Abstract

We report laboratory test results of a long period grating (LPG) that can maintain a constant resonant peak depth over an enhanced tuning range when it is coated with an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode that has optimized thickness and refractive index. The authors have experimentally demonstrated a LPG coated with ITO that can be tuned in excess of 200  nm with an ambient refractive index change of less than 0.01. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the highest sensitivity reported for a LPG to date. In addition to the tuning performance, the resonant peak remains within 1   dB of its maximum depth for at least 100   nm of the tuning range.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Yin, O. Leonov, K.-W. Chung, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Wavelength tuning range enhanced single resonant band fiber filter using a long period grating (LPG) with ultra thin cladding layer," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 23-25.
  3. S. Yin, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Single resonant band, tunable optical fiber wavelength filter based on long period fiber grating," U.S. patent 6,563,985 (13 May 2003).
  4. S. Yin, K. Chung, and X. Zhu, "Highly sensitive long period grating based tunable filter using a unique double-cladding layer structure," Opt. Commun. 188, 301-305 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Yin, K. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A novel all-optic tunable long-period grating using a unique double-cladding layer," Opt. Commun. 196, 181-186 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Konstantaki, S. Pissadakis, S. Pispas, N. Madamopoulos, and N. A. Vainos, "Optical fiber long-period grating humidity sensor with poly(ethylene oxide)/cobalt chloride coating," Appl. Opt. 45, 4567-4571 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1601-1612 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Chung and S. Yin, "Analysis of a widely tunable long-period grating by use of an ultra thin cladding layer and higher-order cladding mode coupling," Opt. Lett. 29, 812-814 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. I. Del Villar, I. Matías, F. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition," Opt. Express 13, 56-69 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. I. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatum, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1760-1773 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Snyder, Optical Waveguide Theory (Springer, 2003).
  19. Q. Chen, J. Lee, M. Lin, Y. Wang, S. S. Yin, Q. Zhang, and K. M. Reichard, "Investigation of tuning characteristics of electrically tunable long-period gratings with a precise four-layer model,"J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2954-2962 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. A. Synowicki, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of indium tin oxide microstructure and optical constants," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 394-397 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. S. Jung, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on the optical constants of indium tin oxide films deposited under various sputtering conditions," Thin Solid Films 467, 36-42 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Lee, C. Hahn, B. Wang, K. Reichard, D. Ditto, D. Glista, Q. Wang, and S. Yin, "A quantitative analysis of an athermal design for a long period grating based tunable filter," Opt. Commun. 258, 184-192 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J.-N. Jang, S. Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and M.-S. Kim, "Novel temperature insensitive long-period grating by using the refractive index of the outer cladding," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 29-31.

2006

2005

I. Del Villar, I. Matías, F. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition," Opt. Express 13, 56-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatum, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Chung and S. Yin, "Analysis of a widely tunable long-period grating by use of an ultra thin cladding layer and higher-order cladding mode coupling," Opt. Lett. 29, 812-814 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Jung, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on the optical constants of indium tin oxide films deposited under various sputtering conditions," Thin Solid Films 467, 36-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Snyder, Optical Waveguide Theory (Springer, 2003).

Z. Wang and S. Ramachandran, "Ultrasensitive long-period fiber gratings for broadband modulators and sensors," Opt. Lett. 28, 2458-2460 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yin, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Single resonant band, tunable optical fiber wavelength filter based on long period fiber grating," U.S. patent 6,563,985 (13 May 2003).

2001

S. Yin, K. Chung, and X. Zhu, "Highly sensitive long period grating based tunable filter using a unique double-cladding layer structure," Opt. Commun. 188, 301-305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, K. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A novel all-optic tunable long-period grating using a unique double-cladding layer," Opt. Commun. 196, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Yin, O. Leonov, K.-W. Chung, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Wavelength tuning range enhanced single resonant band fiber filter using a long period grating (LPG) with ultra thin cladding layer," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 23-25.

J.-N. Jang, S. Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and M.-S. Kim, "Novel temperature insensitive long-period grating by using the refractive index of the outer cladding," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 29-31.

1999

A. Abramov, A. Hale, R. Windeler, and T. A. Strasser, "Widely tunable long-period fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 81-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1601-1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Synowicki, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of indium tin oxide microstructure and optical constants," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 394-397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

V. Bhatia, "Properties and sensing applications of long-period gratings," Ph.D. dissertation (Virginia Polytechnical Institute and State University, 1996).

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, A.

A. Abramov, A. Hale, R. Windeler, and T. A. Strasser, "Widely tunable long-period fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 81-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arregui, F.

Ashwell, G. J.

I. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatum, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia, "Properties and sensing applications of long-period gratings," Ph.D. dissertation (Virginia Polytechnical Institute and State University, 1996).

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bucholtz, F.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1601-1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Choi, S. S.

Chung, K.

K. Chung and S. Yin, "Analysis of a widely tunable long-period grating by use of an ultra thin cladding layer and higher-order cladding mode coupling," Opt. Lett. 29, 812-814 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yin, K. Chung, and X. Zhu, "Highly sensitive long period grating based tunable filter using a unique double-cladding layer structure," Opt. Commun. 188, 301-305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, K. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A novel all-optic tunable long-period grating using a unique double-cladding layer," Opt. Commun. 196, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chung, K.-W.

S. Yin, O. Leonov, K.-W. Chung, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Wavelength tuning range enhanced single resonant band fiber filter using a long period grating (LPG) with ultra thin cladding layer," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 23-25.

Contessa, L.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Del Villar, I.

Ditto, D.

J. Lee, C. Hahn, B. Wang, K. Reichard, D. Ditto, D. Glista, Q. Wang, and S. Yin, "A quantitative analysis of an athermal design for a long period grating based tunable filter," Opt. Commun. 258, 184-192 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1760-1773 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Glista, D.

J. Lee, C. Hahn, B. Wang, K. Reichard, D. Ditto, D. Glista, Q. Wang, and S. Yin, "A quantitative analysis of an athermal design for a long period grating based tunable filter," Opt. Commun. 258, 184-192 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guerra, G.

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, C.

J. Lee, C. Hahn, B. Wang, K. Reichard, D. Ditto, D. Glista, Q. Wang, and S. Yin, "A quantitative analysis of an athermal design for a long period grating based tunable filter," Opt. Commun. 258, 184-192 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hale, A.

A. Abramov, A. Hale, R. Windeler, and T. A. Strasser, "Widely tunable long-period fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 81-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iadicicco, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishaq, I.

I. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatum, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

I. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatum, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. N.

Jang, J.-N.

J.-N. Jang, S. Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and M.-S. Kim, "Novel temperature insensitive long-period grating by using the refractive index of the outer cladding," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 29-31.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y. S.

Y. S. Jung, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on the optical constants of indium tin oxide films deposited under various sputtering conditions," Thin Solid Films 467, 36-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1601-1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-S.

J.-N. Jang, S. Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and M.-S. Kim, "Novel temperature insensitive long-period grating by using the refractive index of the outer cladding," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 29-31.

Kim, S. Y.

J.-N. Jang, S. Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and M.-S. Kim, "Novel temperature insensitive long-period grating by using the refractive index of the outer cladding," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 29-31.

Kim, S.-W.

J.-N. Jang, S. Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and M.-S. Kim, "Novel temperature insensitive long-period grating by using the refractive index of the outer cladding," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 29-31.

Konstantaki, M.

Kurtz, P.

S. Yin, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Single resonant band, tunable optical fiber wavelength filter based on long period fiber grating," U.S. patent 6,563,985 (13 May 2003).

S. Yin, O. Leonov, K.-W. Chung, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Wavelength tuning range enhanced single resonant band fiber filter using a long period grating (LPG) with ultra thin cladding layer," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 23-25.

Lalanne, P.

Lee, B. H.

Lee, J.

Q. Chen, J. Lee, M. Lin, Y. Wang, S. S. Yin, Q. Zhang, and K. M. Reichard, "Investigation of tuning characteristics of electrically tunable long-period gratings with a precise four-layer model,"J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2954-2962 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, C. Hahn, B. Wang, K. Reichard, D. Ditto, D. Glista, Q. Wang, and S. Yin, "A quantitative analysis of an athermal design for a long period grating based tunable filter," Opt. Commun. 258, 184-192 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. B.

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leonov, O.

S. Yin, O. Leonov, K.-W. Chung, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Wavelength tuning range enhanced single resonant band fiber filter using a long period grating (LPG) with ultra thin cladding layer," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 23-25.

Lin, M.

Liu, H.

S. Yin, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Single resonant band, tunable optical fiber wavelength filter based on long period fiber grating," U.S. patent 6,563,985 (13 May 2003).

S. Yin, O. Leonov, K.-W. Chung, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Wavelength tuning range enhanced single resonant band fiber filter using a long period grating (LPG) with ultra thin cladding layer," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 23-25.

Liu, Y.

Lopez-Higuera, J. M.

I. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatum, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Madamopoulos, N.

Matías, I.

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1601-1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pilla, P.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pispas, S.

Pissadakis, S.

Quintela, A.

I. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatum, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

Reichard, K.

J. Lee, C. Hahn, B. Wang, K. Reichard, D. Ditto, D. Glista, Q. Wang, and S. Yin, "A quantitative analysis of an athermal design for a long period grating based tunable filter," Opt. Commun. 258, 184-192 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Single resonant band, tunable optical fiber wavelength filter based on long period fiber grating," U.S. patent 6,563,985 (13 May 2003).

S. Yin, O. Leonov, K.-W. Chung, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Wavelength tuning range enhanced single resonant band fiber filter using a long period grating (LPG) with ultra thin cladding layer," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 23-25.

Reichard, K. M.

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A.

A. Snyder, Optical Waveguide Theory (Springer, 2003).

Strasser, T. A.

A. Abramov, A. Hale, R. Windeler, and T. A. Strasser, "Widely tunable long-period fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 81-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Synowicki, R. A.

R. A. Synowicki, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of indium tin oxide microstructure and optical constants," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 394-397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tatum, R. P.

I. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatum, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vainos, N. A.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

J. Lee, C. Hahn, B. Wang, K. Reichard, D. Ditto, D. Glista, Q. Wang, and S. Yin, "A quantitative analysis of an athermal design for a long period grating based tunable filter," Opt. Commun. 258, 184-192 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

J. Lee, C. Hahn, B. Wang, K. Reichard, D. Ditto, D. Glista, Q. Wang, and S. Yin, "A quantitative analysis of an athermal design for a long period grating based tunable filter," Opt. Commun. 258, 184-192 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Windeler, R.

A. Abramov, A. Hale, R. Windeler, and T. A. Strasser, "Widely tunable long-period fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 81-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yin, S.

J. Lee, C. Hahn, B. Wang, K. Reichard, D. Ditto, D. Glista, Q. Wang, and S. Yin, "A quantitative analysis of an athermal design for a long period grating based tunable filter," Opt. Commun. 258, 184-192 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Chung and S. Yin, "Analysis of a widely tunable long-period grating by use of an ultra thin cladding layer and higher-order cladding mode coupling," Opt. Lett. 29, 812-814 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yin, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Single resonant band, tunable optical fiber wavelength filter based on long period fiber grating," U.S. patent 6,563,985 (13 May 2003).

S. Yin, K. Chung, and X. Zhu, "Highly sensitive long period grating based tunable filter using a unique double-cladding layer structure," Opt. Commun. 188, 301-305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, K. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A novel all-optic tunable long-period grating using a unique double-cladding layer," Opt. Commun. 196, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, O. Leonov, K.-W. Chung, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Wavelength tuning range enhanced single resonant band fiber filter using a long period grating (LPG) with ultra thin cladding layer," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 23-25.

Yin, S. S.

Zhang, Q.

Q. Chen, J. Lee, M. Lin, Y. Wang, S. S. Yin, Q. Zhang, and K. M. Reichard, "Investigation of tuning characteristics of electrically tunable long-period gratings with a precise four-layer model,"J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2954-2962 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Single resonant band, tunable optical fiber wavelength filter based on long period fiber grating," U.S. patent 6,563,985 (13 May 2003).

S. Yin, O. Leonov, K.-W. Chung, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Wavelength tuning range enhanced single resonant band fiber filter using a long period grating (LPG) with ultra thin cladding layer," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 23-25.

Zhu, X.

S. Yin, K. Chung, and X. Zhu, "Highly sensitive long period grating based tunable filter using a unique double-cladding layer structure," Opt. Commun. 188, 301-305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, K. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A novel all-optic tunable long-period grating using a unique double-cladding layer," Opt. Commun. 196, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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S. Yin, K. Chung, and X. Zhu, "Highly sensitive long period grating based tunable filter using a unique double-cladding layer structure," Opt. Commun. 188, 301-305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, K. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A novel all-optic tunable long-period grating using a unique double-cladding layer," Opt. Commun. 196, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, C. Hahn, B. Wang, K. Reichard, D. Ditto, D. Glista, Q. Wang, and S. Yin, "A quantitative analysis of an athermal design for a long period grating based tunable filter," Opt. Commun. 258, 184-192 (2006).
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S. Yin, P. Kurtz, K. Reichard, H. Liu, and Q. Zhang, "Single resonant band, tunable optical fiber wavelength filter based on long period fiber grating," U.S. patent 6,563,985 (13 May 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Spectrum of an uncoated LPG being tuned with refractive index matching oils ranging from 1.42 to 1.448. [Cladding diameter ( d ) = 40   μm ; grating period ( Λ ) = 400   μm ; total length = 8   mm (20 periods).]

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Calculated effective refractive index and coupling strength as a function of the ambient index for the (a) first- and (b) second-order cladding modes of a LPG coated with 50   nm of ITO. [Core diameter ( d 1 ) = 8.3   μm ; cladding diameter ( d 2 ) = 40   μm ; ITO thickness ( t ) = 50   nm ; ITO refractive index ( n 3 ) = 1.8 ; wavelength ( λ ) : 1550   nm .]

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Spectrum of a LPG coated with 50   nm of ITO being tuned with refractive index matching oils ranging from 1.42 to 1.448. [Cladding diameter ( d ) = 40   μm ; grating period ( Λ ) = 400   μm ; total length = 8   mm (20 periods), ITO refractive index ( n 3 ) 1.88 .]

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (a) Resonant wavelength and (b) peak depth as a function of ambient refractive index for a LPG with and without 50   nm of ITO. [Cladding diameter ( d ) = 40   μm ; grating period ( Λ ) = 400   μm ; total length = 8   mm (20 periods), ITO refractive index ( n 3 ) 1.88 .]

Equations (3)

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λ 0 = ( n e f f c o r e n e f f c l a d ) Λ ,
T = cos 2 ( κ L ) ,
Δ ( n e f f 2 ) A Δ ( n 2 ) F 2 d A A F 2 d A

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