Abstract

The new emphasis on Anti-Terrorism and Force Protection (AT∕FP), for both shore and sea platform protection, has resulted in a need for infrared imager design and evaluation tools that demonstrate field performance against U.S. Navy AT∕FP requirements. In the design of infrared imaging systems for target acquisition, a discrimination criterion is required for successful sensor realization. It characterizes the difficulty of the task being performed by the observer and varies for different target sets. This criterion is used in both assessment of existing infrared sensor and in the design of new conceptual sensors. We collected 12 small craft signatures (military and civilian) in the visible band during the day and the long-wave and midwave infrared spectra in both the day and the night environments. These signatures wereprocessed to determine the targets' characteristic dimension and contrast. They were alsoprocessed to band limit the signature's spatial information content (simulating longer range), and a perception experiment was performed to determine the task difficulty (N50 and V50). The results are presented and can be used for Navy and Coast Guard imaging infrared sensor design and evaluation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Moyer, J. G. Hixson, T. C. Edwards, and K. Krapels, "Probability of identification of small hand-held objects for electro-optic forward-looking infrared systems," Opt. Eng. 45, 063201 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Krapels, R. Driggers, B. Teaney, and C. Halford, "Handheld threat object identification of 2-D visible imagery versus 3-D visible imagery," Opt. Eng. 45, 063202 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. K. Moyer, E. Flug, T. C. Edwards, K. A. Krapels, and J. Scarbrough, "Identification of handheld objects for electro-optic/FLIR applications," Proc. SPIE 5407, 116-126 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Moyer and N. Devitt, "Resolvable cycle criteria for identifying personnel based on clothing and armament variations," Proc. SPIE 5784, 60-71 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Devitt, J. G. Hixson, S. Moyer, and E. Flug, "Urban vehicle cycle criteria for identification," Proc. SPIE 5784, 48-59 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. H. Vollmerhausen, E. L. Jacobs, and R. G. Driggers, "New metric for predicting target acquisition performance," Opt. Eng. 43, 2806-2818 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. H. Vollmerhausen, R. G. Driggers, and M. Tomkinson, "Improved image quality metric for predicting tactical vehicle identification," Proc. SPIE 4030, 60-69 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. A. Ratches, R. H. Vollmerhausen, and R. G. Driggers, "Target acquisition performance modeling of infrared imaging systems: past, present, and future," IEEE Sens. J. 1, 31-40 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2006

S. Moyer, J. G. Hixson, T. C. Edwards, and K. Krapels, "Probability of identification of small hand-held objects for electro-optic forward-looking infrared systems," Opt. Eng. 45, 063201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Krapels, R. Driggers, B. Teaney, and C. Halford, "Handheld threat object identification of 2-D visible imagery versus 3-D visible imagery," Opt. Eng. 45, 063202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Moyer and N. Devitt, "Resolvable cycle criteria for identifying personnel based on clothing and armament variations," Proc. SPIE 5784, 60-71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Devitt, J. G. Hixson, S. Moyer, and E. Flug, "Urban vehicle cycle criteria for identification," Proc. SPIE 5784, 48-59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. H. Vollmerhausen, E. L. Jacobs, and R. G. Driggers, "New metric for predicting target acquisition performance," Opt. Eng. 43, 2806-2818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Moyer, E. Flug, T. C. Edwards, K. A. Krapels, and J. Scarbrough, "Identification of handheld objects for electro-optic/FLIR applications," Proc. SPIE 5407, 116-126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. A. Ratches, R. H. Vollmerhausen, and R. G. Driggers, "Target acquisition performance modeling of infrared imaging systems: past, present, and future," IEEE Sens. J. 1, 31-40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. H. Vollmerhausen, R. G. Driggers, and M. Tomkinson, "Improved image quality metric for predicting tactical vehicle identification," Proc. SPIE 4030, 60-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Devitt, N.

S. Moyer and N. Devitt, "Resolvable cycle criteria for identifying personnel based on clothing and armament variations," Proc. SPIE 5784, 60-71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Devitt, J. G. Hixson, S. Moyer, and E. Flug, "Urban vehicle cycle criteria for identification," Proc. SPIE 5784, 48-59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Driggers, R.

K. Krapels, R. Driggers, B. Teaney, and C. Halford, "Handheld threat object identification of 2-D visible imagery versus 3-D visible imagery," Opt. Eng. 45, 063202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Driggers, R. G.

R. H. Vollmerhausen, E. L. Jacobs, and R. G. Driggers, "New metric for predicting target acquisition performance," Opt. Eng. 43, 2806-2818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Ratches, R. H. Vollmerhausen, and R. G. Driggers, "Target acquisition performance modeling of infrared imaging systems: past, present, and future," IEEE Sens. J. 1, 31-40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Vollmerhausen, R. G. Driggers, and M. Tomkinson, "Improved image quality metric for predicting tactical vehicle identification," Proc. SPIE 4030, 60-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, T. C.

S. Moyer, J. G. Hixson, T. C. Edwards, and K. Krapels, "Probability of identification of small hand-held objects for electro-optic forward-looking infrared systems," Opt. Eng. 45, 063201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Moyer, E. Flug, T. C. Edwards, K. A. Krapels, and J. Scarbrough, "Identification of handheld objects for electro-optic/FLIR applications," Proc. SPIE 5407, 116-126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flug, E.

N. Devitt, J. G. Hixson, S. Moyer, and E. Flug, "Urban vehicle cycle criteria for identification," Proc. SPIE 5784, 48-59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Moyer, E. Flug, T. C. Edwards, K. A. Krapels, and J. Scarbrough, "Identification of handheld objects for electro-optic/FLIR applications," Proc. SPIE 5407, 116-126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Halford, C.

K. Krapels, R. Driggers, B. Teaney, and C. Halford, "Handheld threat object identification of 2-D visible imagery versus 3-D visible imagery," Opt. Eng. 45, 063202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hixson, J. G.

S. Moyer, J. G. Hixson, T. C. Edwards, and K. Krapels, "Probability of identification of small hand-held objects for electro-optic forward-looking infrared systems," Opt. Eng. 45, 063201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Devitt, J. G. Hixson, S. Moyer, and E. Flug, "Urban vehicle cycle criteria for identification," Proc. SPIE 5784, 48-59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, E. L.

R. H. Vollmerhausen, E. L. Jacobs, and R. G. Driggers, "New metric for predicting target acquisition performance," Opt. Eng. 43, 2806-2818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krapels, K.

S. Moyer, J. G. Hixson, T. C. Edwards, and K. Krapels, "Probability of identification of small hand-held objects for electro-optic forward-looking infrared systems," Opt. Eng. 45, 063201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Krapels, R. Driggers, B. Teaney, and C. Halford, "Handheld threat object identification of 2-D visible imagery versus 3-D visible imagery," Opt. Eng. 45, 063202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krapels, K. A.

S. K. Moyer, E. Flug, T. C. Edwards, K. A. Krapels, and J. Scarbrough, "Identification of handheld objects for electro-optic/FLIR applications," Proc. SPIE 5407, 116-126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moyer, S.

S. Moyer, J. G. Hixson, T. C. Edwards, and K. Krapels, "Probability of identification of small hand-held objects for electro-optic forward-looking infrared systems," Opt. Eng. 45, 063201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Moyer and N. Devitt, "Resolvable cycle criteria for identifying personnel based on clothing and armament variations," Proc. SPIE 5784, 60-71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Devitt, J. G. Hixson, S. Moyer, and E. Flug, "Urban vehicle cycle criteria for identification," Proc. SPIE 5784, 48-59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moyer, S. K.

S. K. Moyer, E. Flug, T. C. Edwards, K. A. Krapels, and J. Scarbrough, "Identification of handheld objects for electro-optic/FLIR applications," Proc. SPIE 5407, 116-126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ratches, J. A.

J. A. Ratches, R. H. Vollmerhausen, and R. G. Driggers, "Target acquisition performance modeling of infrared imaging systems: past, present, and future," IEEE Sens. J. 1, 31-40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scarbrough, J.

S. K. Moyer, E. Flug, T. C. Edwards, K. A. Krapels, and J. Scarbrough, "Identification of handheld objects for electro-optic/FLIR applications," Proc. SPIE 5407, 116-126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teaney, B.

K. Krapels, R. Driggers, B. Teaney, and C. Halford, "Handheld threat object identification of 2-D visible imagery versus 3-D visible imagery," Opt. Eng. 45, 063202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tomkinson, M.

R. H. Vollmerhausen, R. G. Driggers, and M. Tomkinson, "Improved image quality metric for predicting tactical vehicle identification," Proc. SPIE 4030, 60-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vollmerhausen, R. H.

R. H. Vollmerhausen, E. L. Jacobs, and R. G. Driggers, "New metric for predicting target acquisition performance," Opt. Eng. 43, 2806-2818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Ratches, R. H. Vollmerhausen, and R. G. Driggers, "Target acquisition performance modeling of infrared imaging systems: past, present, and future," IEEE Sens. J. 1, 31-40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Vollmerhausen, R. G. Driggers, and M. Tomkinson, "Improved image quality metric for predicting tactical vehicle identification," Proc. SPIE 4030, 60-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

J. A. Ratches, R. H. Vollmerhausen, and R. G. Driggers, "Target acquisition performance modeling of infrared imaging systems: past, present, and future," IEEE Sens. J. 1, 31-40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

R. H. Vollmerhausen, E. L. Jacobs, and R. G. Driggers, "New metric for predicting target acquisition performance," Opt. Eng. 43, 2806-2818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Moyer, J. G. Hixson, T. C. Edwards, and K. Krapels, "Probability of identification of small hand-held objects for electro-optic forward-looking infrared systems," Opt. Eng. 45, 063201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Krapels, R. Driggers, B. Teaney, and C. Halford, "Handheld threat object identification of 2-D visible imagery versus 3-D visible imagery," Opt. Eng. 45, 063202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. K. Moyer, E. Flug, T. C. Edwards, K. A. Krapels, and J. Scarbrough, "Identification of handheld objects for electro-optic/FLIR applications," Proc. SPIE 5407, 116-126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Moyer and N. Devitt, "Resolvable cycle criteria for identifying personnel based on clothing and armament variations," Proc. SPIE 5784, 60-71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Devitt, J. G. Hixson, S. Moyer, and E. Flug, "Urban vehicle cycle criteria for identification," Proc. SPIE 5784, 48-59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Vollmerhausen, R. G. Driggers, and M. Tomkinson, "Improved image quality metric for predicting tactical vehicle identification," Proc. SPIE 4030, 60-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

ACQUIRE and TTPprocess.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Imageprocessing steps performed on MWIR imagery.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) MWIR night, (b) MWIR day baseline 12-boat image set (port aspect shown).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Imageprocessing steps performed on monochrome visible imagery.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) (a) Visible monochrome, (b) visible color baseline 12-boat image set (port aspect shown).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) MWIR experimental imagery after Gaussian blurprocessing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Small boat trainer sample screen.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Sample screen for quizzes.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Observer interface screen shot.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Visible monochrome day results.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) MWIR (a) night results, (b) day results.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) TTP metric visible results.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) TTP metric MWIR (a) night results, (b) day results.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Width of Gaussian Blur Kernel for Each Experimental Cell

Tables Icon

Table 2 Target Characteristic Dimension and Contrast for Each Cell

Tables Icon

Table 3 Small Boats Test Trainer Confusion Sets

Tables Icon

Table 4 Results Summary

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V = ξ l o w ξ lim C tgt CTF sys ( ξ ) d ξ [ cycles ] ,
P = ( N N 50 ) β 1 + ( N N 50 ) β ( ACQUIRE ) or P = ( V V 50 ) β 1 + ( V V 50 ) β ( TTP ) ,
b l u r = exp ( π ( x b ) 2 ) .
Contrast = ( μ tgt μ bkgd ) 2 + ( σ tgt ) 2 2 μ scene ,
Δ T = ( μ tgt μ bkgd ) 2 + ( σ tgt ) 2 ,

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