Abstract

A methodology is presented to calibrate pyrgeometers measuring atmospheric long-wave radiation, if their spectral dome transmission is known. The new calibrationprocedure is based on a black-body cavity to retrieve the sensitivity of the pyrgeometer, combined with calculated atmospheric long-wave spectra to determine a correction function in dependence of the integrated atmospheric water vapor to convert Planck radiation spectra to atmospheric long-wave spectra. The methodology was validated with two custom CG4 pyrgeometers with known dome transmissions by a comparison to the World Infrared Standard Group of Pyrgeometers at the World Radiation Center–Infrared Radiometry Section. The responsivities retrieved using the new laboratory calibration agree to within 1% with the responsivities determined by a comparison to the WISG, which is well within the uncertainties of both methodologies.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Albrecht and S. K. Cox, "Procedures for improving pyrgeometer performance," J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 188-197 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, and Ch. Betz, "Characterization of pyrgeometers and the accuracy of atmospheric long-wave radiation measurements," Appl. Opt. 34, 1598-1605 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. Reda, J. R. Hickey, T. Stoffel, and D. Meyers, "Pyrgeometer calibration at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 64, 1623-1629 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, and T. R. Shippert, "Atmospheric longwave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer model calculations," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28129-28141 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Philipona, "Sky-scanning radiometer for absolute measurements of atmospheric long-wave radiation," Appl. Opt. 40, 2376-2383 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Gröbner, "Angular response of pyrgeometers," presented at the 9th BSRN Workshop, Lindenberg, 6-8 June 2006, http://www.gewex.org\BSRN\Gröbner_PIR_BSRN2006.pdf.
  8. J. Gröbner is preparing a paper to be titled "Angular response measurements of pyrgeometers."
  9. F. Miskolczi and R. Guzzi, "Effect of nonuniform spectral dome transmittance on the accuracy of infrared radiation measurements using shielded pyrradiometers and pyrgeometers," Appl. Opt. 32, 3257-3265 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Albrecht, M. Poellot, and S. K. Cox, "Pyrgeometer measurements from aircraft," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 33-38 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

2002

I. Reda, J. R. Hickey, T. Stoffel, and D. Meyers, "Pyrgeometer calibration at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 64, 1623-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, and T. R. Shippert, "Atmospheric longwave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer model calculations," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28129-28141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, "Sky-scanning radiometer for absolute measurements of atmospheric long-wave radiation," Appl. Opt. 40, 2376-2383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

1977

B. Albrecht and S. K. Cox, "Procedures for improving pyrgeometer performance," J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 188-197 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974

B. Albrecht, M. Poellot, and S. K. Cox, "Pyrgeometer measurements from aircraft," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 33-38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, B.

B. Albrecht and S. K. Cox, "Procedures for improving pyrgeometer performance," J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 188-197 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. Albrecht, M. Poellot, and S. K. Cox, "Pyrgeometer measurements from aircraft," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 33-38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, and T. R. Shippert, "Atmospheric longwave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer model calculations," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28129-28141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Augustine, J.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bender, S.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Betz, Ch.

Clough, S. A.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, and T. R. Shippert, "Atmospheric longwave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer model calculations," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28129-28141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cox, S. K.

B. Albrecht and S. K. Cox, "Procedures for improving pyrgeometer performance," J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 188-197 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. Albrecht, M. Poellot, and S. K. Cox, "Pyrgeometer measurements from aircraft," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 33-38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Dehne, K.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeLuisi, J.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, E. G.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, and T. R. Shippert, "Atmospheric longwave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer model calculations," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28129-28141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Foot, J. S.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Forgan, B.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fröhlich, C.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, and Ch. Betz, "Characterization of pyrgeometers and the accuracy of atmospheric long-wave radiation measurements," Appl. Opt. 34, 1598-1605 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gröbner, J.

J. Gröbner is preparing a paper to be titled "Angular response measurements of pyrgeometers."

J. Gröbner, "Angular response of pyrgeometers," presented at the 9th BSRN Workshop, Lindenberg, 6-8 June 2006, http://www.gewex.org\BSRN\Gröbner_PIR_BSRN2006.pdf.

Guzzi, R.

Hickey, J.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hickey, J. R.

I. Reda, J. R. Hickey, T. Stoffel, and D. Meyers, "Pyrgeometer calibration at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 64, 1623-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Love, S. P.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McArthur, B.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meyers, D.

I. Reda, J. R. Hickey, T. Stoffel, and D. Meyers, "Pyrgeometer calibration at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 64, 1623-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miskolczi, F.

Mlawer, E. J.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, and T. R. Shippert, "Atmospheric longwave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer model calculations," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28129-28141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, P.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohmura, A.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Philipona, R.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, and T. R. Shippert, "Atmospheric longwave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer model calculations," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28129-28141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, "Sky-scanning radiometer for absolute measurements of atmospheric long-wave radiation," Appl. Opt. 40, 2376-2383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, and Ch. Betz, "Characterization of pyrgeometers and the accuracy of atmospheric long-wave radiation measurements," Appl. Opt. 34, 1598-1605 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poellot, M.

B. Albrecht, M. Poellot, and S. K. Cox, "Pyrgeometer measurements from aircraft," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 33-38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Reda, I.

I. Reda, J. R. Hickey, T. Stoffel, and D. Meyers, "Pyrgeometer calibration at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 64, 1623-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, and T. R. Shippert, "Atmospheric longwave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer model calculations," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28129-28141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Revercomb, H. E.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, and T. R. Shippert, "Atmospheric longwave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer model calculations," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28129-28141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seymour, J. H.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shiobara, M.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shippert, T. R.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, and T. R. Shippert, "Atmospheric longwave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer model calculations," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28129-28141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stifter, A.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, and T. R. Shippert, "Atmospheric longwave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer model calculations," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28129-28141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stoffel, T.

I. Reda, J. R. Hickey, T. Stoffel, and D. Meyers, "Pyrgeometer calibration at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 64, 1623-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, and T. R. Shippert, "Atmospheric longwave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer model calculations," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28129-28141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Strawa, A. W.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Valero, F. P. J.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wendling, P.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, and T. R. Shippert, "Atmospheric longwave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer model calculations," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28129-28141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wood, N.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, and T. R. Shippert, "Atmospheric longwave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer model calculations," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28129-28141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Meteorol.

B. Albrecht and S. K. Cox, "Procedures for improving pyrgeometer performance," J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 188-197 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, and A. W. Strawa, "The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687-696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.

I. Reda, J. R. Hickey, T. Stoffel, and D. Meyers, "Pyrgeometer calibration at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 64, 1623-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, and T. R. Shippert, "Atmospheric longwave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer model calculations," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28129-28141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

B. Albrecht, M. Poellot, and S. K. Cox, "Pyrgeometer measurements from aircraft," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 33-38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Gröbner, "Angular response of pyrgeometers," presented at the 9th BSRN Workshop, Lindenberg, 6-8 June 2006, http://www.gewex.org\BSRN\Gröbner_PIR_BSRN2006.pdf.

J. Gröbner is preparing a paper to be titled "Angular response measurements of pyrgeometers."

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Atmospheric downwelling long-wave irradiance spectra calculated for integrated atmospheric water vapor of 5   kg   m 2 (black curve), 20   kg   m 2 (dark gray), and 30   kg   m 2 (light gray). A Planck spectrum with the corresponding effective atmospheric temperature of 288   K is also shown (thick curve).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative spectral transmission curves of the domes of CG4 FT005 (dashed curve) and CG4 S1 (solid curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correction function R n for the pyrgeometer CG4 FT005 (circles) and CG4S1 (triangles) as a function of atmospheric IWV. The two curves show the different behavior of the two pyrgeometers due to the differences in their spectral dome transmissions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Histogram of the differences in atmospheric long-wave irradiance measurements between CG4 FT005, applying the black-body-based responsivity C a t m , and the WISG. A total of 25,223 measurements is displayed and each data point represents a 2   min average. The standard deviation of the measurements is 0.6   W   m 2 , and the average difference between the CG4 FT005 and the WISG is 0.44   W   m 2 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histogram of the differences in atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements between CG4 S1, applying the black-body-based responsivity C a t m , and the WISG. A total of 4188 measurements is displayed and each data point represents a 2 min average. The standard deviation of the measurements is 0.7   W   m 2 , and the average difference between the CG4 S1 and the WISG is 0.16   W   m 2 .

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Responsivities and Expanded Uncertainties for CG4 FT005 and CG4 S1 Obtained from Black-Body ( Cbb and Catm ) and WISG ( C WISG) Calibration

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Table 2 Responsivities for CG4 FT005 Based on the Comparison with the WISG in 2006

Equations (8)

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E n e t = E i n E o u t T ,
E n e t = U C = E i n σ T 4 ,
C 1 U + σ T 4 = E i n ,
E i n = 4 50 E ( λ ) Γ D ( λ ) d λ .
R ( IWV ) = 4 50 E IWV a t m ( λ ) Γ D ( λ ) d λ 4 50 E IWV a t m ( λ ) Γ L W ( λ ) d λ ,
R B B ( T ) = 4 50 E B B ( T , λ ) Γ D ( λ ) d λ 4 50 E B B ( T , λ ) Γ L W ( λ ) d λ .
R n ( IWV ) = R ( IWV ) R B B ,
C a t m ( IWV ) = C b b R n ( IWV ) .

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