Abstract

The spectral reflectance and responsivity of Ge- and InGaAs-photodiodes at (nearly) normal and oblique incidence (45°) were investigated. The derived data allow a calculation of the photodiodes responsivities for any incident angle. The measurements were carried out with s- and p-polarized radiation in the wavelength range from 1260 to 1640  nm. The spectral reflectance of the photodiodes was modeled by using the matrix approach developed for thin-film optical assemblies. The comparison between the calculated and measured reflectance shows a difference of less than 2% for the Ge-photodiode. For the InGaAs-photodiode, the differences between measured and calculated reflectance are larger, i.e., up to 6% for wavelengths between 1380 and 1580   nm. Despite the larger differences between calculated and measured spectral reflectances for the InGaAs-photodiode, the difference between calculated and measured spectral responsivity is even smaller for the InGaAs-photodiode than for the Ge-photodiode, i.e., 1.2% for the InGaAs-photodiode compared to 2.2% for the Ge-photodiode. This is because the difference in responsivity is strongly correlated to the absolute spectral reflectance level, which is much lower for the InGaAs-photodiode. This observation also shows the importance of having small reflectances, i.e., appropriate antireflection coatings for the photodiodes. The relative standard uncertainty associated with the modeled spectral responsivity is about 2.2% for the Ge-photodiode and about 1.2% for the InGaAs-photodiode for any incident angle over the whole spectral range measured. The data obtained for the photodiodes allow the calculation of the spectral responsivity of Ge- and InGaAs-trap detectors and the comparison with experimental results.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2006

A. Lamminpää, M. Noorma, T. Hyppä, F. Manoocheri, P. Kärhä, and E. Ikonen, "Characterization of germanium photodiodes and trap detector," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 908-912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. López, H. Hofer, and S. Kück, "High accuracy measurement of the absolute spectral responsivity of Ge and InGaAs trap detectors by direct calibration against an electrically calibrated cryogenic radiometer in the near-infrared," Metrologia 43, 508-514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

S. Nevas, F. Manoocheri, and E. Ikonen, "Determination of thin-film parameters from high accuracy measurements of spectral regular transmittance," Metrologia 40, S200-S203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Stock and R. Heine, "Spectral characterization of Ge trap detectors and photodiodes used as transfer standards," Metrologia 40, S163-S166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

K. D. Stock and R. Heine, "Spectral characterization of InGaAs trap detectors and photodiodes used as transfer standards," Metrologia 37, 449-452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

1995

1991

N. P. Fox, "Trap detectors and their properties," Metrologia 28, 197-202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

1980

1975

Appl. Opt.

Meas. Sci. Technol.

A. Lamminpää, M. Noorma, T. Hyppä, F. Manoocheri, P. Kärhä, and E. Ikonen, "Characterization of germanium photodiodes and trap detector," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 908-912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

S. Nevas, F. Manoocheri, and E. Ikonen, "Determination of thin-film parameters from high accuracy measurements of spectral regular transmittance," Metrologia 40, S200-S203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Stock and R. Heine, "Spectral characterization of InGaAs trap detectors and photodiodes used as transfer standards," Metrologia 37, 449-452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Stock and R. Heine, "Spectral characterization of Ge trap detectors and photodiodes used as transfer standards," Metrologia 40, S163-S166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. López, H. Hofer, and S. Kück, "High accuracy measurement of the absolute spectral responsivity of Ge and InGaAs trap detectors by direct calibration against an electrically calibrated cryogenic radiometer in the near-infrared," Metrologia 43, 508-514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Fox, "Trap detectors and their properties," Metrologia 28, 197-202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Physica A

S. B. Youssef, "Optical properties of Zn-doped InP single crystals," Physica A 235, 334-344 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (IOP, 2001).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Hunsperger, Photonic Devices and Systems (Dekker, 1994).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optic, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, 1965), pp. 40, 632-633.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985), pp. 465-478.

S. Adachi, Physical Properties of III-V Semiconductor Compounds InP, InAs, GaAs, GaP, InGaAs, and InGaAsP (Wiley, 1992), pp 135-192.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical assemblies of the photodiodes investigated. (a) p-n Ge-photodiode; (b) p-i-n InGaAs-photodiode. The N i denote the generally complex refractive indexes of the corresponding material.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index of InP:Zn and InP:S obtained by least-squares fitting (see text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sketch of the goniometric setup for the measurement of the regular reflectance. 1: lamp units, HeNe adjustment laser; 2: double monochromator Jobin Yvon HRD1, f = 0.6   m , 3: λ∕4-wave plate, 4: beam forming chamber, 5: rotatable polarizer, 6: sample under test, 7: detector unit with integrating sphere in reflection position, 8: detector unit with integrating sphere in 100% position, and 9: sample chamber, r = 0.66   m .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Setup used to measure the spectral responsivity of Ge- and InGaAs-photodiodes at normal and oblique incidence.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Spectral reflectance of the Ge-photodiode measured at 7° and 45° in s- and p-polarization. + and s-polarization at 7° and 45°, respectively. × and p-polarization at 7° and 45°, respectively. Continuous lines represent the modeled reflectance values. Deviations between the calculated and measured values are given on the top of the graph.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Spectral reflectance of the InGaAs-photodiode measured at 7° and 45° in s- and p-polarization. + and s-polarization at 7° and 45°, respectively. × and p-polarization at 7° and 45°, respectively. Continuous lines represent the modeled reflectance values. Deviations between the calculated and measured values are given on the top of the graph.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Spectral responsivity of the Ge-photodiode measured in s- and p-polarization at 7° and 45° incidence. + and s-polarization at 7° and 45°, respectively. × and p-polarization at 7° and 45°, respectively. Continuous lines represent the calculated responsivity values. Deviations between the calculated and measured values are given on the top of the graph.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Spectral responsivity of the InGaAs-photodiode measured in s- and p- polarization states at 7° and 45° incidence angles. + and s-polarization at 7° and 45°, respectively. × and p-polarization at 7° and 45°, respectively. Continuous lines represent the calculated responsivity values. Deviations between the calculated and measured values are given on the top of the graph.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Internal quantum efficiency of the Ge- and InGaAs-photodiode for s- and p-polarization at 7° and 45° incidence angles. + and s-polarization at 7° and 45°, respectively. × and p-polarization at 7° and 45°, respectively. Continuous lines represent the mean values of the internal quantum efficiencies.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Comparison between the measured and calculated spectral responsivity of a Ge- and a InGaAs-trap detector. × and ♢ are the measured values [19] for Ge- and the InGaAs-trap detector, respectively. Continuous lines represent the calculated values, according to Eq. (13). Deviations between the calculated and measured values are shown at the top of the graph.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Best Parameters Obtained by Minimizing the Sum of the Squared Differences Between the Modeled and the Measured Reflectance of the Ge- and the InGaAs-Photodiode. The Summation Was Carried Out Simultaneously over the Spectral Range from 1260 to 1640 nm for s - and p -Polarization at 7° and 45° Incident Angles

Equations (15)

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Y = H E = C B ,
[ B C ] = { r = 1 q [ cos δ r ( i sin δ r ) / η r i η r sin δ r cos δ r ] } [ 1 η m ] ,
η p r = N r cos θ r ( for   p -polorization ) ,
η s r = N r cos θ r ( for   s -polarization ) ,
N 0 sin θ 0 = N r sin θ r = N m sin θ m .
ρ = η 0 Y η 0 + Y ,
R ( λ , θ 0 ) s , p = | ρ | 2 .
n 1 ( λ ) AR-coating = x 1 + x 2 λ 2
( for   the   Ge-   and   the   InGaAs-photodiode ) ,
n 2 ( λ ) InP:Zn = x 3 + x 4 λ 2 ( for   the   InGaAs-photodiode ) ,
n 4 ( λ ) ln P:S = x 5 + x 6 λ 2 ( for   the   InGaAs-photodiode ) ,
λ min λ max [ [ R s ,meas ( λ , θ ) R s , mod ( λ , θ ) ] 2 + [ R p ,meas ( λ , θ ) R p , mod ( λ , θ ) ] 2 ] minimum .
S mod ( λ , θ ) s , p = e n λ h c η i ( λ , θ ) ( 1 R mod ( λ , θ ) s , p ) ,
η i ( λ , θ ) = h c e n λ S meas ( λ , θ ) i 1 ( 1 R meas ( λ , θ ) i ) ,
S ( λ ) Trap = e n λ h c η i ( λ , θ ) [ 1 ( R ( λ , 45 ° , s ) Diode   1 2 × R ( λ , 45 ° , p ) Diode   2 2 R ( λ , 0 ) Diode   3 ) ] ,

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