Abstract

We demonstrate a new attractive approach for ubiquitous quantitative chemical or biological sensing when analog signals are acquired from conventional optical disk drives, and these signals are used for quantitative detection of optical changes of sensing films deposited on conventional CD and DVD optical disks. Our developed analytical model of the operation of this Lab-on-DVD system describes the optical response of sensing films deposited onto the read surface of optical disks by taking into account the practical aspects of system performance that include possible reagent leaching effects, water sampling (delivering) efficiency, and possible changes of the film morphology after water removal. By applying a screen-printing process, we demonstrated a laboratory-scale automated production of sensing films with an average thickness of 10μm and a thickness relative standard deviation of <3% across multiple films. Finally, we developed a system for delivery of water-sample volumes to sensing films on the disk that utilized a multifunctional jewel case assembly.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. C.-L. Chu and C.-H. Lin, "Development of an optical accelerometer with a DVD pick-up head," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2498-2502 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, "Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 270-273 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. F. Gordon, "Apparatus and method for carrying out analysis of samples," U.S. patent 5,892,577 (6 April 1999).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  9. E. Bakker, P. Bühlmann, and E. Pretsch, "Carrier-based ion-selective electrodes and bulk optodes. I. General characteristics," Chem. Rev. 97, 3083-3132 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors," Anal. Chem. 78, 3859-3874 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. J. Albert, N. S. Lewis, C. L. Schauer, G. A. Sotzing, S. E. Stitzel, T. P. Vaid, and D. R. Walt, "Cross-reactive chemical sensor arrays," Chem. Rev. 100, 2595-2626 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. Potyrailo, "Polymeric sensor materials: toward an alliance of combinatorial and rational design tools?," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 702-723 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Moorthy, G. A. Mensing, D. Kim, S. Mohanty, D. T. Eddington, W. H. Tepp, E. A. Johnson, and D. J. Beebe, "Microfluidic tectonics platform: A colorimetric, disposable botulinum toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system," Electrophoresis 25, 1705-1713 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Zhang and K. S. Suslick, "Colorimetric sensor array for organics in water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 11548-11549 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  17. R. A. Potyrailo and A. M. Leach, "Selective gas nanosensors with multisize CdSe nanocrystal/polymer composite films and dynamic pattern recognition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 134110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, "Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response," Nature Photon. 1, 123-128 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, "Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing," Anal. Chem. 78, 5893-5899 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent 7,170,609 (30 January 2007).
  21. R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, and S. M. Boyette, "Sensor systems and methods for remote quantification of compounds," U.S. patent application 20050111001, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.
  22. R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, and A. M. Leach, "Sensor system and methods for improved quantitation of environmental parameters," U.S. patent application 20050111328, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.
  23. K. C. Pohlmann, The Compact Disk Handbook, 2nd ed. (A-R Editions, 1992).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. L. Purcell, CD-R/DVD: Disc Recording Demystified (McGraw-Hill, 2000).
  28. R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent application 20050111000, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.
  29. R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, "Lab-on-DVD: Concept And Feasibility Demonstration For Water Analysis," presented at 2006 International Symposium on Spectral Science Research, 29 May-02 June 2006, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA.
  30. R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, and A. M. Leach, "Lab-on-DVD: Concept and feasibility demonstration for water analysis," in Abstracts of Papers, American Chemical Society 232nd National Meeting & Exposition, 10-14 September 2006, San Francisco, CA (2006), ANYL-254.
  31. A. Lobnik, I. Oehme, I. Murkovic, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "pH optical sensors based on sol-gels: chemical doping versus covalent immobilization," Anal. Chim. Acta 367, 159-165 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. D. Senarath-Yapa and S. S. Saavedra, "Dye leaching from a doped sol-gel is eliminated by conjugation to a dendrimer," Anal. Chim. Acta 432, 89-94 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  33. R. A. Potyrailo and L. Hassib, "Analytical instrumentation infrastructure for combinatorial and high-throughput development of formulated discrete and gradient polymeric sensor materials arrays," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 062225 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. Q. Brown and M. J. McShane, "Core-referenced ratiometric fluorescent potassium ion sensors using self-assembled ultrathin films on europium nanoparticles," IEEE Sensors J. 5, 1197-1205 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  35. K. C. Fan, C. Y. Lin, and L. H. Shyu, "The development of a low-cost focusing probe for profile measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, N1-N7 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  36. I. M. Kolthoff, Acid-Base Indicators (Macmillan, 1937).
  37. R. A. Potyrailo, "Fiber optic and portable instruments for ammonia sensing in field operating conditions," Proc. SPIE 2069, 76-84 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. L. Hart, A. P. F. Turner, and D. Hopcroft, "On the use of screen- and ink-jet printing to produce amperometric enzyme electrodes for lactate," Biosens. Bioelectron. 11, 263-270 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  39. M. Dequaire, C. Degrand, and B. Limoges, "Biotinylation of screen-printed carbon electrodes through the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium salt of p-aminobenzoyl biocytin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 6946-6947 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  40. N. S. Lawrence, L. Jiang, T. G. J. Jones, and R. G. Compton, "Voltammetric characterization of a N,N′-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine-loaded screen-printed electrode: a disposable sensor for hydrogen sulfide," Anal. Chem. 75, 2054-2059 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. F. Ricci, A. Amine, G. Palleschi, and D. Moscone, "Prussian Blue based screen printed biosensors with improved characteristics of long-term lifetime and pH stability," Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 165-174 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  42. B. P. Corgier, C. A. Marquette, and L. J. Blum, "Diazonium-protein adducts for graphite electrode microarrays modification: direct and addressed electrochemical immobilization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 18328-18332 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. J. Liu, B. Su, G. Lagger, P. Tacchini, and H. H. Girault, "Antioxidant redox sensors based on DNA modified carbon screen-printed electrodes," Anal. Chem. 78, 6879-6884 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. K. A. Joshi, M. Prouza, M. Kum, J. Wang, J. Tang, R. Haddon, W. Chen, and A. Mulchandani, "V-type nerve agent detection using a carbon nanotube-based amperometric enzyme electrode," Anal. Chem. 78, 331-336 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  45. W. E. Ruch, Chemical Detection of Gaseous Pollutants (Ann Arbor Science Publishers, 1968).
  46. B. G. Lipták, Analytical Instrumentation (CRC Press, 1994), p. 471.
  47. Y. A. Zolotov, V. M. Ivanov, and V. G. Amelin, "Chemical test methods of analysis," in Wilson and Wilson's Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, D. Barcelo, ed. (Elsevier, 2002).
  48. R. A. Potyrailo, M. B. Wisnudel, S. M. Boyette, A. M. Leach, and K. Krishnan, "Methods for deposition of sensor regions onto optical storage media substrates and resulting devices," U.S. patent application 20050112358, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.
  49. T. Mayr, C. Igel, G. Liebsch, I. Klimant, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Cross-reactive metal ion sensor array in a micro titer plate format," Anal. Chem. 75, 4389-4396 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent 7,170,609 (30 January 2007).

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, "Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response," Nature Photon. 1, 123-128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (9)

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, "Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing," Anal. Chem. 78, 5893-5899 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, and A. M. Leach, "Lab-on-DVD: Concept and feasibility demonstration for water analysis," in Abstracts of Papers, American Chemical Society 232nd National Meeting & Exposition, 10-14 September 2006, San Francisco, CA (2006), ANYL-254.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, "Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 270-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors," Anal. Chem. 78, 3859-3874 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Potyrailo, "Polymeric sensor materials: toward an alliance of combinatorial and rational design tools?," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 702-723 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Madou, J. Zoval, G. Jia, H. Kido, J. Kim, and N. Kim, "Lab on a CD," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 601-628 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Potyrailo and A. M. Leach, "Selective gas nanosensors with multisize CdSe nanocrystal/polymer composite films and dynamic pattern recognition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 134110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, B. Su, G. Lagger, P. Tacchini, and H. H. Girault, "Antioxidant redox sensors based on DNA modified carbon screen-printed electrodes," Anal. Chem. 78, 6879-6884 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Joshi, M. Prouza, M. Kum, J. Wang, J. Tang, R. Haddon, W. Chen, and A. Mulchandani, "V-type nerve agent detection using a carbon nanotube-based amperometric enzyme electrode," Anal. Chem. 78, 331-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

B. P. Corgier, C. A. Marquette, and L. J. Blum, "Diazonium-protein adducts for graphite electrode microarrays modification: direct and addressed electrochemical immobilization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 18328-18332 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang and K. S. Suslick, "Colorimetric sensor array for organics in water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 11548-11549 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-L. Chu and C.-H. Lin, "Development of an optical accelerometer with a DVD pick-up head," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2498-2502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Jones, "Cryptographic flash functions and CD-based optical biosensors," Probl. Nonlinear Anal. Eng. Syst. 11[2(23)], 17-36 (2005).

R. A. Potyrailo and L. Hassib, "Analytical instrumentation infrastructure for combinatorial and high-throughput development of formulated discrete and gradient polymeric sensor materials arrays," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 062225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Brown and M. J. McShane, "Core-referenced ratiometric fluorescent potassium ion sensors using self-assembled ultrathin films on europium nanoparticles," IEEE Sensors J. 5, 1197-1205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Moorthy, G. A. Mensing, D. Kim, S. Mohanty, D. T. Eddington, W. H. Tepp, E. A. Johnson, and D. J. Beebe, "Microfluidic tectonics platform: A colorimetric, disposable botulinum toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system," Electrophoresis 25, 1705-1713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

J. J. La Clair and M. D. Burkart, "Molecular screening on a compact disc," Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 3244-3249 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Lawrence, L. Jiang, T. G. J. Jones, and R. G. Compton, "Voltammetric characterization of a N,N′-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine-loaded screen-printed electrode: a disposable sensor for hydrogen sulfide," Anal. Chem. 75, 2054-2059 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ricci, A. Amine, G. Palleschi, and D. Moscone, "Prussian Blue based screen printed biosensors with improved characteristics of long-term lifetime and pH stability," Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 165-174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Mayr, C. Igel, G. Liebsch, I. Klimant, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Cross-reactive metal ion sensor array in a micro titer plate format," Anal. Chem. 75, 4389-4396 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

Y. A. Zolotov, V. M. Ivanov, and V. G. Amelin, "Chemical test methods of analysis," in Wilson and Wilson's Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, D. Barcelo, ed. (Elsevier, 2002).

B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. D. Senarath-Yapa and S. S. Saavedra, "Dye leaching from a doped sol-gel is eliminated by conjugation to a dendrimer," Anal. Chim. Acta 432, 89-94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

K. C. Fan, C. Y. Lin, and L. H. Shyu, "The development of a low-cost focusing probe for profile measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, N1-N7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Purcell, CD-R/DVD: Disc Recording Demystified (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

K. J. Albert, N. S. Lewis, C. L. Schauer, G. A. Sotzing, S. E. Stitzel, T. P. Vaid, and D. R. Walt, "Cross-reactive chemical sensor arrays," Chem. Rev. 100, 2595-2626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J. F. Gordon, "Apparatus and method for carrying out analysis of samples," U.S. patent 5,892,577 (6 April 1999).

F. Quercioli, B. Tiribilli, C. Ascoli, P. Baschieri, and C. Frediani, "Monitoring of an atomic force microscope cantilever with a compact disk pickup," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3620-3624 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Dequaire, C. Degrand, and B. Limoges, "Biotinylation of screen-printed carbon electrodes through the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium salt of p-aminobenzoyl biocytin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 6946-6947 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Lobnik, I. Oehme, I. Murkovic, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "pH optical sensors based on sol-gels: chemical doping versus covalent immobilization," Anal. Chim. Acta 367, 159-165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E. Bakker, P. Bühlmann, and E. Pretsch, "Carrier-based ion-selective electrodes and bulk optodes. I. General characteristics," Chem. Rev. 97, 3083-3132 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. L. Hart, A. P. F. Turner, and D. Hopcroft, "On the use of screen- and ink-jet printing to produce amperometric enzyme electrodes for lactate," Biosens. Bioelectron. 11, 263-270 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

B. G. Lipták, Analytical Instrumentation (CRC Press, 1994), p. 471.

1993 (1)

R. A. Potyrailo, "Fiber optic and portable instruments for ammonia sensing in field operating conditions," Proc. SPIE 2069, 76-84 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

G. Seehausen, "Influence of pit geometry on readout signals of optical data disc drives," Electron. Lett. 28, 1709-1711 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Pohlmann, The Compact Disk Handbook, 2nd ed. (A-R Editions, 1992).

1991 (1)

1985 (1)

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, and K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Adam Hilger, 1985).

1979 (1)

1968 (1)

W. E. Ruch, Chemical Detection of Gaseous Pollutants (Ann Arbor Science Publishers, 1968).

1937 (1)

I. M. Kolthoff, Acid-Base Indicators (Macmillan, 1937).

Albert, K. J.

K. J. Albert, N. S. Lewis, C. L. Schauer, G. A. Sotzing, S. E. Stitzel, T. P. Vaid, and D. R. Walt, "Cross-reactive chemical sensor arrays," Chem. Rev. 100, 2595-2626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amelin, V. G.

Y. A. Zolotov, V. M. Ivanov, and V. G. Amelin, "Chemical test methods of analysis," in Wilson and Wilson's Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, D. Barcelo, ed. (Elsevier, 2002).

Amine, A.

F. Ricci, A. Amine, G. Palleschi, and D. Moscone, "Prussian Blue based screen printed biosensors with improved characteristics of long-term lifetime and pH stability," Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 165-174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ascoli, C.

F. Quercioli, B. Tiribilli, C. Ascoli, P. Baschieri, and C. Frediani, "Monitoring of an atomic force microscope cantilever with a compact disk pickup," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3620-3624 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, E.

E. Bakker, P. Bühlmann, and E. Pretsch, "Carrier-based ion-selective electrodes and bulk optodes. I. General characteristics," Chem. Rev. 97, 3083-3132 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baschieri, P.

F. Quercioli, B. Tiribilli, C. Ascoli, P. Baschieri, and C. Frediani, "Monitoring of an atomic force microscope cantilever with a compact disk pickup," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3620-3624 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beebe, D. J.

J. Moorthy, G. A. Mensing, D. Kim, S. Mohanty, D. T. Eddington, W. H. Tepp, E. A. Johnson, and D. J. Beebe, "Microfluidic tectonics platform: A colorimetric, disposable botulinum toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system," Electrophoresis 25, 1705-1713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benschop, J.

Bernard, A.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, "Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 270-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blum, L. J.

B. P. Corgier, C. A. Marquette, and L. J. Blum, "Diazonium-protein adducts for graphite electrode microarrays modification: direct and addressed electrochemical immobilization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 18328-18332 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwhuis, G.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, and K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Adam Hilger, 1985).

Boyette, S.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, "Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing," Anal. Chem. 78, 5893-5899 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, "Lab-on-DVD: Concept And Feasibility Demonstration For Water Analysis," presented at 2006 International Symposium on Spectral Science Research, 29 May-02 June 2006, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA.

Boyette, S. M.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent 7,170,609 (30 January 2007).

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, and S. M. Boyette, "Sensor systems and methods for remote quantification of compounds," U.S. patent application 20050111001, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent application 20050111000, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

R. A. Potyrailo, M. B. Wisnudel, S. M. Boyette, A. M. Leach, and K. Krishnan, "Methods for deposition of sensor regions onto optical storage media substrates and resulting devices," U.S. patent application 20050112358, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

Braat, J.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, and K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Adam Hilger, 1985).

Breitinger, B.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, "Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 270-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. Q.

J. Q. Brown and M. J. McShane, "Core-referenced ratiometric fluorescent potassium ion sensors using self-assembled ultrathin films on europium nanoparticles," IEEE Sensors J. 5, 1197-1205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bühlmann, P.

E. Bakker, P. Bühlmann, and E. Pretsch, "Carrier-based ion-selective electrodes and bulk optodes. I. General characteristics," Chem. Rev. 97, 3083-3132 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burkart, M. D.

J. J. La Clair and M. D. Burkart, "Molecular screening on a compact disc," Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 3244-3249 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

K. A. Joshi, M. Prouza, M. Kum, J. Wang, J. Tang, R. Haddon, W. Chen, and A. Mulchandani, "V-type nerve agent detection using a carbon nanotube-based amperometric enzyme electrode," Anal. Chem. 78, 331-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C.-L.

C.-L. Chu and C.-H. Lin, "Development of an optical accelerometer with a DVD pick-up head," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2498-2502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Compton, R. G.

N. S. Lawrence, L. Jiang, T. G. J. Jones, and R. G. Compton, "Voltammetric characterization of a N,N′-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine-loaded screen-printed electrode: a disposable sensor for hydrogen sulfide," Anal. Chem. 75, 2054-2059 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corgier, B. P.

B. P. Corgier, C. A. Marquette, and L. J. Blum, "Diazonium-protein adducts for graphite electrode microarrays modification: direct and addressed electrochemical immobilization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 18328-18332 (2005).
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Cournoyer, J. R.

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, "Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response," Nature Photon. 1, 123-128 (2007).
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B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
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M. Dequaire, C. Degrand, and B. Limoges, "Biotinylation of screen-printed carbon electrodes through the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium salt of p-aminobenzoyl biocytin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 6946-6947 (1999).
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M. Dequaire, C. Degrand, and B. Limoges, "Biotinylation of screen-printed carbon electrodes through the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium salt of p-aminobenzoyl biocytin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 6946-6947 (1999).
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Dovidenko, K.

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, "Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response," Nature Photon. 1, 123-128 (2007).
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S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, "Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 270-273 (2006).
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J. Moorthy, G. A. Mensing, D. Kim, S. Mohanty, D. T. Eddington, W. H. Tepp, E. A. Johnson, and D. J. Beebe, "Microfluidic tectonics platform: A colorimetric, disposable botulinum toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system," Electrophoresis 25, 1705-1713 (2004).
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K. C. Fan, C. Y. Lin, and L. H. Shyu, "The development of a low-cost focusing probe for profile measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, N1-N7 (2000).
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Ghiradella, H.

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, "Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response," Nature Photon. 1, 123-128 (2007).
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J. Liu, B. Su, G. Lagger, P. Tacchini, and H. H. Girault, "Antioxidant redox sensors based on DNA modified carbon screen-printed electrodes," Anal. Chem. 78, 6879-6884 (2006).
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K. A. Joshi, M. Prouza, M. Kum, J. Wang, J. Tang, R. Haddon, W. Chen, and A. Mulchandani, "V-type nerve agent detection using a carbon nanotube-based amperometric enzyme electrode," Anal. Chem. 78, 331-336 (2006).
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R. A. Potyrailo and L. Hassib, "Analytical instrumentation infrastructure for combinatorial and high-throughput development of formulated discrete and gradient polymeric sensor materials arrays," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 062225 (2005).
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A. L. Hart, A. P. F. Turner, and D. Hopcroft, "On the use of screen- and ink-jet printing to produce amperometric enzyme electrodes for lactate," Biosens. Bioelectron. 11, 263-270 (1996).
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Hörber, J. K. H.

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T. Mayr, C. Igel, G. Liebsch, I. Klimant, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Cross-reactive metal ion sensor array in a micro titer plate format," Anal. Chem. 75, 4389-4396 (2003).
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Jia, G.

M. Madou, J. Zoval, G. Jia, H. Kido, J. Kim, and N. Kim, "Lab on a CD," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 601-628 (2006).
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Jiang, L.

N. S. Lawrence, L. Jiang, T. G. J. Jones, and R. G. Compton, "Voltammetric characterization of a N,N′-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine-loaded screen-printed electrode: a disposable sensor for hydrogen sulfide," Anal. Chem. 75, 2054-2059 (2003).
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J. Moorthy, G. A. Mensing, D. Kim, S. Mohanty, D. T. Eddington, W. H. Tepp, E. A. Johnson, and D. J. Beebe, "Microfluidic tectonics platform: A colorimetric, disposable botulinum toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system," Electrophoresis 25, 1705-1713 (2004).
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C. L. Jones, "Cryptographic flash functions and CD-based optical biosensors," Probl. Nonlinear Anal. Eng. Syst. 11[2(23)], 17-36 (2005).

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Jones, T. G. J.

N. S. Lawrence, L. Jiang, T. G. J. Jones, and R. G. Compton, "Voltammetric characterization of a N,N′-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine-loaded screen-printed electrode: a disposable sensor for hydrogen sulfide," Anal. Chem. 75, 2054-2059 (2003).
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K. A. Joshi, M. Prouza, M. Kum, J. Wang, J. Tang, R. Haddon, W. Chen, and A. Mulchandani, "V-type nerve agent detection using a carbon nanotube-based amperometric enzyme electrode," Anal. Chem. 78, 331-336 (2006).
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M. Madou, J. Zoval, G. Jia, H. Kido, J. Kim, and N. Kim, "Lab on a CD," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 601-628 (2006).
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Kim, D.

J. Moorthy, G. A. Mensing, D. Kim, S. Mohanty, D. T. Eddington, W. H. Tepp, E. A. Johnson, and D. J. Beebe, "Microfluidic tectonics platform: A colorimetric, disposable botulinum toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system," Electrophoresis 25, 1705-1713 (2004).
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M. Madou, J. Zoval, G. Jia, H. Kido, J. Kim, and N. Kim, "Lab on a CD," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 601-628 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, N.

M. Madou, J. Zoval, G. Jia, H. Kido, J. Kim, and N. Kim, "Lab on a CD," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 601-628 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Mayr, C. Igel, G. Liebsch, I. Klimant, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Cross-reactive metal ion sensor array in a micro titer plate format," Anal. Chem. 75, 4389-4396 (2003).
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S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, "Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 270-273 (2006).
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Kopta, S.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, "Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 270-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, K.

R. A. Potyrailo, M. B. Wisnudel, S. M. Boyette, A. M. Leach, and K. Krishnan, "Methods for deposition of sensor regions onto optical storage media substrates and resulting devices," U.S. patent application 20050112358, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

Kum, M.

K. A. Joshi, M. Prouza, M. Kum, J. Wang, J. Tang, R. Haddon, W. Chen, and A. Mulchandani, "V-type nerve agent detection using a carbon nanotube-based amperometric enzyme electrode," Anal. Chem. 78, 331-336 (2006).
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S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, "Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 270-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lagger, G.

J. Liu, B. Su, G. Lagger, P. Tacchini, and H. H. Girault, "Antioxidant redox sensors based on DNA modified carbon screen-printed electrodes," Anal. Chem. 78, 6879-6884 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lange, S. A.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, "Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 270-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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N. S. Lawrence, L. Jiang, T. G. J. Jones, and R. G. Compton, "Voltammetric characterization of a N,N′-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine-loaded screen-printed electrode: a disposable sensor for hydrogen sulfide," Anal. Chem. 75, 2054-2059 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leach, A. M.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent 7,170,609 (30 January 2007).

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, and A. M. Leach, "Lab-on-DVD: Concept and feasibility demonstration for water analysis," in Abstracts of Papers, American Chemical Society 232nd National Meeting & Exposition, 10-14 September 2006, San Francisco, CA (2006), ANYL-254.

R. A. Potyrailo and A. M. Leach, "Selective gas nanosensors with multisize CdSe nanocrystal/polymer composite films and dynamic pattern recognition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 134110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, "Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing," Anal. Chem. 78, 5893-5899 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, and A. M. Leach, "Sensor system and methods for improved quantitation of environmental parameters," U.S. patent application 20050111328, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, "Lab-on-DVD: Concept And Feasibility Demonstration For Water Analysis," presented at 2006 International Symposium on Spectral Science Research, 29 May-02 June 2006, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent application 20050111000, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

R. A. Potyrailo, M. B. Wisnudel, S. M. Boyette, A. M. Leach, and K. Krishnan, "Methods for deposition of sensor regions onto optical storage media substrates and resulting devices," U.S. patent application 20050112358, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

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K. J. Albert, N. S. Lewis, C. L. Schauer, G. A. Sotzing, S. E. Stitzel, T. P. Vaid, and D. R. Walt, "Cross-reactive chemical sensor arrays," Chem. Rev. 100, 2595-2626 (2000).
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B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebsch, G.

T. Mayr, C. Igel, G. Liebsch, I. Klimant, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Cross-reactive metal ion sensor array in a micro titer plate format," Anal. Chem. 75, 4389-4396 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Limoges, B.

M. Dequaire, C. Degrand, and B. Limoges, "Biotinylation of screen-printed carbon electrodes through the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium salt of p-aminobenzoyl biocytin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 6946-6947 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. Y.

K. C. Fan, C. Y. Lin, and L. H. Shyu, "The development of a low-cost focusing probe for profile measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, N1-N7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-H.

C.-L. Chu and C.-H. Lin, "Development of an optical accelerometer with a DVD pick-up head," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2498-2502 (2005).
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B. G. Lipták, Analytical Instrumentation (CRC Press, 1994), p. 471.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, B. Su, G. Lagger, P. Tacchini, and H. H. Girault, "Antioxidant redox sensors based on DNA modified carbon screen-printed electrodes," Anal. Chem. 78, 6879-6884 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lobnik, A.

A. Lobnik, I. Oehme, I. Murkovic, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "pH optical sensors based on sol-gels: chemical doping versus covalent immobilization," Anal. Chim. Acta 367, 159-165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Madou, M.

M. Madou, J. Zoval, G. Jia, H. Kido, J. Kim, and N. Kim, "Lab on a CD," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 601-628 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquette, C. A.

B. P. Corgier, C. A. Marquette, and L. J. Blum, "Diazonium-protein adducts for graphite electrode microarrays modification: direct and addressed electrochemical immobilization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 18328-18332 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayr, T.

T. Mayr, C. Igel, G. Liebsch, I. Klimant, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Cross-reactive metal ion sensor array in a micro titer plate format," Anal. Chem. 75, 4389-4396 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Q. Brown and M. J. McShane, "Core-referenced ratiometric fluorescent potassium ion sensors using self-assembled ultrathin films on europium nanoparticles," IEEE Sensors J. 5, 1197-1205 (2005).
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Mensing, G. A.

J. Moorthy, G. A. Mensing, D. Kim, S. Mohanty, D. T. Eddington, W. H. Tepp, E. A. Johnson, and D. J. Beebe, "Microfluidic tectonics platform: A colorimetric, disposable botulinum toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system," Electrophoresis 25, 1705-1713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohanty, S.

J. Moorthy, G. A. Mensing, D. Kim, S. Mohanty, D. T. Eddington, W. H. Tepp, E. A. Johnson, and D. J. Beebe, "Microfluidic tectonics platform: A colorimetric, disposable botulinum toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system," Electrophoresis 25, 1705-1713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moorthy, J.

J. Moorthy, G. A. Mensing, D. Kim, S. Mohanty, D. T. Eddington, W. H. Tepp, E. A. Johnson, and D. J. Beebe, "Microfluidic tectonics platform: A colorimetric, disposable botulinum toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system," Electrophoresis 25, 1705-1713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, W. G.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent 7,170,609 (30 January 2007).

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, "Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing," Anal. Chem. 78, 5893-5899 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, and A. M. Leach, "Lab-on-DVD: Concept and feasibility demonstration for water analysis," in Abstracts of Papers, American Chemical Society 232nd National Meeting & Exposition, 10-14 September 2006, San Francisco, CA (2006), ANYL-254.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, and S. M. Boyette, "Sensor systems and methods for remote quantification of compounds," U.S. patent application 20050111001, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, "Lab-on-DVD: Concept And Feasibility Demonstration For Water Analysis," presented at 2006 International Symposium on Spectral Science Research, 29 May-02 June 2006, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent application 20050111000, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, and A. M. Leach, "Sensor system and methods for improved quantitation of environmental parameters," U.S. patent application 20050111328, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

Moscone, D.

F. Ricci, A. Amine, G. Palleschi, and D. Moscone, "Prussian Blue based screen printed biosensors with improved characteristics of long-term lifetime and pH stability," Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 165-174 (2003).
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Mulchandani, A.

K. A. Joshi, M. Prouza, M. Kum, J. Wang, J. Tang, R. Haddon, W. Chen, and A. Mulchandani, "V-type nerve agent detection using a carbon nanotube-based amperometric enzyme electrode," Anal. Chem. 78, 331-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murkovic, I.

A. Lobnik, I. Oehme, I. Murkovic, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "pH optical sensors based on sol-gels: chemical doping versus covalent immobilization," Anal. Chim. Acta 367, 159-165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oehme, I.

A. Lobnik, I. Oehme, I. Murkovic, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "pH optical sensors based on sol-gels: chemical doping versus covalent immobilization," Anal. Chim. Acta 367, 159-165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Olson, E.

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, "Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response," Nature Photon. 1, 123-128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palleschi, G.

F. Ricci, A. Amine, G. Palleschi, and D. Moscone, "Prussian Blue based screen printed biosensors with improved characteristics of long-term lifetime and pH stability," Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 165-174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, and K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Adam Hilger, 1985).

Pepper, J.

B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pien, H.

B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
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R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent 7,170,609 (30 January 2007).

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, "Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response," Nature Photon. 1, 123-128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Potyrailo and A. M. Leach, "Selective gas nanosensors with multisize CdSe nanocrystal/polymer composite films and dynamic pattern recognition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 134110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, "Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing," Anal. Chem. 78, 5893-5899 (2006).
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R. A. Potyrailo, "Polymeric sensor materials: toward an alliance of combinatorial and rational design tools?," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 702-723 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, and A. M. Leach, "Lab-on-DVD: Concept and feasibility demonstration for water analysis," in Abstracts of Papers, American Chemical Society 232nd National Meeting & Exposition, 10-14 September 2006, San Francisco, CA (2006), ANYL-254.

R. A. Potyrailo and L. Hassib, "Analytical instrumentation infrastructure for combinatorial and high-throughput development of formulated discrete and gradient polymeric sensor materials arrays," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 062225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Potyrailo, "Fiber optic and portable instruments for ammonia sensing in field operating conditions," Proc. SPIE 2069, 76-84 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, "Lab-on-DVD: Concept And Feasibility Demonstration For Water Analysis," presented at 2006 International Symposium on Spectral Science Research, 29 May-02 June 2006, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent application 20050111000, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, and A. M. Leach, "Sensor system and methods for improved quantitation of environmental parameters," U.S. patent application 20050111328, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, and S. M. Boyette, "Sensor systems and methods for remote quantification of compounds," U.S. patent application 20050111001, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

R. A. Potyrailo, M. B. Wisnudel, S. M. Boyette, A. M. Leach, and K. Krishnan, "Methods for deposition of sensor regions onto optical storage media substrates and resulting devices," U.S. patent application 20050112358, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

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[CrossRef]

Prouza, M.

K. A. Joshi, M. Prouza, M. Kum, J. Wang, J. Tang, R. Haddon, W. Chen, and A. Mulchandani, "V-type nerve agent detection using a carbon nanotube-based amperometric enzyme electrode," Anal. Chem. 78, 331-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, L.

L. Purcell, CD-R/DVD: Disc Recording Demystified (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

Qiu, J.

B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quercioli, F.

F. Quercioli, B. Tiribilli, C. Ascoli, P. Baschieri, and C. Frediani, "Monitoring of an atomic force microscope cantilever with a compact disk pickup," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3620-3624 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ricci, F.

F. Ricci, A. Amine, G. Palleschi, and D. Moscone, "Prussian Blue based screen printed biosensors with improved characteristics of long-term lifetime and pH stability," Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 165-174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roth, G.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, "Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 270-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ruch, W. E.

W. E. Ruch, Chemical Detection of Gaseous Pollutants (Ann Arbor Science Publishers, 1968).

Saavedra, S. S.

M. D. Senarath-Yapa and S. S. Saavedra, "Dye leaching from a doped sol-gel is eliminated by conjugation to a dendrimer," Anal. Chim. Acta 432, 89-94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schauer, C. L.

K. J. Albert, N. S. Lewis, C. L. Schauer, G. A. Sotzing, S. E. Stitzel, T. P. Vaid, and D. R. Walt, "Cross-reactive chemical sensor arrays," Chem. Rev. 100, 2595-2626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schouhamer Immink, K.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, and K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Adam Hilger, 1985).

Seehausen, G.

G. Seehausen, "Influence of pit geometry on readout signals of optical data disc drives," Electron. Lett. 28, 1709-1711 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Senarath-Yapa, M. D.

M. D. Senarath-Yapa and S. S. Saavedra, "Dye leaching from a doped sol-gel is eliminated by conjugation to a dendrimer," Anal. Chim. Acta 432, 89-94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shyu, L. H.

K. C. Fan, C. Y. Lin, and L. H. Shyu, "The development of a low-cost focusing probe for profile measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, N1-N7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sivavec, T. M.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, "Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing," Anal. Chem. 78, 5893-5899 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sotzing, G. A.

K. J. Albert, N. S. Lewis, C. L. Schauer, G. A. Sotzing, S. E. Stitzel, T. P. Vaid, and D. R. Walt, "Cross-reactive chemical sensor arrays," Chem. Rev. 100, 2595-2626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, M. L.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent 7,170,609 (30 January 2007).

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent application 20050111000, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

Stitzel, S. E.

K. J. Albert, N. S. Lewis, C. L. Schauer, G. A. Sotzing, S. E. Stitzel, T. P. Vaid, and D. R. Walt, "Cross-reactive chemical sensor arrays," Chem. Rev. 100, 2595-2626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Su, B.

J. Liu, B. Su, G. Lagger, P. Tacchini, and H. H. Girault, "Antioxidant redox sensors based on DNA modified carbon screen-printed electrodes," Anal. Chem. 78, 6879-6884 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suslick, K. S.

C. Zhang and K. S. Suslick, "Colorimetric sensor array for organics in water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 11548-11549 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tacchini, P.

J. Liu, B. Su, G. Lagger, P. Tacchini, and H. H. Girault, "Antioxidant redox sensors based on DNA modified carbon screen-printed electrodes," Anal. Chem. 78, 6879-6884 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, J.

K. A. Joshi, M. Prouza, M. Kum, J. Wang, J. Tang, R. Haddon, W. Chen, and A. Mulchandani, "V-type nerve agent detection using a carbon nanotube-based amperometric enzyme electrode," Anal. Chem. 78, 331-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tepp, W. H.

J. Moorthy, G. A. Mensing, D. Kim, S. Mohanty, D. T. Eddington, W. H. Tepp, E. A. Johnson, and D. J. Beebe, "Microfluidic tectonics platform: A colorimetric, disposable botulinum toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system," Electrophoresis 25, 1705-1713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thigpen, S. A.

C. L. Jones and S. A. Thigpen, "Microbial cell driven website design using genetic algorithms and optical disc computing," presented at Australian Society for Microbiology 2005 National Conference, 25-29 September 2005, Canberra, Australia.

Tiribilli, B.

F. Quercioli, B. Tiribilli, C. Ascoli, P. Baschieri, and C. Frediani, "Monitoring of an atomic force microscope cantilever with a compact disk pickup," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3620-3624 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. P. F.

A. L. Hart, A. P. F. Turner, and D. Hopcroft, "On the use of screen- and ink-jet printing to produce amperometric enzyme electrodes for lactate," Biosens. Bioelectron. 11, 263-270 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vaid, T. P.

K. J. Albert, N. S. Lewis, C. L. Schauer, G. A. Sotzing, S. E. Stitzel, T. P. Vaid, and D. R. Walt, "Cross-reactive chemical sensor arrays," Chem. Rev. 100, 2595-2626 (2000).
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J. Benschop and G. van Rosmalen, "Confocal compact scanning optical microscope based on compact disc technology," Appl. Opt. 30, 1179-1184 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, and K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Adam Hilger, 1985).

Vertiatchikh, A.

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, "Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response," Nature Photon. 1, 123-128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vetter, A.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, "Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 270-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walt, D. R.

K. J. Albert, N. S. Lewis, C. L. Schauer, G. A. Sotzing, S. E. Stitzel, T. P. Vaid, and D. R. Walt, "Cross-reactive chemical sensor arrays," Chem. Rev. 100, 2595-2626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

K. A. Joshi, M. Prouza, M. Kum, J. Wang, J. Tang, R. Haddon, W. Chen, and A. Mulchandani, "V-type nerve agent detection using a carbon nanotube-based amperometric enzyme electrode," Anal. Chem. 78, 331-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wick, M.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, "Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 270-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wisnudel, M. B.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent 7,170,609 (30 January 2007).

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, "Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing," Anal. Chem. 78, 5893-5899 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, "Lab-on-DVD: Concept And Feasibility Demonstration For Water Analysis," presented at 2006 International Symposium on Spectral Science Research, 29 May-02 June 2006, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent application 20050111000, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

R. A. Potyrailo, M. B. Wisnudel, S. M. Boyette, A. M. Leach, and K. Krishnan, "Methods for deposition of sensor regions onto optical storage media substrates and resulting devices," U.S. patent application 20050112358, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

Wittemann, S.

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, "Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 270-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wolfbeis, O. S.

O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors," Anal. Chem. 78, 3859-3874 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mayr, C. Igel, G. Liebsch, I. Klimant, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Cross-reactive metal ion sensor array in a micro titer plate format," Anal. Chem. 75, 4389-4396 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lobnik, I. Oehme, I. Murkovic, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "pH optical sensors based on sol-gels: chemical doping versus covalent immobilization," Anal. Chim. Acta 367, 159-165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang and K. S. Suslick, "Colorimetric sensor array for organics in water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 11548-11549 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zolotov, Y. A.

Y. A. Zolotov, V. M. Ivanov, and V. G. Amelin, "Chemical test methods of analysis," in Wilson and Wilson's Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, D. Barcelo, ed. (Elsevier, 2002).

Zoval, J.

M. Madou, J. Zoval, G. Jia, H. Kido, J. Kim, and N. Kim, "Lab on a CD," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 601-628 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (6)

O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors," Anal. Chem. 78, 3859-3874 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, T. M. Sivavec, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, "Analog signal acquisition from computer optical disk drives for quantitative chemical sensing," Anal. Chem. 78, 5893-5899 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, B. Su, G. Lagger, P. Tacchini, and H. H. Girault, "Antioxidant redox sensors based on DNA modified carbon screen-printed electrodes," Anal. Chem. 78, 6879-6884 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Joshi, M. Prouza, M. Kum, J. Wang, J. Tang, R. Haddon, W. Chen, and A. Mulchandani, "V-type nerve agent detection using a carbon nanotube-based amperometric enzyme electrode," Anal. Chem. 78, 331-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Lawrence, L. Jiang, T. G. J. Jones, and R. G. Compton, "Voltammetric characterization of a N,N′-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine-loaded screen-printed electrode: a disposable sensor for hydrogen sulfide," Anal. Chem. 75, 2054-2059 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mayr, C. Igel, G. Liebsch, I. Klimant, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Cross-reactive metal ion sensor array in a micro titer plate format," Anal. Chem. 75, 4389-4396 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (2)

A. Lobnik, I. Oehme, I. Murkovic, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "pH optical sensors based on sol-gels: chemical doping versus covalent immobilization," Anal. Chim. Acta 367, 159-165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Senarath-Yapa and S. S. Saavedra, "Dye leaching from a doped sol-gel is eliminated by conjugation to a dendrimer," Anal. Chim. Acta 432, 89-94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (2)

R. A. Potyrailo, "Polymeric sensor materials: toward an alliance of combinatorial and rational design tools?," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 702-723 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Lange, G. Roth, S. Wittemann, T. Lacoste, A. Vetter, J. Grässle, S. Kopta, M. Kolleck, B. Breitinger, M. Wick, J. K. H. Hörber, S. Dübel, and A. Bernard, "Measuring biomolecular binding events with a compact disc player device," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 270-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. Madou, J. Zoval, G. Jia, H. Kido, J. Kim, and N. Kim, "Lab on a CD," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 601-628 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. A. Potyrailo and A. M. Leach, "Selective gas nanosensors with multisize CdSe nanocrystal/polymer composite films and dynamic pattern recognition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 134110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (3)

B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Hart, A. P. F. Turner, and D. Hopcroft, "On the use of screen- and ink-jet printing to produce amperometric enzyme electrodes for lactate," Biosens. Bioelectron. 11, 263-270 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Ricci, A. Amine, G. Palleschi, and D. Moscone, "Prussian Blue based screen printed biosensors with improved characteristics of long-term lifetime and pH stability," Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 165-174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (2)

E. Bakker, P. Bühlmann, and E. Pretsch, "Carrier-based ion-selective electrodes and bulk optodes. I. General characteristics," Chem. Rev. 97, 3083-3132 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Albert, N. S. Lewis, C. L. Schauer, G. A. Sotzing, S. E. Stitzel, T. P. Vaid, and D. R. Walt, "Cross-reactive chemical sensor arrays," Chem. Rev. 100, 2595-2626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Seehausen, "Influence of pit geometry on readout signals of optical data disc drives," Electron. Lett. 28, 1709-1711 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electrophoresis (1)

J. Moorthy, G. A. Mensing, D. Kim, S. Mohanty, D. T. Eddington, W. H. Tepp, E. A. Johnson, and D. J. Beebe, "Microfluidic tectonics platform: A colorimetric, disposable botulinum toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system," Electrophoresis 25, 1705-1713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

J. Q. Brown and M. J. McShane, "Core-referenced ratiometric fluorescent potassium ion sensors using self-assembled ultrathin films on europium nanoparticles," IEEE Sensors J. 5, 1197-1205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (3)

M. Dequaire, C. Degrand, and B. Limoges, "Biotinylation of screen-printed carbon electrodes through the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium salt of p-aminobenzoyl biocytin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 6946-6947 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhang and K. S. Suslick, "Colorimetric sensor array for organics in water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 11548-11549 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. P. Corgier, C. A. Marquette, and L. J. Blum, "Diazonium-protein adducts for graphite electrode microarrays modification: direct and addressed electrochemical immobilization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 18328-18332 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

K. C. Fan, C. Y. Lin, and L. H. Shyu, "The development of a low-cost focusing probe for profile measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, N1-N7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Chu and C.-H. Lin, "Development of an optical accelerometer with a DVD pick-up head," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2498-2502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photon. (1)

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, "Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response," Nature Photon. 1, 123-128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Org. Biomol. Chem. (1)

J. J. La Clair and M. D. Burkart, "Molecular screening on a compact disc," Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 3244-3249 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Probl. Nonlinear Anal. Eng. Syst. (1)

C. L. Jones, "Cryptographic flash functions and CD-based optical biosensors," Probl. Nonlinear Anal. Eng. Syst. 11[2(23)], 17-36 (2005).

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. A. Potyrailo, "Fiber optic and portable instruments for ammonia sensing in field operating conditions," Proc. SPIE 2069, 76-84 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

F. Quercioli, B. Tiribilli, C. Ascoli, P. Baschieri, and C. Frediani, "Monitoring of an atomic force microscope cantilever with a compact disk pickup," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3620-3624 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Potyrailo and L. Hassib, "Analytical instrumentation infrastructure for combinatorial and high-throughput development of formulated discrete and gradient polymeric sensor materials arrays," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 062225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

I. M. Kolthoff, Acid-Base Indicators (Macmillan, 1937).

L. Purcell, CD-R/DVD: Disc Recording Demystified (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent application 20050111000, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, A. M. Leach, M. B. Wisnudel, and S. Boyette, "Lab-on-DVD: Concept And Feasibility Demonstration For Water Analysis," presented at 2006 International Symposium on Spectral Science Research, 29 May-02 June 2006, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, and A. M. Leach, "Lab-on-DVD: Concept and feasibility demonstration for water analysis," in Abstracts of Papers, American Chemical Society 232nd National Meeting & Exposition, 10-14 September 2006, San Francisco, CA (2006), ANYL-254.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, S. M. Boyette, M. B. Wisnudel, A. M. Leach, and M. L. Stanley, "Sensor systems and methods for quantification of physical parameters, chemical and biochemical volatile and nonvolatile compounds in fluids," U.S. patent 7,170,609 (30 January 2007).

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, and S. M. Boyette, "Sensor systems and methods for remote quantification of compounds," U.S. patent application 20050111001, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

R. A. Potyrailo, W. G. Morris, and A. M. Leach, "Sensor system and methods for improved quantitation of environmental parameters," U.S. patent application 20050111328, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

K. C. Pohlmann, The Compact Disk Handbook, 2nd ed. (A-R Editions, 1992).

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, and K. Schouhamer Immink, Principles of Optical Disc Systems (Adam Hilger, 1985).

J. F. Gordon, "Apparatus and method for carrying out analysis of samples," U.S. patent 5,892,577 (6 April 1999).

C. L. Jones and S. A. Thigpen, "Microbial cell driven website design using genetic algorithms and optical disc computing," presented at Australian Society for Microbiology 2005 National Conference, 25-29 September 2005, Canberra, Australia.

W. E. Ruch, Chemical Detection of Gaseous Pollutants (Ann Arbor Science Publishers, 1968).

B. G. Lipták, Analytical Instrumentation (CRC Press, 1994), p. 471.

Y. A. Zolotov, V. M. Ivanov, and V. G. Amelin, "Chemical test methods of analysis," in Wilson and Wilson's Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, D. Barcelo, ed. (Elsevier, 2002).

R. A. Potyrailo, M. B. Wisnudel, S. M. Boyette, A. M. Leach, and K. Krishnan, "Methods for deposition of sensor regions onto optical storage media substrates and resulting devices," U.S. patent application 20050112358, 2005, available from www.uspto.gov.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of a conventional optical disk drive and developed methodology for obtaining analog signals I U ( u 0 , v 0 ) and I E ( u 0 , v 0 ) from a photodiode detector system after reading conventional optical disks with deposited sensing films, unexposed and exposed to analyte samples, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Principle of trigger-free analog signal mapping across individual sensing films on an optical disk in the Lab-on-DVD detection system. (a) Schematic of an arrangement of sensing films on an optical disk and scan path of the laser. (b) Methodology to capture a periodic signal continuously for a predetermined number of revolutions of the disk.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Results of computer simulation experiments to visualize the effects of random errors affecting Lab-on-DVD analytical performance in predicting analyte concentrations. (a) Ideal predicted analyte concentration of 100 ppb. (b) Predicted analyte concentration in the presence of variations of the extinction coefficient ε of the immobilized colorimetric reagent and thickness L of the sensing film. Inset, a visual example of normal distributions of errors of ε and L. (c) Predicted analyte concentration in the presence of crazing effects of a sensing film. Inset, examples of exponential distributions of K craze with 1× and 4× relative exponential decay rates. A 1× rate did not affect the prediction error, but the 4× rate produced the shown distribution of predicted analyte concentration. (d) Predicted analyte concentration in the presence of leaching effects of sensing film. Inset, examples of exponential distributions of K leach with 1 × and 4 × relative exponential decay rates. A 1 × rate did not affect the prediction error, but the 4 × rate produced the shown distribution of predicted analyte concentration. (e) Predicted analyte concentration in the presence of sampling volume effects of sensing film. Inset, examples of exponential distributions of K sampling with 1 × and 4 × relative exponential decay rates. A 1 × rate did not affect the prediction error, but the 4 × rate produced the shown distribution of predicted analyte concentration. (f) Predicted analyte concentration in the presence of all individual effects modeled in (b)–(e).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Screen printing of formulated sensing films onto a DVD. (a) Interferometric profilometry of a sensing film and (b) Photo of DVDs with screen-printed arrays of replicate 54 sensing films.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Results of scanning 54 sensing films in a DVD drive with the Lab-on-DVD. Waveforms are vertically offset for clarity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Newly developed polymeric sensing film for chlorine determinations at part-per-billion levels. (a) Absorption spectra of sensing film after exposure to 0 and 1 ppm of chlorine. (b) Chlorine determinations in water by use of the Lab-on-DVD system. Each data point is the mean of three replicate measurements across different radial positions of a sensing film separated by 0.5 mm ; error bars are one standard deviation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Dynamic CCD-based absorbance imaging of a sensing film array with 54 replicate sensing films at 650 nm screen printed onto a DVD during exposure to 2 ppm of chlorine. (a)–(c) Absorbance images of sensing films for chlorine determinations at 0, 30, and 360 s. (d) Dynamic absorbance responses at 650 nm ( A 650 ) of multiple sensing films numbered in (a)–(c).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Lab-on-DVD for ubiquitous chemical and biological detection. Photos of color changes of 54 sensing polymeric films (a) before and (b) after water exposure (total of 14 formulated sensing compositions) deposited onto a DVD for detection of ionic species in water.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Multifunctional jewel case assembly for delivery and removal of water-sample volumes to and from sensing films on the disk: (a) assembly of the main components and (b) assembled water sampler.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Example of operation of a microfluidic sampling structure. (a)–(d) Different phases after water introduction (colored water for better visualization).

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A ( u , v ) = A ( u , v ) R ( u , v ) .
A ( x , y ) = disk plane A ( u , v ) exp [ 2 π i ( x u + y v ) ] d u d v .
I ( u 0 , v 0 ) = detector area g ( x , y ) A ( x , y ) 2 d x d y ,
S = I U ( u 0 , v 0 ) I E ( u 0 , v 0 ) ,
Δ = 2 π d W / ( 60 F ) .
S = 2 ε L C ,
S = 2 ε L C K leach T exp ,
S = ( 2 ε L C K leach T exp ) × K sampling ,
S = ( 2 ε L C K leach T exp ) × K sampling + K sampling × K craze ,
C = ( [ ( S K sampling × K craze ) / K sampling ] + K leach T exp ) / 2 ε L .

Metrics