Abstract

An artificial dynamic eye model is proposed. The prototype enabled us to introduce temporal variations in defocus and spherical aberration, resembling those typically found in the human eye. The eye model consisted of a meniscus lens together with a modal liquid crystal lens with controllable focus. A diffuser placed at a fixed distance from the lenses acted as the artificial retina. Developed software allowed the user to precisely control the dynamic generation of aberrations. In addition, different refractive errors could simultaneously be emulated by varying the distance between the components of the model. The artificial eye was first used as a dynamic generator of both spherical aberration and defocus, imitating the behavior of a real eye. The artificial eye was implemented in an adaptive optics system designed for the human eye. The system incorporated an electrostatic deformable mirror and a Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor. Results with and without real time closed-loop aberration correction were obtained. The use of the dynamic artificial eye could be quite useful for testing and evaluating adaptive optics instruments for ophthalmic applications.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (8)

L. Chen, P. B. Kruger, H. Hofer, B. Singer, and D. R. Williams, "Accommodation with higher-order monochromatic aberrations corrected with adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Hampson, C. Paterson, C. Dainty, and E. A. H. Mallen, "Adaptive optics system for investigation of the effect of the aberration dynamics of the human eye on steady-state accommodation control," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1082-1088 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 4552-4569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, "MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1268-1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Li and G. Yoon, "Changes in aberrations and retinal image quality due to tear film dynamics," Opt. Express 14, 12552-12559 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared," Opt. Express 14, 6213-6225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, L. Vabre, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, and W. Drexler, "Adaptive optics with a magnetic deformable mirror: applications in the human eye," Opt. Express 14, 8900-8917 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

2004 (3)

P. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 4601-4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, "Neural compensation for the eye's optical aberrations," J. Vision 4, 281-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly III , H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics visual simulator," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634-638 (2002).

B. J. Wilson, K. E. Decker, and A. Roorda, "Monochromatic aberrations provide an odd-error cue to focus direction," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 19, 833-839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (3)

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martín, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, "Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388-1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Loktev, V. N. Belopukhov, F. L. Vladimirov, G. V. Vdovin, G. D. Love, and A. F. Naumov, "Wavefront control systems based on modal liquid crystal lenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3290-3297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 110-130.

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1997).

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

1991 (1)

K. F. Ciuffreda, "Vision and visual dysfunction," in Accommodation and Its Anomalies, J. Cronly-Dillon, ed. (J. R. Macmillan Press, 1991), Chap. 11.

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

W. N. Charman, "Fluctuations in accommodation: a review," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 8, 153-163 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1987).

Ahnelt, P.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 110-130.

Aragón, J. L.

Artal, P.

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared," Opt. Express 14, 6213-6225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández and P. Artal, "Study on the effects of monochromatic aberrations in the accommodation response by using adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1732-1738 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, "Neural compensation for the eye's optical aberrations," J. Vision 4, 281-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 4601-4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández and P. Artal, "Membrane deformable mirror for adaptive optics: performance limits in visual optics," Opt. Express 11, 1056-1069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics visual simulator," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634-638 (2002).

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragón, and D. R. Williams, "Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 497-506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Closed-loop adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 26, 746-748 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martín, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, "Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388-1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Belopukhov, V. N.

M. Y. Loktev, V. N. Belopukhov, F. L. Vladimirov, G. V. Vdovin, G. D. Love, and A. F. Naumov, "Wavefront control systems based on modal liquid crystal lenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3290-3297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bille, J. F.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1987).

Bower, B.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Cense, B.

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman, "Fluctuations in accommodation: a review," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 8, 153-163 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Choi, S.

Ciuffreda, K. F.

K. F. Ciuffreda, "Vision and visual dysfunction," in Accommodation and Its Anomalies, J. Cronly-Dillon, ed. (J. R. Macmillan Press, 1991), Chap. 11.

Dainty, C.

Decker, K. E.

B. J. Wilson, K. E. Decker, and A. Roorda, "Monochromatic aberrations provide an odd-error cue to focus direction," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 19, 833-839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, W. J.

Dreher, A. W.

Drexler, W.

Fercher, A. F.

Fernández, E. J.

E. J. Fernández, L. Vabre, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, and W. Drexler, "Adaptive optics with a magnetic deformable mirror: applications in the human eye," Opt. Express 14, 8900-8917 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared," Opt. Express 14, 6213-6225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández and P. Artal, "Study on the effects of monochromatic aberrations in the accommodation response by using adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1732-1738 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 4601-4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, "Neural compensation for the eye's optical aberrations," J. Vision 4, 281-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández and P. Artal, "Membrane deformable mirror for adaptive optics: performance limits in visual optics," Opt. Express 11, 1056-1069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics visual simulator," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634-638 (2002).

E. J. Fernández, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Closed-loop adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 26, 746-748 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Gao, W.

Goelz, S.

Grimm, B.

Gruppetta, S.

Guralnik, I. R.

Hampson, K. M.

Hebert, T. J.

Hermann, B.

Hofer, H.

Iglesias, I.

Izatt, J.

Jones, S.

Jonnal, R. S.

Kruger, P. B.

Lacombe, F.

Laut, S.

Leitgeb, R.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, K. Y.

Liang, J.

Loktev, M. Y.

Love, G. D.

M. Y. Loktev, V. N. Belopukhov, F. L. Vladimirov, G. V. Vdovin, G. D. Love, and A. F. Naumov, "Wavefront control systems based on modal liquid crystal lenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3290-3297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Naumov, G. D. Love, M. Y. Loktev, and F. L. Vladimirov, "Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses," Opt. Express 4, 344-352 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallen, E. A. H.

Manzanera, S.

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, "Neural compensation for the eye's optical aberrations," J. Vision 4, 281-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 4601-4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics visual simulator," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634-638 (2002).

Members, V. S. T.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 110-130.

Miller, D. T.

Munro, I.

Naumov, A. F.

Norrby, S.

P. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 4601-4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, S.

Paterson, C.

Piers, P.

P. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 4601-4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics visual simulator," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634-638 (2002).

Poonja, S.

Povazay, B.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Považay, B.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Prieto, P. M.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martín, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, "Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388-1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Puget, P.

Qu, J.

Queener, H.

Rha, J.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Sattmann, H.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
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B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 110-130.

Singer, B.

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 110-130.

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R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1997).

Unterhuber, A.

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Vdovin, G. V.

M. Y. Loktev, V. N. Belopukhov, F. L. Vladimirov, G. V. Vdovin, G. D. Love, and A. F. Naumov, "Wavefront control systems based on modal liquid crystal lenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3290-3297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Vladimirov, F. L.

M. Y. Loktev, V. N. Belopukhov, F. L. Vladimirov, G. V. Vdovin, G. D. Love, and A. F. Naumov, "Wavefront control systems based on modal liquid crystal lenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3290-3297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Naumov, G. D. Love, M. Y. Loktev, and F. L. Vladimirov, "Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses," Opt. Express 4, 344-352 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 110-130.

Weinreb, R. N.

Werner, J.

Werner, J. S.

Williams, D. R.

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B. J. Wilson, K. E. Decker, and A. Roorda, "Monochromatic aberrations provide an odd-error cue to focus direction," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 19, 833-839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Yoon, G. Y.

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Zawadzki, R. J.

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

P. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 4601-4610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am A (1)

B. J. Wilson, K. E. Decker, and A. Roorda, "Monochromatic aberrations provide an odd-error cue to focus direction," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 19, 833-839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (7)

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics visual simulator," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634-638 (2002).

J. Vision (1)

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, "Neural compensation for the eye's optical aberrations," J. Vision 4, 281-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

W. N. Charman, "Fluctuations in accommodation: a review," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 8, 153-163 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (12)

E. J. Fernández and P. Artal, "Membrane deformable mirror for adaptive optics: performance limits in visual optics," Opt. Express 11, 1056-1069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gruppetta, F. Lacombe, and P. Puget, "Study of the dynamic aberrations of the human tear film," Opt. Express 13, 7631-7636 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Li and G. Yoon, "Changes in aberrations and retinal image quality due to tear film dynamics," Opt. Express 14, 12552-12559 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared," Opt. Express 14, 6213-6225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, L. Vabre, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, and W. Drexler, "Adaptive optics with a magnetic deformable mirror: applications in the human eye," Opt. Express 14, 8900-8917 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Naumov, G. D. Love, M. Y. Loktev, and F. L. Vladimirov, "Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses," Opt. Express 4, 344-352 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, "Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye's aberrations," Opt. Express 8, 631-643 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 4552-4569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics spectral optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zawadzki, S. Jones, S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. Bower, J. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly III , H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (1)

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 110-130.

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Y. Loktev, V. N. Belopukhov, F. L. Vladimirov, G. V. Vdovin, G. D. Love, and A. F. Naumov, "Wavefront control systems based on modal liquid crystal lenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3290-3297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (1)

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1987).

K. F. Ciuffreda, "Vision and visual dysfunction," in Accommodation and Its Anomalies, J. Cronly-Dillon, ed. (J. R. Macmillan Press, 1991), Chap. 11.

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1997).

http://www.okotech.com.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Artificial dynamic eye components. The liquid crystal lens and the polarizer introduce dynamic changes in the eye. The meniscus lens of huge power concentrates light onto a rotating diffuser, acting as an artificial retina.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Adaptive optics system for the human eye to test the capabilities of the artificial dynamic eye. System incorporates a Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor and an electrostatic deformable mirror for measuring and correcting the aberrations, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of using different seed numbers for the generation of pseudorandom series of defocus fluctuations in the artificial dynamic eye. S0 corresponds to the noise of the system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of defocus and spherical aberration dynamics generated by the artificial dynamic eye and those measured from a real eye.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power spectrum of defocus and spherical aberration dynamics generated by the artificial dynamic eye and those measured from a real eye.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Closed-loop aberration correction of the artificial dynamic eye by the AO system under different dynamic conditions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Zernike coefficients with and without aberration correction (gray and black color, respectively) from the artificial dynamic eye. Corresponding wavefronts are shown with modulus 2 π representation at 633   nm .

Equations (2)

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D e f o c u s = z ( f M f L C e f M f L C ) 2 .
z = d ( f M e ( e f M ) f L C + f M f L C e f M f L C ) ,

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