Abstract

A novel inorganic–organic hybrid silica–zirconia solgel material, which can generate 10  μm thick film in a single spin-coatingprocess, has been developed and employed in the fabrication of an embedded dielectric channel waveguide on a silica buffer layer of a silicon substrate. The fabricated channel waveguide core had steep ridge walls, good smoothness, and high robustness, and the novel sol synthesisenabled a precise control of the geometrical and optical parameters of the embedded dielectric channel waveguide. In the 1 .55   μm telecommunication window, the fundamental modes TE00 and TM00 in the embedded channel waveguide had low transmission losses of 0.40±0.03dB/cm and 0.59±0.03dB/cm, respectively.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Yang, S. S. Saavedra, N. R. Armstrong, and J. Hayes, "Fabrication and characterization of low-loss, sol-gel planar waveguides," Anal. Chem. 66, 1254-1263 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Coudary, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication," Opt. Commun. 143, 199-202 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. X. Zhang, D. Lu, T. Liu, M. Mansuripur, and M. Fallahi, "Direct laser writing of electro-optic waveguide in chromophore-doped hybrid sol-gel," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4275-4277 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34, 455-456 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. He, X.-C. Yuan, J. Bu, and W. C. Cheong, "Hybrid sample-inverted reflow and soft-lithography technique for fabrication of conicoid microlens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 4130-4135 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. He, X.-C. Yuan, J. Bu, and C. W. Tan, "A high-corrugation-rate self-processing SiO2-ZrO2 hybrid sol-gel material for fabrication of microlens array," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1223-1225 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Weisenbach and B. J. Zelinski, "Attenuation of sol-gel waveguides measured as a function of wavelength and sample age," in Sol-Gel Optics III, J.D.Mackenzie, ed., Proc. SPIE 2288,630-639 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Iraj Najafi, C.-Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, J. E. Chisham, P. Lefebvre, J. D. Mackenzie, and N. Peyghambarian, "Integrated optics devices by ultraviolet light imprinting in sol-gel silica glass," in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M.N. Armenise and K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE 2401,110-115 (1995).
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2005

2004

H. X. Zhang, D. Lu, T. Liu, M. Mansuripur, and M. Fallahi, "Direct laser writing of electro-optic waveguide in chromophore-doped hybrid sol-gel," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4275-4277 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

X.-C. Yuan, H. J. Jiang, and W. C. Cheong, "Characterization of photosensitive hybrid sol-gel glass with high-energy beam-sensitive grey-scale mask in single-step fabrication of blazed gratings," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34, L125-L128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34, 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Coudary, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication," Opt. Commun. 143, 199-202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusatin, M. Guglielmi, P. Innocenzi, A. Martucci, G. Battaglin, S. Pelli, and G. Righini, "Microstructural and optical properties of sol-gel silica-titania waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 220, 202-209 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

X. M. Du and R. M. Almeida, "Sintering kinetics of silica-titania sol-gel films on silicon wafers," J. Mater. Res. 11, 353-357 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

L. Yang, S. S. Saavedra, N. R. Armstrong, and J. Hayes, "Fabrication and characterization of low-loss, sol-gel planar waveguides," Anal. Chem. 66, 1254-1263 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli Degli Esposti, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, and V. Rigato, "Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147-148, 641-645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1969

E. A. J. Marcatili, "Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2079-2089 (1969).

Almeida, R. M.

X. M. Du and R. M. Almeida, "Sintering kinetics of silica-titania sol-gel films on silicon wafers," J. Mater. Res. 11, 353-357 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. P.

S. Iraj Najafi, C.-Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, J. E. Chisham, P. Lefebvre, J. D. Mackenzie, and N. Peyghambarian, "Integrated optics devices by ultraviolet light imprinting in sol-gel silica glass," in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M.N. Armenise and K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE 2401,110-115 (1995).

Armstrong, N. R.

L. Yang, S. S. Saavedra, N. R. Armstrong, and J. Hayes, "Fabrication and characterization of low-loss, sol-gel planar waveguides," Anal. Chem. 66, 1254-1263 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Battaglin, G.

G. Brusatin, M. Guglielmi, P. Innocenzi, A. Martucci, G. Battaglin, S. Pelli, and G. Righini, "Microstructural and optical properties of sol-gel silica-titania waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 220, 202-209 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brusatin, G.

G. Brusatin, M. Guglielmi, P. Innocenzi, A. Martucci, G. Battaglin, S. Pelli, and G. Righini, "Microstructural and optical properties of sol-gel silica-titania waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 220, 202-209 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bu, J.

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, J. Bu, and W. C. Cheong, "Hybrid sample-inverted reflow and soft-lithography technique for fabrication of conicoid microlens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 4130-4135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, J. Bu, and C. W. Tan, "A high-corrugation-rate self-processing SiO2-ZrO2 hybrid sol-gel material for fabrication of microlens array," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1223-1225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J.

Chen, F.

Cheong, W. C.

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, J. Bu, and W. C. Cheong, "Hybrid sample-inverted reflow and soft-lithography technique for fabrication of conicoid microlens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 4130-4135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-C. Yuan, H. J. Jiang, and W. C. Cheong, "Characterization of photosensitive hybrid sol-gel glass with high-energy beam-sensitive grey-scale mask in single-step fabrication of blazed gratings," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34, L125-L128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chisham, J. E.

S. Iraj Najafi, C.-Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, J. E. Chisham, P. Lefebvre, J. D. Mackenzie, and N. Peyghambarian, "Integrated optics devices by ultraviolet light imprinting in sol-gel silica glass," in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M.N. Armenise and K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE 2401,110-115 (1995).

Colombo, P.

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli Degli Esposti, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, and V. Rigato, "Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147-148, 641-645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli Degli Esposti, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, "Planar and strip optical waveguides by sol-gel method and laser densification," in Glasses for Optoelectronics II, G.C. Righini, ed., Proc. SPIE 1513,44-49 (1991).

Coudary, P.

P. Coudary, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication," Opt. Commun. 143, 199-202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Du, X. M.

X. M. Du and R. M. Almeida, "Sintering kinetics of silica-titania sol-gel films on silicon wafers," J. Mater. Res. 11, 353-357 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Esposti, L. Mancinelli Degli

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli Degli Esposti, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, and V. Rigato, "Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147-148, 641-645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli Degli Esposti, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, "Planar and strip optical waveguides by sol-gel method and laser densification," in Glasses for Optoelectronics II, G.C. Righini, ed., Proc. SPIE 1513,44-49 (1991).

Etienne, P.

P. Coudary, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication," Opt. Commun. 143, 199-202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fallahi, M.

H. X. Zhang, D. Lu, T. Liu, M. Mansuripur, and M. Fallahi, "Direct laser writing of electro-optic waveguide in chromophore-doped hybrid sol-gel," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4275-4277 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guglielmi, M.

G. Brusatin, M. Guglielmi, P. Innocenzi, A. Martucci, G. Battaglin, S. Pelli, and G. Righini, "Microstructural and optical properties of sol-gel silica-titania waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 220, 202-209 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli Degli Esposti, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, and V. Rigato, "Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147-148, 641-645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli Degli Esposti, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, "Planar and strip optical waveguides by sol-gel method and laser densification," in Glasses for Optoelectronics II, G.C. Righini, ed., Proc. SPIE 1513,44-49 (1991).

Hayes, J.

L. Yang, S. S. Saavedra, N. R. Armstrong, and J. Hayes, "Fabrication and characterization of low-loss, sol-gel planar waveguides," Anal. Chem. 66, 1254-1263 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, M.

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, J. Bu, and C. W. Tan, "A high-corrugation-rate self-processing SiO2-ZrO2 hybrid sol-gel material for fabrication of microlens array," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1223-1225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, J. Bu, and W. C. Cheong, "Hybrid sample-inverted reflow and soft-lithography technique for fabrication of conicoid microlens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 4130-4135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honkannen, S.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34, 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Innocenzi, P.

G. Brusatin, M. Guglielmi, P. Innocenzi, A. Martucci, G. Battaglin, S. Pelli, and G. Righini, "Microstructural and optical properties of sol-gel silica-titania waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 220, 202-209 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. J.

X.-C. Yuan, H. J. Jiang, and W. C. Cheong, "Characterization of photosensitive hybrid sol-gel glass with high-energy beam-sensitive grey-scale mask in single-step fabrication of blazed gratings," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34, L125-L128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

Lefebvre, P.

S. Iraj Najafi, C.-Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, J. E. Chisham, P. Lefebvre, J. D. Mackenzie, and N. Peyghambarian, "Integrated optics devices by ultraviolet light imprinting in sol-gel silica glass," in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M.N. Armenise and K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE 2401,110-115 (1995).

Li, C.-Y.

S. Iraj Najafi, C.-Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, J. E. Chisham, P. Lefebvre, J. D. Mackenzie, and N. Peyghambarian, "Integrated optics devices by ultraviolet light imprinting in sol-gel silica glass," in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M.N. Armenise and K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE 2401,110-115 (1995).

Liu, T.

H. X. Zhang, D. Lu, T. Liu, M. Mansuripur, and M. Fallahi, "Direct laser writing of electro-optic waveguide in chromophore-doped hybrid sol-gel," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4275-4277 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, D.

Lu, D.

H. X. Zhang, D. Lu, T. Liu, M. Mansuripur, and M. Fallahi, "Direct laser writing of electro-optic waveguide in chromophore-doped hybrid sol-gel," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4275-4277 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mackenzie, J. D.

S. Iraj Najafi, C.-Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, J. E. Chisham, P. Lefebvre, J. D. Mackenzie, and N. Peyghambarian, "Integrated optics devices by ultraviolet light imprinting in sol-gel silica glass," in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M.N. Armenise and K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE 2401,110-115 (1995).

Mansuripur, M.

H. X. Zhang, D. Lu, T. Liu, M. Mansuripur, and M. Fallahi, "Direct laser writing of electro-optic waveguide in chromophore-doped hybrid sol-gel," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4275-4277 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, "Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2079-2089 (1969).

Martucci, A.

G. Brusatin, M. Guglielmi, P. Innocenzi, A. Martucci, G. Battaglin, S. Pelli, and G. Righini, "Microstructural and optical properties of sol-gel silica-titania waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 220, 202-209 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, Y.

P. Coudary, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication," Opt. Commun. 143, 199-202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

P. Coudary, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication," Opt. Commun. 143, 199-202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. Iraj

S. Iraj Najafi, C.-Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, J. E. Chisham, P. Lefebvre, J. D. Mackenzie, and N. Peyghambarian, "Integrated optics devices by ultraviolet light imprinting in sol-gel silica glass," in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M.N. Armenise and K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE 2401,110-115 (1995).

Ni, W. H.

Nishii, J.

Nordman, N.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34, 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nordman, O.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34, 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, S.

G. Brusatin, M. Guglielmi, P. Innocenzi, A. Martucci, G. Battaglin, S. Pelli, and G. Righini, "Microstructural and optical properties of sol-gel silica-titania waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 220, 202-209 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli Degli Esposti, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, and V. Rigato, "Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147-148, 641-645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli Degli Esposti, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, "Planar and strip optical waveguides by sol-gel method and laser densification," in Glasses for Optoelectronics II, G.C. Righini, ed., Proc. SPIE 1513,44-49 (1991).

Peyghambarian, N.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34, 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Iraj Najafi, C.-Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, J. E. Chisham, P. Lefebvre, J. D. Mackenzie, and N. Peyghambarian, "Integrated optics devices by ultraviolet light imprinting in sol-gel silica glass," in Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, M.N. Armenise and K.-K. Wong, eds., Proc. SPIE 2401,110-115 (1995).

Porque, J.

P. Coudary, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication," Opt. Commun. 143, 199-202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rantala, J. T.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34, 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rigato, V.

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli Degli Esposti, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, and V. Rigato, "Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147-148, 641-645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Righini, G.

G. Brusatin, M. Guglielmi, P. Innocenzi, A. Martucci, G. Battaglin, S. Pelli, and G. Righini, "Microstructural and optical properties of sol-gel silica-titania waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 220, 202-209 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Righini, G. C.

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli Degli Esposti, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, and V. Rigato, "Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147-148, 641-645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli Degli Esposti, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, "Planar and strip optical waveguides by sol-gel method and laser densification," in Glasses for Optoelectronics II, G.C. Righini, ed., Proc. SPIE 1513,44-49 (1991).

Saavedra, S. S.

L. Yang, S. S. Saavedra, N. R. Armstrong, and J. Hayes, "Fabrication and characterization of low-loss, sol-gel planar waveguides," Anal. Chem. 66, 1254-1263 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, C. W.

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, J. Bu, and C. W. Tan, "A high-corrugation-rate self-processing SiO2-ZrO2 hybrid sol-gel material for fabrication of microlens array," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1223-1225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tohge, N.

Vahakangas, J.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34, 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Weisenbach, L.

L. Weisenbach and B. J. Zelinski, "Attenuation of sol-gel waveguides measured as a function of wavelength and sample age," in Sol-Gel Optics III, J.D.Mackenzie, ed., Proc. SPIE 2288,630-639 (1994).

Yang, L.

L. Yang, S. S. Saavedra, N. R. Armstrong, and J. Hayes, "Fabrication and characterization of low-loss, sol-gel planar waveguides," Anal. Chem. 66, 1254-1263 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Ye, C.

Yuan, X.-C.

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, J. Bu, and W. C. Cheong, "Hybrid sample-inverted reflow and soft-lithography technique for fabrication of conicoid microlens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 4130-4135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, J. Bu, and C. W. Tan, "A high-corrugation-rate self-processing SiO2-ZrO2 hybrid sol-gel material for fabrication of microlens array," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1223-1225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Yuan, H. J. Jiang, and W. C. Cheong, "Characterization of photosensitive hybrid sol-gel glass with high-energy beam-sensitive grey-scale mask in single-step fabrication of blazed gratings," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34, L125-L128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zelinski, B. J.

L. Weisenbach and B. J. Zelinski, "Attenuation of sol-gel waveguides measured as a function of wavelength and sample age," in Sol-Gel Optics III, J.D.Mackenzie, ed., Proc. SPIE 2288,630-639 (1994).

Zhang, H. X.

H. X. Zhang, D. Lu, T. Liu, M. Mansuripur, and M. Fallahi, "Direct laser writing of electro-optic waveguide in chromophore-doped hybrid sol-gel," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4275-4277 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

L. Yang, S. S. Saavedra, N. R. Armstrong, and J. Hayes, "Fabrication and characterization of low-loss, sol-gel planar waveguides," Anal. Chem. 66, 1254-1263 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. X. Zhang, D. Lu, T. Liu, M. Mansuripur, and M. Fallahi, "Direct laser writing of electro-optic waveguide in chromophore-doped hybrid sol-gel," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4275-4277 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, "Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2079-2089 (1969).

Electron. Lett.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34, 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, J. Bu, and C. W. Tan, "A high-corrugation-rate self-processing SiO2-ZrO2 hybrid sol-gel material for fabrication of microlens array," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1223-1225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res.

X. M. Du and R. M. Almeida, "Sintering kinetics of silica-titania sol-gel films on silicon wafers," J. Mater. Res. 11, 353-357 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

G. Brusatin, M. Guglielmi, P. Innocenzi, A. Martucci, G. Battaglin, S. Pelli, and G. Righini, "Microstructural and optical properties of sol-gel silica-titania waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 220, 202-209 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli Degli Esposti, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, and V. Rigato, "Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147-148, 641-645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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X.-C. Yuan, H. J. Jiang, and W. C. Cheong, "Characterization of photosensitive hybrid sol-gel glass with high-energy beam-sensitive grey-scale mask in single-step fabrication of blazed gratings," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34, L125-L128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. Coudary, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication," Opt. Commun. 143, 199-202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Other

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M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli Degli Esposti, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, "Planar and strip optical waveguides by sol-gel method and laser densification," in Glasses for Optoelectronics II, G.C. Righini, ed., Proc. SPIE 1513,44-49 (1991).

L. Weisenbach and B. J. Zelinski, "Attenuation of sol-gel waveguides measured as a function of wavelength and sample age," in Sol-Gel Optics III, J.D.Mackenzie, ed., Proc. SPIE 2288,630-639 (1994).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of refractive index of the prepared solgel material and photon penetration depth of ultraviolet rays with a wavelength of 365   nm within this solgel material on the molar ratios of Si to Zr.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive-index increase of the prepared solgel material versus exposure time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured SEM image of the surface profile of the core region of the solgel channel waveguide; (b) the fabricationprocedure of a solgel channel waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured cross-section profile of the fabricated waveguide core.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the measurement setup of optical losses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TE 00 mode of the output optical field of the channel waveguide at 1.55   μm .

Equations (2)

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a λ ( n 1 2 n 2 2 ) 1 / 2 < 0.7 ,
10 l g ( I 1 / I 2 ) L 1 L 2 .

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