An experimental arrangement is described where a Babinet–Soleil compensator is inserted into the path of one of the three beams used for noncoplanar beam interference lithography. This birefringent element can change the phase of the beam so that either a positive two-dimensional pattern or an inverselike structure is generated in a photoresist without disturbing the mechanical geometry of the setup. Simulations are presented that confirm the validity of this approach. Large defect-free sample areas with submicrometer periodic patterns were obtained by expanding the laser beams used in the lithography experiment.
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