Abstract

The diffraction efficiency, sensitivity, and storage life of methylene blue-sensitized poly(vinyl chloride) film was improved by the addition of an electron donor in the matrix. The addition of pyridine enhanced the diffraction efficiency by two times, and storage life of the gratings was increased to 2–3 days.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Duarte-Quiroga, S. Calixto, and D. L. Loughnot, "Optical characterization and application of a dual cure photopolymerizable system," Appl. Opt. 42, 1417-1425 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. Mallavia, A. Fimia, R. F. Madrigal, M. Ulibarrena, and D. Levy, "Optimization of an acrylamide based dry film used for holographic recording," Appl. Opt. 37, 7604-7610 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. T. Ingwall and M. Troll, "Mechanism of hologram formation in DMP-128 photopolymer," Opt. Eng. 28, 586-591 (1989).
  6. J. M. Moran and I. P. Kaminow, "Properties of holographic gratings photoinduced in polymethyl methacrylate," Appl. Opt. 12, 1964-1970 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. A. Lessard, C. Malouin, R. Changkakoti, and G. Manivannan, "Dye doped polyvinyl alcohol recording materials for holography and nonlinear optics," Opt. Eng. 32, 665-670 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Fabrication and characterization of methylene blue doped polyvinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid blend for holographic recording," Appl. Opt. 43, 3697-3703 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Complex methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl chloride: a polymer matrix for hologram recording," Appl. Opt. 41, 1984-1988 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Novel methylene-blue-sensitized photopolymers for holographic recording: a comparison," in Practical Holography XVIII: Materials and Applications, T.H. Jeong and H.I. Bjelkhagen, eds., Proc. SPIE 5290, 352-359 (2004).
  11. M. Ushamani, N. G. Leena Deeenja, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Optimization of pH and direct imaging conditions of complexed methylene blue sensitized poly(vinyl chloride) films," Bull. Mater. Sci. 26, 343-348 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Ushamani, "Studies on photosensitive polymers for optical recording," Ph.D. thesis (Cochin University of Science and Technology, India, 2002).
  13. B. M. John, M. Ushamani, R. Joseph, K. Sreekumar, and C. Sudha Kartha, "Reusable recording medium based on MBPVA and vinyl acetate," J. Mod. Opt. 53, 343-355 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Weiss and E. Millul, "Grating microstructures in photoactive polymers by laser interference patterns," Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 293-300 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. Mallavia, A. Fimia, and R. F. Madrigal, "Holography as technique for the study of photopolymerization kinetics in dry polymeric films with a nonlinear response," Appl. Opt. 38, 955-962 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. M. John, M. Ushamani, R. Joseph, K. Sreekumar, and C. Sudha Kartha, "Reusable recording medium based on MBPVA and vinyl acetate," J. Mod. Opt. 53, 343-355 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. Blaya, M. Murciano, P. Acebal, L. Carretero, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, "Diffraction gratings and diffusion coefficient determination of acrylamide and polyacrylamide in sol-gel glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4765-4767 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Fabrication and characterization of methylene blue doped polyvinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid blend for holographic recording," Appl. Opt. 43, 3697-3703 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

R. A. Duarte-Quiroga, S. Calixto, and D. L. Loughnot, "Optical characterization and application of a dual cure photopolymerizable system," Appl. Opt. 42, 1417-1425 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ushamani, N. G. Leena Deeenja, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Optimization of pH and direct imaging conditions of complexed methylene blue sensitized poly(vinyl chloride) films," Bull. Mater. Sci. 26, 343-348 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

V. Weiss and E. Millul, "Grating microstructures in photoactive polymers by laser interference patterns," Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 293-300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. A. Lessard, C. Malouin, R. Changkakoti, and G. Manivannan, "Dye doped polyvinyl alcohol recording materials for holography and nonlinear optics," Opt. Eng. 32, 665-670 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. T. Ingwall and M. Troll, "Mechanism of hologram formation in DMP-128 photopolymer," Opt. Eng. 28, 586-591 (1989).

1973 (1)

Acebal, P.

S. Blaya, M. Murciano, P. Acebal, L. Carretero, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, "Diffraction gratings and diffusion coefficient determination of acrylamide and polyacrylamide in sol-gel glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4765-4767 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blaya, S.

Calixto, S.

Carretero, L.

Changkakoti, R.

R. A. Lessard, C. Malouin, R. Changkakoti, and G. Manivannan, "Dye doped polyvinyl alcohol recording materials for holography and nonlinear optics," Opt. Eng. 32, 665-670 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Deeenja, N. G. Leena

M. Ushamani, N. G. Leena Deeenja, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Optimization of pH and direct imaging conditions of complexed methylene blue sensitized poly(vinyl chloride) films," Bull. Mater. Sci. 26, 343-348 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duarte-Quiroga, R. A.

Esener, S. C.

Fimia, A.

Ingwall, R. T.

R. T. Ingwall and M. Troll, "Mechanism of hologram formation in DMP-128 photopolymer," Opt. Eng. 28, 586-591 (1989).

John, B. M.

B. M. John, M. Ushamani, R. Joseph, K. Sreekumar, and C. Sudha Kartha, "Reusable recording medium based on MBPVA and vinyl acetate," J. Mod. Opt. 53, 343-355 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, R.

B. M. John, M. Ushamani, R. Joseph, K. Sreekumar, and C. Sudha Kartha, "Reusable recording medium based on MBPVA and vinyl acetate," J. Mod. Opt. 53, 343-355 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Fabrication and characterization of methylene blue doped polyvinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid blend for holographic recording," Appl. Opt. 43, 3697-3703 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ushamani, N. G. Leena Deeenja, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Optimization of pH and direct imaging conditions of complexed methylene blue sensitized poly(vinyl chloride) films," Bull. Mater. Sci. 26, 343-348 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Complex methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl chloride: a polymer matrix for hologram recording," Appl. Opt. 41, 1984-1988 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Novel methylene-blue-sensitized photopolymers for holographic recording: a comparison," in Practical Holography XVIII: Materials and Applications, T.H. Jeong and H.I. Bjelkhagen, eds., Proc. SPIE 5290, 352-359 (2004).

Kaminow, I. P.

Kartha, C. Sudha

B. M. John, M. Ushamani, R. Joseph, K. Sreekumar, and C. Sudha Kartha, "Reusable recording medium based on MBPVA and vinyl acetate," J. Mod. Opt. 53, 343-355 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Fabrication and characterization of methylene blue doped polyvinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid blend for holographic recording," Appl. Opt. 43, 3697-3703 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ushamani, N. G. Leena Deeenja, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Optimization of pH and direct imaging conditions of complexed methylene blue sensitized poly(vinyl chloride) films," Bull. Mater. Sci. 26, 343-348 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Complex methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl chloride: a polymer matrix for hologram recording," Appl. Opt. 41, 1984-1988 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Novel methylene-blue-sensitized photopolymers for holographic recording: a comparison," in Practical Holography XVIII: Materials and Applications, T.H. Jeong and H.I. Bjelkhagen, eds., Proc. SPIE 5290, 352-359 (2004).

Lessard, R. A.

R. A. Lessard, C. Malouin, R. Changkakoti, and G. Manivannan, "Dye doped polyvinyl alcohol recording materials for holography and nonlinear optics," Opt. Eng. 32, 665-670 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Levy, D.

Loughnot, D. L.

Madrigal, R. F.

Mallavia, R.

Malouin, C.

R. A. Lessard, C. Malouin, R. Changkakoti, and G. Manivannan, "Dye doped polyvinyl alcohol recording materials for holography and nonlinear optics," Opt. Eng. 32, 665-670 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Manivannan, G.

R. A. Lessard, C. Malouin, R. Changkakoti, and G. Manivannan, "Dye doped polyvinyl alcohol recording materials for holography and nonlinear optics," Opt. Eng. 32, 665-670 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Millul, E.

V. Weiss and E. Millul, "Grating microstructures in photoactive polymers by laser interference patterns," Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 293-300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moran, J. M.

Murciano, M.

S. Blaya, M. Murciano, P. Acebal, L. Carretero, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, "Diffraction gratings and diffusion coefficient determination of acrylamide and polyacrylamide in sol-gel glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4765-4767 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sreekumar, K.

B. M. John, M. Ushamani, R. Joseph, K. Sreekumar, and C. Sudha Kartha, "Reusable recording medium based on MBPVA and vinyl acetate," J. Mod. Opt. 53, 343-355 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Fabrication and characterization of methylene blue doped polyvinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid blend for holographic recording," Appl. Opt. 43, 3697-3703 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ushamani, N. G. Leena Deeenja, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Optimization of pH and direct imaging conditions of complexed methylene blue sensitized poly(vinyl chloride) films," Bull. Mater. Sci. 26, 343-348 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Complex methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl chloride: a polymer matrix for hologram recording," Appl. Opt. 41, 1984-1988 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Novel methylene-blue-sensitized photopolymers for holographic recording: a comparison," in Practical Holography XVIII: Materials and Applications, T.H. Jeong and H.I. Bjelkhagen, eds., Proc. SPIE 5290, 352-359 (2004).

Troll, M.

R. T. Ingwall and M. Troll, "Mechanism of hologram formation in DMP-128 photopolymer," Opt. Eng. 28, 586-591 (1989).

Ulibarrena, M.

S. Blaya, M. Murciano, P. Acebal, L. Carretero, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, "Diffraction gratings and diffusion coefficient determination of acrylamide and polyacrylamide in sol-gel glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4765-4767 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. Mallavia, A. Fimia, R. F. Madrigal, M. Ulibarrena, and D. Levy, "Optimization of an acrylamide based dry film used for holographic recording," Appl. Opt. 37, 7604-7610 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ushamani, M.

B. M. John, M. Ushamani, R. Joseph, K. Sreekumar, and C. Sudha Kartha, "Reusable recording medium based on MBPVA and vinyl acetate," J. Mod. Opt. 53, 343-355 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Fabrication and characterization of methylene blue doped polyvinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid blend for holographic recording," Appl. Opt. 43, 3697-3703 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ushamani, N. G. Leena Deeenja, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Optimization of pH and direct imaging conditions of complexed methylene blue sensitized poly(vinyl chloride) films," Bull. Mater. Sci. 26, 343-348 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Complex methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl chloride: a polymer matrix for hologram recording," Appl. Opt. 41, 1984-1988 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Novel methylene-blue-sensitized photopolymers for holographic recording: a comparison," in Practical Holography XVIII: Materials and Applications, T.H. Jeong and H.I. Bjelkhagen, eds., Proc. SPIE 5290, 352-359 (2004).

M. Ushamani, "Studies on photosensitive polymers for optical recording," Ph.D. thesis (Cochin University of Science and Technology, India, 2002).

Wang, M. M.

Weiss, V.

V. Weiss and E. Millul, "Grating microstructures in photoactive polymers by laser interference patterns," Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 293-300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Blaya, M. Murciano, P. Acebal, L. Carretero, M. Ulibarrena, and A. Fimia, "Diffraction gratings and diffusion coefficient determination of acrylamide and polyacrylamide in sol-gel glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4765-4767 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

V. Weiss and E. Millul, "Grating microstructures in photoactive polymers by laser interference patterns," Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 293-300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Mater. Sci. (1)

M. Ushamani, N. G. Leena Deeenja, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Optimization of pH and direct imaging conditions of complexed methylene blue sensitized poly(vinyl chloride) films," Bull. Mater. Sci. 26, 343-348 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

B. M. John, M. Ushamani, R. Joseph, K. Sreekumar, and C. Sudha Kartha, "Reusable recording medium based on MBPVA and vinyl acetate," J. Mod. Opt. 53, 343-355 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

R. T. Ingwall and M. Troll, "Mechanism of hologram formation in DMP-128 photopolymer," Opt. Eng. 28, 586-591 (1989).

R. A. Lessard, C. Malouin, R. Changkakoti, and G. Manivannan, "Dye doped polyvinyl alcohol recording materials for holography and nonlinear optics," Opt. Eng. 32, 665-670 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. Sudha Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Novel methylene-blue-sensitized photopolymers for holographic recording: a comparison," in Practical Holography XVIII: Materials and Applications, T.H. Jeong and H.I. Bjelkhagen, eds., Proc. SPIE 5290, 352-359 (2004).

M. Ushamani, "Studies on photosensitive polymers for optical recording," Ph.D. thesis (Cochin University of Science and Technology, India, 2002).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative transmittance of CMBPVC and MBPVC films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative transmittance of MBPVC films fabricated using both the old and the newprocedure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative transmittance of MBPVC films with different electron donors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Structure of pyridine.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative transmittance of samples with different pyridine concentrations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Rate of bleaching of sample with pyridine concentration 1.126 mol / l (sample P1).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variation of diffraction efficiency with pyridine concentration.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Change in refractive index with pyridine concentrations.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Change in absorbance with pyridine concentrations.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Absorption spectra of the sample P1 on storage.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of MBPVC Prepared Using Old and NewProcedures MBPVC1 and MBPVC2

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