Abstract

We report the experimental investigation of the sensitivity characteristics to the surrounding refractive index (SRI) in thinned long period gratings (LPGs) for a wide range of fiber diameters and different low-orders cladding modes. Wet chemical etching combined with microscopic and spectral analysis allow us to experimentally retrieve the SRI sensitivity characteristics of thinned LPGs. The obtained results allow us to identify accurately the dependence of the sensitivity characteristics on the fiber radius, taking into account the SRI range and the order mode. This provides a useful tool to identify the thinned structure able to fulfill the sensitivity requirements by maintaining an acceptable robustness level.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, J. B. Judkins, J. B. Stark, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "All-optical switching in long period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 22, 883-885 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Nam, C. Zhan, J. Lee, C. Hahn, K. Reichard, P. Ruffin, K. L. Deng, and S. Yin, "Bend-insensitive ultrashort long-period gratings by the electric arc method and their applications to harsh environment sensing and communication," Opt. Express 13, 731-737 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702-1705 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "High sensitivity optical chemo-sensor based on coated long period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "Coated long period fiber gratings as high sensitivity opto-chemical sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1776-1786 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition," Opt. Express 13, 56-69 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Cladding modes reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long period gratings: effects on the refractive index sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 2536-2538 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high-refractive-index-coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, "Sensitivity characteristics in nano-sized coated long period gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. W. James, N. D. Rees, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays," Opt. Lett. 27, 686-688 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Khaliq, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, "Enhanced sensitivity fibre optic long period grating temperature sensor," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 792-795 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Jeong, S. Kim, J. Kwon, N. Park, and B. Lee, "Control of the characteristics of a long-period grating by cladding etching," Appl. Opt. 39, 2038-2042 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Zhou, H. Liu, and X. Hu, "Tuning the resonant wavelength of long period fiber gratings by etching the fiber's cladding," Opt. Commun. 197, 295-299 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Yin, K. W. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A novel all-optic tunable long-period grating using a unique double-cladding layer," Opt. Commun. 196, 181-186 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Yin, K. W. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A highly sensitive long period grating based tunable filter using a unique double-cladding layer structure," Opt. Commun. 188, 301-305 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV-inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1352-1354 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Anemogiannis, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, "Transmission characteristics of long-period fiber gratings having arbitrary azimuthal/radial refractive index variations," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 218-227 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Timonshenko, Strength of Materials, Part 1 and Part 2 (Krieger, 1983).
  25. H.-J. Yoon and C.-G. Kim, "The mechanical strength of fiber Bragg gratings under controlled UV laser conditions," Smart Mater. Struct. 16, 1315-1319 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H.-J. Yoon and C.-G. Kim, "The mechanical strength of fiber Bragg gratings under controlled UV laser conditions," Smart Mater. Struct. 16, 1315-1319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (4)

2004 (2)

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV-inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1352-1354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (5)

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702-1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James, N. D. Rees, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays," Opt. Lett. 27, 686-688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Khaliq, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, "Enhanced sensitivity fibre optic long period grating temperature sensor," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 792-795 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

K. Zhou, H. Liu, and X. Hu, "Tuning the resonant wavelength of long period fiber gratings by etching the fiber's cladding," Opt. Commun. 197, 295-299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A novel all-optic tunable long-period grating using a unique double-cladding layer," Opt. Commun. 196, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A highly sensitive long period grating based tunable filter using a unique double-cladding layer structure," Opt. Commun. 188, 301-305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

K. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, S. Kim, J. Kwon, N. Park, and B. Lee, "Control of the characteristics of a long-period grating by cladding etching," Appl. Opt. 39, 2038-2042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1983 (1)

S. Timonshenko, Strength of Materials, Part 1 and Part 2 (Krieger, 1983).

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702-1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T. D. P.

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anemogiannis, E.

Arregui, F. J.

Ashwell, G. J.

Bennion, I.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV-inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1352-1354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702-1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV-inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1352-1354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K.

K. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chung, K. W.

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A novel all-optic tunable long-period grating using a unique double-cladding layer," Opt. Commun. 196, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A highly sensitive long period grating based tunable filter using a unique double-cladding layer structure," Opt. Commun. 188, 301-305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Contessa, L.

Cusano, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "Coated long period fiber gratings as high sensitivity opto-chemical sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1776-1786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, "Sensitivity characteristics in nano-sized coated long period gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high-refractive-index-coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Cladding modes reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long period gratings: effects on the refractive index sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 2536-2538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "High sensitivity optical chemo-sensor based on coated long period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "Coated long period fiber gratings as high sensitivity opto-chemical sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1776-1786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, "Sensitivity characteristics in nano-sized coated long period gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high-refractive-index-coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Cladding modes reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long period gratings: effects on the refractive index sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 2536-2538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "High sensitivity optical chemo-sensor based on coated long period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Del Villar, I.

Deng, K. L.

Dianov, E. M.

Dong, X.

K. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Gaylord, T. K.

Giordano, M.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high-refractive-index-coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, "Sensitivity characteristics in nano-sized coated long period gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "Coated long period fiber gratings as high sensitivity opto-chemical sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1776-1786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Cladding modes reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long period gratings: effects on the refractive index sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 2536-2538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "High sensitivity optical chemo-sensor based on coated long period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

Guerra, G.

Gwandu, B. A. L.

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, C.

Hu, X.

K. Zhou, H. Liu, and X. Hu, "Tuning the resonant wavelength of long period fiber gratings by etching the fiber's cladding," Opt. Commun. 197, 295-299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iadicicco, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "Coated long period fiber gratings as high sensitivity opto-chemical sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1776-1786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high-refractive-index-coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, "Sensitivity characteristics in nano-sized coated long period gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Cladding modes reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long period gratings: effects on the refractive index sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 2536-2538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "High sensitivity optical chemo-sensor based on coated long period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

S. Khaliq, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, "Enhanced sensitivity fibre optic long period grating temperature sensor," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 792-795 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James, N. D. Rees, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays," Opt. Lett. 27, 686-688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y.

Judkins, J. B.

Khaliq, S.

S. Khaliq, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, "Enhanced sensitivity fibre optic long period grating temperature sensor," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 792-795 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.-G.

H.-J. Yoon and C.-G. Kim, "The mechanical strength of fiber Bragg gratings under controlled UV laser conditions," Smart Mater. Struct. 16, 1315-1319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

Kwon, J.

Lalanne, P.

Lee, B.

Lee, J.

Limberger, H. G.

Liu, H.

K. Zhou, H. Liu, and X. Hu, "Tuning the resonant wavelength of long period fiber gratings by etching the fiber's cladding," Opt. Commun. 197, 295-299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

K. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matias, I. R.

Nam, S.

Ng, M.

K. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.

Pilla, P.

Ran, Z. L.

Rao, Y. J.

Rees, N. D.

Reeves, R.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702-1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reichard, K.

Ruffin, P.

Salathé, R. P.

Shu, X.

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

Stark, J. B.

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James, N. D. Rees, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays," Opt. Lett. 27, 686-688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Khaliq, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, "Enhanced sensitivity fibre optic long period grating temperature sensor," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 792-795 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Timonshenko, S.

S. Timonshenko, Strength of Materials, Part 1 and Part 2 (Krieger, 1983).

Varelas, D.

Vasiliev, S. A.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Wang, Y. P.

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702-1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yin, S.

S. Nam, C. Zhan, J. Lee, C. Hahn, K. Reichard, P. Ruffin, K. L. Deng, and S. Yin, "Bend-insensitive ultrashort long-period gratings by the electric arc method and their applications to harsh environment sensing and communication," Opt. Express 13, 731-737 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A highly sensitive long period grating based tunable filter using a unique double-cladding layer structure," Opt. Commun. 188, 301-305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A novel all-optic tunable long-period grating using a unique double-cladding layer," Opt. Commun. 196, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H.-J.

H.-J. Yoon and C.-G. Kim, "The mechanical strength of fiber Bragg gratings under controlled UV laser conditions," Smart Mater. Struct. 16, 1315-1319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, C.

Zhang, L.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV-inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1352-1354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV-inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1352-1354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhou, H. Liu, and X. Hu, "Tuning the resonant wavelength of long period fiber gratings by etching the fiber's cladding," Opt. Commun. 197, 295-299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, T.

Zhu, X.

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A highly sensitive long period grating based tunable filter using a unique double-cladding layer structure," Opt. Commun. 188, 301-305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A novel all-optic tunable long-period grating using a unique double-cladding layer," Opt. Commun. 196, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, "Sensitivity characteristics in nano-sized coated long period gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "High sensitivity optical chemo-sensor based on coated long period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV-inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1352-1354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Khaliq, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, "Enhanced sensitivity fibre optic long period grating temperature sensor," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 792-795 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

K. Zhou, H. Liu, and X. Hu, "Tuning the resonant wavelength of long period fiber gratings by etching the fiber's cladding," Opt. Commun. 197, 295-299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A novel all-optic tunable long-period grating using a unique double-cladding layer," Opt. Commun. 196, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, and X. Zhu, "A highly sensitive long period grating based tunable filter using a unique double-cladding layer structure," Opt. Commun. 188, 301-305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702-1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

H.-J. Yoon and C.-G. Kim, "The mechanical strength of fiber Bragg gratings under controlled UV laser conditions," Smart Mater. Struct. 16, 1315-1319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Timonshenko, Strength of Materials, Part 1 and Part 2 (Krieger, 1983).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmitted spectrum of the original grating with SRI = 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Holder for the etching process and for SRI testing, (b) fiber diameter versus the etching time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Grating spectra with SRI = 1 at several etching steps.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Resonant wavelengths and (b) transmission at resonant wavelength versus the fiber diameter for the L P 06 , L P 05 , and L P 04 cladding modes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Resonant wavelength shifts versus the surrounding refractive index as a function of the fiber diameter for (a) L P 06 , (b) L P 05 , and (c) L P 04 cladding modes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental sensitivity characteristics compared with best fitting versus SRI and as function of the fiber diameter for (a) L P 06 , (b) L P 05 , and (c) L P 04 cladding modes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sensitivity of both gratings (first and second) versus the fiber diameter for (a) SRI = 1.44 and (b) SRI = 1.33 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effective sensitive radius versus SRI and as function of the cladding mode.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sensitivity gain versus the fiber diameter for (a) SRI = 1.44 and (b) SRI = 1.33 .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Sensitivity gain versus the fiber diameter for SRI = 1.44 and SRI = 1.33 and the breaking strength with respect to the unperturbed fiber.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Effective Sensitive Radius for Several Cladding Modes and SRI Values

Equations (5)

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λ res = ( n e f f c o n e f f c l ( m ) ) Λ ,
S = | 1 λ res d λ res d SRI | .
S LPG - thinned ( LP   mode , SRI , r C L ) = S 0 ( LP   mode , SRI )
× SG ( LP   mode , SRI , r C L ) ,
SG ( LP   mode , SRI , r C L ) = e [ ( r C L r C L 0 ) / r e f f ( LP   mode , SRI ) ] ,

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