Abstract

A handheld near-infrared imager was developed for real-time monitoring of tissue physiologic changes in response to dynamic compression stimuli. Both 2D and 3D imaging schemas were developed for reconstruction of tissue heterogeneities based on optical measurements. The handheld imager and the dynamic imaging schema were validated on both benchtop phantoms and in vivo human tissues. The benchtop tests demonstrated that the imager was able to reconstruct absorption properties of the embedded heterogeneity with accuracy and repeatability. The tests on in vivo human tissues demonstrated that the imager was able to generate various dynamic loading profiles with reproducibility and to detect tissue optical, mechanical, and physiologic changes under the dynamic loading condition.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

R. X. Xu and S. P. Povoski, "Diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy for cancer," Expert Rev. Med. Devices 4, 83-95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. X. Xu, S. P. Povoski, L. D. Yee, J. O. Olsen, B. Qiang, and J. M. Mao, "Near infrared/ultrasound dual modal imaging for breast cancer detection," Proc. SPIE 6081, 44-53 (2006).

2005 (4)

C. H. Schmitz, D. P. Klemer, R. Hardin, M. S. Katz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, M. B. Levin, R. D. Levina, N. A. Franco, W. B. Solomon, and R. L. Barbour, "Design and implementation of dynamic near-infrared optical tomographic imaging instrumentation for simultaneous dual-breast measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 2140-2153 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1-43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Moller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429-2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (7)

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, "Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy," Neuroimage 23, S275-S288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 230-238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini and D. A. Boas, "Noninvasive measurement of neuronal activity with near-infrared optical imaging," Neuroimage 21, 372-386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, "Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy," Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29, 463-487 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Cheng, J. M. Mao, X. Xu, M. Elmandjra, R. Bush, L. Christenson, B. O'Keefe, and J. Bry, "Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia in patients with peripheral vascular disease," Clin. Hemorheol Microcirc. 31, 11-21 (2004).
[PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541-552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Spatial variations in optical and physiological properties of healthy breast tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 534-540 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (8)

Y. Gu, V. A. Bourke, J. G. Kim, A. Constantinescu, R. P. Mason, and H. Liu, "Dynamic response of breast tumor oxygenation to hyperoxic respiratory challenge monitored with three oxygen-sensitive parameters," Appl. Opt. 42, 2960-2967 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "The role of diffuse optical spectroscopy in the clinical management of breast cancer," Dis. Markers 19, 95-105 (2003).

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, C. Kogel, and S. Poplack, "In vivo near-infrared spectral detection of pressure-induced changes in breast tissue," Opt. Lett. 28, 1212-1214 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Cheng and X. Xu, "Study of the pressure effect in near infrared spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE 4955, 397-406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, J.-M. Mao, R. Bush, D. B. Kopans, R. H. Moore, and M. Chorlton, "Breast cancer detection by mapping hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation," Appl. Opt. 42, 6412-6421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hoshi, "Functional near-infrared optical imaging: utility and limitations in human brain mapping," Psychophysiology 40, 511-520 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hedge, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions: initial clinical results of 19 cases," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. E. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography," Appl. Opt. 42, 5181-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

G. Gulsen, H. Yu, J. Wang, O. Nalcioglu, S. Merritt, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, D. J. Cuccia, R. Lanning, and B. J. Tromberg, "Congruent MRI and near-infrared spectroscopy for functional and structural imaging of tumors," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 1, 497-505 (2002).

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, A. Y. Bluestone, G. S. Abdoulaev, A. D. Klose, J. Lasker, M. Stewart, U. Netz, and J. Beuthan, "Near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," Dis. Markers 18, 313-337 (2002).

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, and B. Chance, "MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

X. Cheng, X. Xu, S. Zhou, L. Wang, B. Hu, F. Li, M. Wang, C. Zhou, H. Li, and H. Zhang, "A novel optical scanning system for breast cancer imaging," Proc. SPIE 4244, 468-473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhu, N. G. Chen, D. Piao, P. Guo, and X. Ding, "Design of near-infrared imaging probe with the assistance of ultrasound localization," Appl. Opt. 40, 3288-3303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Shah, A. Cerussi, C. Eker, J. Espinoza, J. Butler, J. Fishkin, R. Hornung, and B. Tromberg, "Noninvasive functional optical spectroscopy of human breast tissue," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 4420-4425 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

1999 (2)

S. R. Arridge, "Optical tomography in medical imaging," Inverse Probl. 15, R41-R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Hueber, S. Fantini, A. Cerussi, and B. Barbieri, "New optical probe designs for absolute self calibrating NIR tissue hemoglobin measurements," Proc. SPIE 3597, 618-631 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Y. Yao, Y. Wang, Y. Pei, W. Zhu, and R. L. Barbour, "Frequency-domain optical imaging of absorption and scattering distributions by a Born iterative method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 325-342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, and J. A. Detre, "Optical investigations of physiology: a study of intrinsic and extrinsic biomedical contrast," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London , Ser. B 352, 707-716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

S. Fantini, M. A. Fanceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, "Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasice tissue spectroscopy and oximetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 32-42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. O'Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Simulteneous scattering and absorption images of heterogeneous media using diffusive waves with the Rytov approximation," Proc. SPIE 2389, 320-327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abdoulaev, G. S.

A. H. Hielscher, A. Y. Bluestone, G. S. Abdoulaev, A. D. Klose, J. Lasker, M. Stewart, U. Netz, and J. Beuthan, "Near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," Dis. Markers 18, 313-337 (2002).

Alsop, D. C.

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, and J. A. Detre, "Optical investigations of physiology: a study of intrinsic and extrinsic biomedical contrast," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London , Ser. B 352, 707-716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1-43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, "Optical tomography in medical imaging," Inverse Probl. 15, R41-R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Austin, T.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbieri, B.

D. Hueber, S. Fantini, A. Cerussi, and B. Barbieri, "New optical probe designs for absolute self calibrating NIR tissue hemoglobin measurements," Proc. SPIE 3597, 618-631 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Fantini, M. A. Fanceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, "Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasice tissue spectroscopy and oximetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 32-42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barbour, R. L.

Beuthan, J.

A. H. Hielscher, A. Y. Bluestone, G. S. Abdoulaev, A. D. Klose, J. Lasker, M. Stewart, U. Netz, and J. Beuthan, "Near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," Dis. Markers 18, 313-337 (2002).

Bevilacqua, F.

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 230-238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gulsen, H. Yu, J. Wang, O. Nalcioglu, S. Merritt, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, D. J. Cuccia, R. Lanning, and B. J. Tromberg, "Congruent MRI and near-infrared spectroscopy for functional and structural imaging of tumors," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 1, 497-505 (2002).

Bluestone, A. Y.

A. H. Hielscher, A. Y. Bluestone, G. S. Abdoulaev, A. D. Klose, J. Lasker, M. Stewart, U. Netz, and J. Beuthan, "Near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," Dis. Markers 18, 313-337 (2002).

Boas, D. A.

M. A. Franceschini and D. A. Boas, "Noninvasive measurement of neuronal activity with near-infrared optical imaging," Neuroimage 21, 372-386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, "Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy," Neuroimage 23, S275-S288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. E. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography," Appl. Opt. 42, 5181-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. O'Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Simulteneous scattering and absorption images of heterogeneous media using diffusive waves with the Rytov approximation," Proc. SPIE 2389, 320-327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bourke, V. A.

Brooksby, B.

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brukilacchio, T. J.

Bry, J.

X. Cheng, J. M. Mao, X. Xu, M. Elmandjra, R. Bush, L. Christenson, B. O'Keefe, and J. Bry, "Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia in patients with peripheral vascular disease," Clin. Hemorheol Microcirc. 31, 11-21 (2004).
[PubMed]

Bush, R.

X. Cheng, J. M. Mao, X. Xu, M. Elmandjra, R. Bush, L. Christenson, B. O'Keefe, and J. Bry, "Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia in patients with peripheral vascular disease," Clin. Hemorheol Microcirc. 31, 11-21 (2004).
[PubMed]

X. Cheng, J.-M. Mao, R. Bush, D. B. Kopans, R. H. Moore, and M. Chorlton, "Breast cancer detection by mapping hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation," Appl. Opt. 42, 6412-6421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butler, J.

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N. Shah, A. Cerussi, C. Eker, J. Espinoza, J. Butler, J. Fishkin, R. Hornung, and B. Tromberg, "Noninvasive functional optical spectroscopy of human breast tissue," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 4420-4425 (2001).
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N. Shah, A. Cerussi, C. Eker, J. Espinoza, J. Butler, J. Fishkin, R. Hornung, and B. Tromberg, "Noninvasive functional optical spectroscopy of human breast tissue," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 4420-4425 (2001).
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N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Spatial variations in optical and physiological properties of healthy breast tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 534-540 (2004).
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Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hedge, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions: initial clinical results of 19 cases," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
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N. Shah, A. Cerussi, C. Eker, J. Espinoza, J. Butler, J. Fishkin, R. Hornung, and B. Tromberg, "Noninvasive functional optical spectroscopy of human breast tissue," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 4420-4425 (2001).
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B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
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Gratton, E.

S. Fantini, M. A. Fanceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, "Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasice tissue spectroscopy and oximetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 32-42 (1995).
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B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
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Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hedge, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions: initial clinical results of 19 cases," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
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J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
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B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
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N. Shah, A. Cerussi, C. Eker, J. Espinoza, J. Butler, J. Fishkin, R. Hornung, and B. Tromberg, "Noninvasive functional optical spectroscopy of human breast tissue," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 4420-4425 (2001).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Spatial variations in optical and physiological properties of healthy breast tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 534-540 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Hu, B.

X. Cheng, X. Xu, S. Zhou, L. Wang, B. Hu, F. Li, M. Wang, C. Zhou, H. Li, and H. Zhang, "A novel optical scanning system for breast cancer imaging," Proc. SPIE 4244, 468-473 (2001).
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Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hedge, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions: initial clinical results of 19 cases," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
[PubMed]

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D. Hueber, S. Fantini, A. Cerussi, and B. Barbieri, "New optical probe designs for absolute self calibrating NIR tissue hemoglobin measurements," Proc. SPIE 3597, 618-631 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hedge, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions: initial clinical results of 19 cases," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
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N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Spatial variations in optical and physiological properties of healthy breast tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 534-540 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "The role of diffuse optical spectroscopy in the clinical management of breast cancer," Dis. Markers 19, 95-105 (2003).

Jakubowski, D. B.

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 230-238 (2004).
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B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504 (2005).
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B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541-552 (2004).
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Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hedge, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions: initial clinical results of 19 cases," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
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B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
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Kim, J. G.

Klemer, D. P.

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A. H. Hielscher, A. Y. Bluestone, G. S. Abdoulaev, A. D. Klose, J. Lasker, M. Stewart, U. Netz, and J. Beuthan, "Near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," Dis. Markers 18, 313-337 (2002).

Kogel, C.

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504 (2005).
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B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541-552 (2004).
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S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, C. Kogel, and S. Poplack, "In vivo near-infrared spectral detection of pressure-induced changes in breast tissue," Opt. Lett. 28, 1212-1214 (2003).
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Kopans, D. B.

Kurtzman, S. H.

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hedge, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions: initial clinical results of 19 cases," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
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G. Gulsen, H. Yu, J. Wang, O. Nalcioglu, S. Merritt, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, D. J. Cuccia, R. Lanning, and B. J. Tromberg, "Congruent MRI and near-infrared spectroscopy for functional and structural imaging of tumors," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 1, 497-505 (2002).

Lasker, J.

A. H. Hielscher, A. Y. Bluestone, G. S. Abdoulaev, A. D. Klose, J. Lasker, M. Stewart, U. Netz, and J. Beuthan, "Near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," Dis. Markers 18, 313-337 (2002).

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Levina, R. D.

Li, A.

Li, F.

X. Cheng, X. Xu, S. Zhou, L. Wang, B. Hu, F. Li, M. Wang, C. Zhou, H. Li, and H. Zhang, "A novel optical scanning system for breast cancer imaging," Proc. SPIE 4244, 468-473 (2001).
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X. Cheng, X. Xu, S. Zhou, L. Wang, B. Hu, F. Li, M. Wang, C. Zhou, H. Li, and H. Zhang, "A novel optical scanning system for breast cancer imaging," Proc. SPIE 4244, 468-473 (2001).
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Luo, Q.

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, and J. A. Detre, "Optical investigations of physiology: a study of intrinsic and extrinsic biomedical contrast," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London , Ser. B 352, 707-716 (1997).
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S. Fantini, M. A. Fanceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, "Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasice tissue spectroscopy and oximetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 32-42 (1995).
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X. Cheng, J. M. Mao, X. Xu, M. Elmandjra, R. Bush, L. Christenson, B. O'Keefe, and J. Bry, "Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia in patients with peripheral vascular disease," Clin. Hemorheol Microcirc. 31, 11-21 (2004).
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Mason, R. P.

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B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
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B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
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Meek, J. H.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
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Merritt, S.

G. Gulsen, H. Yu, J. Wang, O. Nalcioglu, S. Merritt, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, D. J. Cuccia, R. Lanning, and B. J. Tromberg, "Congruent MRI and near-infrared spectroscopy for functional and structural imaging of tumors," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 1, 497-505 (2002).

Miller, E. L.

Moesta, K. T.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Moller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429-2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moller, M.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Moller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429-2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, R. H.

Mottola, L.

M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, "Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy," Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29, 463-487 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mucke, J.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Moller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429-2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nalcioglu, O.

G. Gulsen, H. Yu, J. Wang, O. Nalcioglu, S. Merritt, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, D. J. Cuccia, R. Lanning, and B. J. Tromberg, "Congruent MRI and near-infrared spectroscopy for functional and structural imaging of tumors," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 1, 497-505 (2002).

Netz, U.

A. H. Hielscher, A. Y. Bluestone, G. S. Abdoulaev, A. D. Klose, J. Lasker, M. Stewart, U. Netz, and J. Beuthan, "Near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," Dis. Markers 18, 313-337 (2002).

Nioka, S.

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, and J. A. Detre, "Optical investigations of physiology: a study of intrinsic and extrinsic biomedical contrast," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London , Ser. B 352, 707-716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, and B. Chance, "MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Keefe, B.

X. Cheng, J. M. Mao, X. Xu, M. Elmandjra, R. Bush, L. Christenson, B. O'Keefe, and J. Bry, "Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia in patients with peripheral vascular disease," Clin. Hemorheol Microcirc. 31, 11-21 (2004).
[PubMed]

O'Leary, M. A.

M. A. O'Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Simulteneous scattering and absorption images of heterogeneous media using diffusive waves with the Rytov approximation," Proc. SPIE 2389, 320-327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. O'Leary, "Imaging with diffuse photon density waves," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Pennsylvania, 1996).

Olsen, J.

R. Xu, B. Qiang, J. Olsen, S. Povoski, L. Yee, and J. Mao, "Localization and functional parameter reconstruction of suspicious breast lesions by near infrared/ultrasound dual modal imaging," in Proceedings of the 27th Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 5, pp. 4473-4476.

Olsen, J. O.

R. X. Xu, S. P. Povoski, L. D. Yee, J. O. Olsen, B. Qiang, and J. M. Mao, "Near infrared/ultrasound dual modal imaging for breast cancer detection," Proc. SPIE 6081, 44-53 (2006).

Osterberg, U. L.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Osterman, K. S.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541-552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, C. Kogel, and S. Poplack, "In vivo near-infrared spectral detection of pressure-induced changes in breast tissue," Opt. Lett. 28, 1212-1214 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Pei, Y.

Piao, D.

Pogue, B. W.

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541-552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, C. Kogel, and S. Poplack, "In vivo near-infrared spectral detection of pressure-induced changes in breast tissue," Opt. Lett. 28, 1212-1214 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Poplack, S.

Poplack, S. P.

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541-552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Povoski, S.

R. Xu, B. Qiang, J. Olsen, S. Povoski, L. Yee, and J. Mao, "Localization and functional parameter reconstruction of suspicious breast lesions by near infrared/ultrasound dual modal imaging," in Proceedings of the 27th Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 5, pp. 4473-4476.

Povoski, S. P.

R. X. Xu and S. P. Povoski, "Diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy for cancer," Expert Rev. Med. Devices 4, 83-95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. X. Xu, S. P. Povoski, L. D. Yee, J. O. Olsen, B. Qiang, and J. M. Mao, "Near infrared/ultrasound dual modal imaging for breast cancer detection," Proc. SPIE 6081, 44-53 (2006).

Qiang, B.

R. X. Xu, S. P. Povoski, L. D. Yee, J. O. Olsen, B. Qiang, and J. M. Mao, "Near infrared/ultrasound dual modal imaging for breast cancer detection," Proc. SPIE 6081, 44-53 (2006).

R. Xu, B. Qiang, J. Olsen, S. Povoski, L. Yee, and J. Mao, "Localization and functional parameter reconstruction of suspicious breast lesions by near infrared/ultrasound dual modal imaging," in Proceedings of the 27th Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 5, pp. 4473-4476.

R. Xu, B. Qiang, and J. Mao, "Near infrared imaging of tissue heterogeneity: probe design and sensitivity analysis," in Proceedings of the 27th Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 278-281.
[PubMed]

Quaresima, V.

M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, "Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy," Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29, 463-487 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Moller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429-2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlag, P. M.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Moller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429-2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitz, C. H.

Schnall, M. D.

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, and B. Chance, "MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, N.

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 230-238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Spatial variations in optical and physiological properties of healthy breast tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 534-540 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "The role of diffuse optical spectroscopy in the clinical management of breast cancer," Dis. Markers 19, 95-105 (2003).

N. Shah, A. Cerussi, C. Eker, J. Espinoza, J. Butler, J. Fishkin, R. Hornung, and B. Tromberg, "Noninvasive functional optical spectroscopy of human breast tissue," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 4420-4425 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soho, S.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541-552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solomon, W. B.

Song, X.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541-552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541-552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, M.

A. H. Hielscher, A. Y. Bluestone, G. S. Abdoulaev, A. D. Klose, J. Lasker, M. Stewart, U. Netz, and J. Beuthan, "Near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," Dis. Markers 18, 313-337 (2002).

Stott, J.

Stroszczynski, C.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Moller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429-2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tosteson, T. D.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541-552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B.

N. Shah, A. Cerussi, C. Eker, J. Espinoza, J. Butler, J. Fishkin, R. Hornung, and B. Tromberg, "Noninvasive functional optical spectroscopy of human breast tissue," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 4420-4425 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Spatial variations in optical and physiological properties of healthy breast tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 534-540 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 230-238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "The role of diffuse optical spectroscopy in the clinical management of breast cancer," Dis. Markers 19, 95-105 (2003).

G. Gulsen, H. Yu, J. Wang, O. Nalcioglu, S. Merritt, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, D. J. Cuccia, R. Lanning, and B. J. Tromberg, "Congruent MRI and near-infrared spectroscopy for functional and structural imaging of tumors," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 1, 497-505 (2002).

Wabnitz, H.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Moller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429-2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, S. A.

S. Fantini, M. A. Fanceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, "Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasice tissue spectroscopy and oximetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 32-42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

G. Gulsen, H. Yu, J. Wang, O. Nalcioglu, S. Merritt, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, D. J. Cuccia, R. Lanning, and B. J. Tromberg, "Congruent MRI and near-infrared spectroscopy for functional and structural imaging of tumors," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 1, 497-505 (2002).

Wang, L.

X. Cheng, X. Xu, S. Zhou, L. Wang, B. Hu, F. Li, M. Wang, C. Zhou, H. Li, and H. Zhang, "A novel optical scanning system for breast cancer imaging," Proc. SPIE 4244, 468-473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

X. Cheng, X. Xu, S. Zhou, L. Wang, B. Hu, F. Li, M. Wang, C. Zhou, H. Li, and H. Zhang, "A novel optical scanning system for breast cancer imaging," Proc. SPIE 4244, 468-473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wassermann, B.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Moller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429-2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weaver, J.

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, W. A.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wilson, B.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, T.

Wyatt, J. S.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, R.

R. Xu, B. Qiang, J. Olsen, S. Povoski, L. Yee, and J. Mao, "Localization and functional parameter reconstruction of suspicious breast lesions by near infrared/ultrasound dual modal imaging," in Proceedings of the 27th Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 5, pp. 4473-4476.

R. Xu, B. Qiang, and J. Mao, "Near infrared imaging of tissue heterogeneity: probe design and sensitivity analysis," in Proceedings of the 27th Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 278-281.
[PubMed]

Xu, R. X.

R. X. Xu and S. P. Povoski, "Diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy for cancer," Expert Rev. Med. Devices 4, 83-95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. X. Xu, S. P. Povoski, L. D. Yee, J. O. Olsen, B. Qiang, and J. M. Mao, "Near infrared/ultrasound dual modal imaging for breast cancer detection," Proc. SPIE 6081, 44-53 (2006).

Xu, X.

X. Cheng, J. M. Mao, X. Xu, M. Elmandjra, R. Bush, L. Christenson, B. O'Keefe, and J. Bry, "Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia in patients with peripheral vascular disease," Clin. Hemorheol Microcirc. 31, 11-21 (2004).
[PubMed]

X. Cheng and X. Xu, "Study of the pressure effect in near infrared spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE 4955, 397-406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, X. Xu, S. Zhou, L. Wang, B. Hu, F. Li, M. Wang, C. Zhou, H. Li, and H. Zhang, "A novel optical scanning system for breast cancer imaging," Proc. SPIE 4244, 468-473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

Yee, L.

R. Xu, B. Qiang, J. Olsen, S. Povoski, L. Yee, and J. Mao, "Localization and functional parameter reconstruction of suspicious breast lesions by near infrared/ultrasound dual modal imaging," in Proceedings of the 27th Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 5, pp. 4473-4476.

Yee, L. D.

R. X. Xu, S. P. Povoski, L. D. Yee, J. O. Olsen, B. Qiang, and J. M. Mao, "Near infrared/ultrasound dual modal imaging for breast cancer detection," Proc. SPIE 6081, 44-53 (2006).

Yodh, A. G.

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, and B. Chance, "MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. O'Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Simulteneous scattering and absorption images of heterogeneous media using diffusive waves with the Rytov approximation," Proc. SPIE 2389, 320-327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

G. Gulsen, H. Yu, J. Wang, O. Nalcioglu, S. Merritt, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, D. J. Cuccia, R. Lanning, and B. J. Tromberg, "Congruent MRI and near-infrared spectroscopy for functional and structural imaging of tumors," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 1, 497-505 (2002).

Yusof, R. M.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zarfos, K.

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hedge, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions: initial clinical results of 19 cases," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
[PubMed]

Zhang, H.

X. Cheng, X. Xu, S. Zhou, L. Wang, B. Hu, F. Li, M. Wang, C. Zhou, H. Li, and H. Zhang, "A novel optical scanning system for breast cancer imaging," Proc. SPIE 4244, 468-473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Zhou, C.

X. Cheng, X. Xu, S. Zhou, L. Wang, B. Hu, F. Li, M. Wang, C. Zhou, H. Li, and H. Zhang, "A novel optical scanning system for breast cancer imaging," Proc. SPIE 4244, 468-473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, S.

X. Cheng, X. Xu, S. Zhou, L. Wang, B. Hu, F. Li, M. Wang, C. Zhou, H. Li, and H. Zhang, "A novel optical scanning system for breast cancer imaging," Proc. SPIE 4244, 468-473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Q.

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hedge, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions: initial clinical results of 19 cases," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
[PubMed]

Q. Zhu, N. G. Chen, D. Piao, P. Guo, and X. Ding, "Design of near-infrared imaging probe with the assistance of ultrasound localization," Appl. Opt. 40, 3288-3303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, W.

Anal. Biochem. (1)

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Can. J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, "Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy," Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29, 463-487 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Hemorheol Microcirc. (1)

X. Cheng, J. M. Mao, X. Xu, M. Elmandjra, R. Bush, L. Christenson, B. O'Keefe, and J. Bry, "Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia in patients with peripheral vascular disease," Clin. Hemorheol Microcirc. 31, 11-21 (2004).
[PubMed]

Dis. Markers (2)

N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "The role of diffuse optical spectroscopy in the clinical management of breast cancer," Dis. Markers 19, 95-105 (2003).

A. H. Hielscher, A. Y. Bluestone, G. S. Abdoulaev, A. D. Klose, J. Lasker, M. Stewart, U. Netz, and J. Beuthan, "Near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," Dis. Markers 18, 313-337 (2002).

Expert Rev. Med. Devices (1)

R. X. Xu and S. P. Povoski, "Diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy for cancer," Expert Rev. Med. Devices 4, 83-95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inverse Probl. (1)

S. R. Arridge, "Optical tomography in medical imaging," Inverse Probl. 15, R41-R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) P-Scan handheld NIR imager.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Schematic of the telescoping insert of the P-Scan imager.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Source-detector matrix for the P-Scan imager.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Benchtop setup for NIR imaging of a liquid phantom with an embedded absorptive object using the P-Scan imager.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Absorption peaks reconstructed by 2D imaging schema from the actual and the simulated measurements for an object embedded at a depth of 7   mm with various absorption coefficients.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Absorption coefficients reconstructed by 3D imaging schema for an object embedded at a depth of 7   mm with various actual absorption coefficients.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) R 2 correlation coefficients for 2D and 3D imaging schemas at different depths of the embedded object.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Hbt∕StO2 fluctuations in response to a stepped compression load applied to the calf region.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Hbt∕StO2 fluctuations in response to a cyclic compression load applied to the calf region.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Nipple and breast parenchyma StO2 and Hbt under the ramp compression load.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Nipple and breast parenchyma StO2 contrast and Hbt contrast under the ramp compression load.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical Properties of Liquid Phantom and Embedded Objects

Equations (9)

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StO2 = ε H b λ 2 μ a λ 1 ε H b λ 1 μ a λ 2 μ a λ 1 ( ε H b λ 2 ε H b O λ 2 ) μ a λ 2 ( ε H b λ 1 ε H b O λ 1 ) ,
Hbt = ε H b λ 2 μ a λ 1 ε H b λ 1 μ a λ 2 [ StO2 ] ( ε H b O λ 1 ε H b λ 2 ε H b λ 1 ε H b O λ 2 ) ,
ϕ = S 4 π D | r r s |   exp ( μ eff | r r s | ) S 4 π D | r s r |   exp ( μ eff | r s r | ) ,
O D C1D1D2C2 = ϕ C1D1 ( r 1 , μ a , μ s ) ϕ C2D2 ( r 1 , μ a , μ s ) ϕ C1D2 ( r 2 , μ a , μ s ) ϕ C2D1 ( r 2 , μ a , μ s ) = O D ( r 1 , r 2 , μ a , μ s ) ,
μ a , k i , j = 1 2 ( μ a , k i + μ a , k j ) , i , j = 1 ,   .   .   .   ,   4 ; k = 1 , 2.
μ a ( r ) = μ a 0 ( r ) + δ μ a ( r ) .
ϕ ( r , r s ) = G ( | r r | ) O ( r ) ϕ 0 ( r , r s ) d 3 r ,
( ϕ 1 ϕ m ) m , 1 = ( W 11 W 1 n W m 1 W m n ) m , n ( δ μ a , 1 δ μ a , n ) n , 1 ,
O D = V C1D1 V C2D2 V C1D2 V C2D1 = C 1 D 1 ϕ C1D1 C 2 D 2 ϕ C2D2 C 1 D 2 ϕ C1D2 C 2 D 1 ϕ C2D1 = ϕ C1D1 ϕ C2D2 ϕ C1D2 ϕ C2D1 ,

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