. Basinger, D. Moody, A. E. Lowman, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in--Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J. C. Mather, H. A. MacEven, and M. . M. de Graauw, eds., Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653L (2006).

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter-Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, "High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

MacEven, H. A.

E. Sidick, F. Shi, S. Basinger, D. Moody, A. E. Lowman, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in--Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J. C. Mather, H. A. MacEven, and M. . M. de Graauw, eds., Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653L (2006).

Mather, J. C.

E. Sidick, F. Shi, S. Basinger, D. Moody, A. E. Lowman, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in--Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J. C. Mather, H. A. MacEven, and M. . M. de Graauw, eds., Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653L (2006).

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter-Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moody, D.

E. Sidick, F. Shi, S. Basinger, D. Moody, A. E. Lowman, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in--Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J. C. Mather, H. A. MacEven, and M. . M. de Graauw, eds., Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653L (2006).

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, "High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Moody, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (personal communications, 2007).

Niessner, A. F.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, "High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shaklan, S. B.

K. Balasubramanian, E. Sidick, D. W. Wilson, D. J. Hoppe, S. B. Shaklan, and J. T. Trauger, "Band-limited masks for TPF coronagraph," C. R. Phys. 8, 288-297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter-Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Green and S. B. Shaklan, "Optimizing coronagraph designs to minimize their contrast sensitivity to low-order optical aberrations," in Techniques and Instrument for Detection of Exoplanets, D. R. Coulter, ed., Proc. SPIE 5170, 25-37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F.

E. Sidick, F. Shi, S. Basinger, D. Moody, A. E. Lowman, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in--Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J. C. Mather, H. A. MacEven, and M. . M. de Graauw, eds., Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653L (2006).

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, "High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sidick, E.

K. Balasubramanian, E. Sidick, D. W. Wilson, D. J. Hoppe, S. B. Shaklan, and J. T. Trauger, "Band-limited masks for TPF coronagraph," C. R. Phys. 8, 288-297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Sidick and D. W. Wilson, "Behavior of imperfect band-limited coronagraphic masks in a high-contrast imaging system," Appl. Opt. 46, 1397-1407 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Sidick, F. Shi, S. Basinger, D. Moody, A. E. Lowman, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in--Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J. C. Mather, H. A. MacEven, and M. . M. de Graauw, eds., Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653L (2006).

E. Sidick, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Broadband performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in Advanced Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications IV, M. K. Giles, J. D. Gonglewski, and R. A. Carreras, eds., Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060U (2006).

Traub, W. A.

J. T. Trauger and W. A. Traub, "A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet," Nature 446, 771-773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trauger, J. T.

K. Balasubramanian, E. Sidick, D. W. Wilson, D. J. Hoppe, S. B. Shaklan, and J. T. Trauger, "Band-limited masks for TPF coronagraph," C. R. Phys. 8, 288-297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger and W. A. Traub, "A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet," Nature 446, 771-773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Sidick, F. Shi, S. Basinger, D. Moody, A. E. Lowman, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in--Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J. C. Mather, H. A. MacEven, and M. . M. de Graauw, eds., Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653L (2006).

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter-Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, "High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Sidick, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Broadband performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in Advanced Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications IV, M. K. Giles, J. D. Gonglewski, and R. A. Carreras, eds., Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060U (2006).

Wilson, D.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. W.

K. Balasubramanian, E. Sidick, D. W. Wilson, D. J. Hoppe, S. B. Shaklan, and J. T. Trauger, "Band-limited masks for TPF coronagraph," C. R. Phys. 8, 288-297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Sidick and D. W. Wilson, "Behavior of imperfect band-limited coronagraphic masks in a high-contrast imaging system," Appl. Opt. 46, 1397-1407 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Halverson, M. Z. Ftaclas, K. Balasubramanian, D. J. Hoppe, and D. W. Wilson, "Measurement of wavefront phase delay and optical density in apodized coronagraphic mask materials," in Techniques and Instrument for Detection of Exoplanets II, D. R. Coulter, ed., Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051I (2005).

Appl. Opt. (1)

C. R. Phys. (1)

K. Balasubramanian, E. Sidick, D. W. Wilson, D. J. Hoppe, S. B. Shaklan, and J. T. Trauger, "Band-limited masks for TPF coronagraph," C. R. Phys. 8, 288-297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. T. Trauger and W. A. Traub, "A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet," Nature 446, 771-773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (6)

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter-Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and F. Shi, "High-contrast imaging testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246-1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Sidick, F. Shi, S. Basinger, D. Moody, A. E. Lowman, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in--Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J. C. Mather, H. A. MacEven, and M. . M. de Graauw, eds., Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653L (2006).

P. G. Halverson, M. Z. Ftaclas, K. Balasubramanian, D. J. Hoppe, and D. W. Wilson, "Measurement of wavefront phase delay and optical density in apodized coronagraphic mask materials," in Techniques and Instrument for Detection of Exoplanets II, D. R. Coulter, ed., Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051I (2005).

J. J. Green and S. B. Shaklan, "Optimizing coronagraph designs to minimize their contrast sensitivity to low-order optical aberrations," in Techniques and Instrument for Detection of Exoplanets, D. R. Coulter, ed., Proc. SPIE 5170, 25-37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

E. Sidick, A. C. Kuhnert, and J. T. Trauger, "Broadband performance of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and simulations," in Advanced Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications IV, M. K. Giles, J. D. Gonglewski, and R. A. Carreras, eds., Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060U (2006).

D. Moody, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (personal communications, 2007).

Terrestrial Planet Finder website, http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/TPF/tpf_index.cfm.

Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems User's Manual, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

K. Balasubramanian, is preparing a manuscript to be called "Band-limited image masks for TPF coronagraph--materials and designs for broadband performance."

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) layout. The light source (“starlight”) is a 5   μm pinhole illuminated by an optical fiber, and a CCD science camera is located at the back focal plane for detecting the image of the starlight.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) Phase delay as a function of OD with wavelength as a parameter. The curve corresponding to λ = 785   nm represents the measured data of a HEBS glass. Other two curves were obtained from the analytical model given by Eq. (2). (b) Phase-delay difference of an HEBS glass occulter whose phase delay is shown in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) OD and phase profiles of a linear (one-dimensional) S i n c 2 occulting mask described by Eq. (1). (a) OD profiles at λ = 785   nm ; (b) corresponding phase profiles obtained from the analytical model given by Eq. (2) at λ = 0.95 λ 0 , λ 0 , and λ = 1.05 λ 0 , respectively, where the center wavelength λ 0 = 785   nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Predicted contrast map examples. (a) Error-free optical system, (b) before speckle nulling, (c) after speckle nulling, and (d) after speckle nulling and evaluated with Δ λ = 0.1 λ 0 = 78.5   nm . Except the last part, the first three parts are obtained by assuming monochromatic starlight. The white rectangular box indicates the boundary of [ 3   10   10 10 ] * λ / D field angle window. Shown as the x label are the values of C m and C 4 of the corresponding contrast map.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Broadband contrast parameters C m and C 4 as a function of bandwidth Δλ. The vertical solid line corresponds to Δ λ = 78.5   nm or 10% bandwidth. The DM setting used is the one obtained for the 785   nm wavelength through 1000 speckle-nulling optimization iterations. The ϕ = ϕ ( λ 0 ) corresponds to a case where the occulter phase is wavelength independent (or dispersion free, but still depends on OD), and ϕ = ϕ ( λ ) corresponds to a case where ϕ depends on both wavelength and OD.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) (a) OD and (b) phase dispersions of an occulting mask consisting of spatially profiled platinum on fused silica compensated with PMMA [7, 8].

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Predicted values of the mean contrast, C m , and the contrast at 4 λ / D , C 4 , of the HCIT as a function of bandwidth. The vertical solid line corresponds to Δ λ = 78.5   nm or 10% bandwidth. The occulter is a PMMA-corrected platinum mask whose dispersion characteristics are shown in Fig. 6, and the DM phase is set to zero.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Examples of occulter OD and phase dispersion curves represented by Eq. (4). In all cases shown, γ ρ = 1 and Ω ρ = 1 / 2 L ρ . The solid curves correspond to λ = 0.95 λ 0 = 745.75   nm , and the dashed ones to λ = 1.05 λ 0 = 824.25   nm .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) C m at Δ λ = 0.1 λ 0 as a function of γ ϕ with γ od as a parameter when the occulter has linear OD and phase dispersions as shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Upper limits of γ od and γ ϕ values in achieving four different contrast targets specified in the figure legend. The indicated target contrast values are those obtained when Δ λ = 0.1 λ 0 . The symbols represent the exact data points obtained through a series of simulations similar to that shown in Fig. 9, and the four different curves are obtained from a fit given by Eq. (5).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Target contrast ellipses corresponding to L ρ = 2 and the location of γ od and γϕ parameter pair of a metal mask whose dispersion characteristics are described in Figs. 7(a) and 7(b). The values of the dispersion slopes shown on this figure are γ od = 0.28 and γ ϕ = 0.57 , respectively. The corresponding contrast values at Δ λ = 0.1 λ 0 obtained in Subsection 3B are C m = 1.4 × 10 10 and C 4 = 0.84 × 10 9 , respectively.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Values of the Polynomial Coefficients Used in Eq. (2)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of Semimajor Axis γϕ0 and Semiminor Axis γod0 of Four Different Target Contract Ellipses a

Equations (6)

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T ( x ) = [ 1 ( sin ( π x / w ) ( π x / w ) ) 2 ] 2 ,
ϕ ( OD , λ ) = { m = 0 5 a m ( λ ) [ OD ] m , OD 1.5 b 1 ( λ ) [ OD ] + b 0 , 8 OD > 1.5 ϕ ( 8 , λ ) , OD > 8 .
C ( x , y ) = I ( x , y ) I o p e n ( 0 , 0 ) | t o c c ( x , y ) | 2 ,
Δ ρ ( OD , λ ) = { γ ρ ( 1 λ 0 λ ) sin 2 π Ω ρ OD ( λ 0 ) 2 π Ω ρ , OD ( λ 0 ) L ρ γ ρ ( 1 λ 0 λ ) [ L ρ OD ( λ 0 ) ] , OD ( λ 0 ) > L ρ ,
ρ = OD , ϕ .
γ od 2 γ od 0 2 + γ ϕ 2 γ ϕ 0 2 = 1.

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