Abstract

The relative intensity noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) in the 100mHz to 50kHz frequency range is experimentally investigated using two representative single-mode VCSELs. Measurements in this frequency range are relevant to recently developed optical-based micromachined acoustic and accelerometer sensing structures that utilize VCSELs as the light source to form nearly monolithic 1mm3 packages. Although this frequency regime is far lower than the gigahertz range relevant to optical communication applications for which VCSELs are primarily designed, the intensity noise is found to be low and well within the range of cancellation using basic reference detection principles.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. A. Hall, R. Littrell, M. Okandan, B. Bicen, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined optical microphones with low thermal-mechanical noise levels," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (to be published).
    [PubMed]
  2. F. L. Degertekin, N. A. Hall, and W. Lee, "Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) with integrated optoelectronic readout," in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2001), pp. 875-881.
  3. N. A. Hall, W. Lee, J. Dervan, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined capacitive transducers with improved optical detection for ultrasound applications in air," in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1027-1030.
  4. W. Lee, N. A. Hall, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined acoustic sensor array with diffraction-based optical interferometric detection," Proc. SPIE 4985, 140-151 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Lee, N. A. Hall, Z. Zhou, and F. L. Degertekin, "Fabrication and characterization of a micromachined acoustic sensor with integrated optical readout," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 643-651 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Weili, B. Bicen, N. A. Hall, S. A. Jones, F. L. Degertekin, and R. N. Miles, "Optical sensing in a directional MEMS microphone inspired by the ears of the parasitoid fly, Ormia ochracea," in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 614-617.
  7. C. Gibbons and R. N. Miles, "Design of a biomimetic directional microphone diaphragm," ASME, Noise Control and Acoustics Division (Publication) NCA (ASME, 2000), Vol. 27, pp. 173-179.
  8. F. Tejada, A. G. Andreou, J. A. Miraqliotta, R. Osiander, and D. Wesolek, "Silicon on sapphire CMOS architectures for interferometric array readout," in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2004), pp. 880-883.
  9. F. Tejada, D. Wesolek, J. Lehtonen, J. A. Mirragliotta, A. G. Andreou, and R. Osiander, "An SOS MEMS interferometer," Proc. SPIE 5346, 27-36 (2004).
  10. E. B. Cooper, E. R. Post, S. Griffith, J. Levitan, S. R. Manalis, M. A. Schmidt, and C. F. Quate, "High-resolution micromachined interferometric accelerometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3316-3318 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. S. Greywall, "Micromachined optical-interference microphone," Sens. Actuators A 75, 257-268 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jager, and K. J. Ebeling, "Sub-Poissonian intensity noise from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3075-3077 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Wiedenmann, P. Schnitzer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, "Noise characteristics of 860 nm single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 717-719 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Signoret, G. Belleville, and B. Orsal, "Experimental investigation of the 1/f amplitude noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Fluct. Noise Lett. 1, L1-L5 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. C. D. Hobbs, "Ultrasensitive laser measurements without tears," Appl. Opt. 36, 903-920 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. Bilaniuk, "Optical microphone transduction techniques, Appl. Acoust. 50, 35-63 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Stanacevic, G. Cauwengberghs, and G. Zweig, "Gradient flow adaptive beamforming and signal separation in a miniature microphone array," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2002), pp. 416-419.

2006 (1)

C. Weili, B. Bicen, N. A. Hall, S. A. Jones, F. L. Degertekin, and R. N. Miles, "Optical sensing in a directional MEMS microphone inspired by the ears of the parasitoid fly, Ormia ochracea," in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 614-617.

2004 (3)

W. Lee, N. A. Hall, Z. Zhou, and F. L. Degertekin, "Fabrication and characterization of a micromachined acoustic sensor with integrated optical readout," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 643-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Tejada, A. G. Andreou, J. A. Miraqliotta, R. Osiander, and D. Wesolek, "Silicon on sapphire CMOS architectures for interferometric array readout," in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2004), pp. 880-883.

F. Tejada, D. Wesolek, J. Lehtonen, J. A. Mirragliotta, A. G. Andreou, and R. Osiander, "An SOS MEMS interferometer," Proc. SPIE 5346, 27-36 (2004).

2003 (1)

W. Lee, N. A. Hall, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined acoustic sensor array with diffraction-based optical interferometric detection," Proc. SPIE 4985, 140-151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

N. A. Hall, W. Lee, J. Dervan, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined capacitive transducers with improved optical detection for ultrasound applications in air," in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1027-1030.

M. Stanacevic, G. Cauwengberghs, and G. Zweig, "Gradient flow adaptive beamforming and signal separation in a miniature microphone array," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2002), pp. 416-419.

2001 (2)

P. Signoret, G. Belleville, and B. Orsal, "Experimental investigation of the 1/f amplitude noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Fluct. Noise Lett. 1, L1-L5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Degertekin, N. A. Hall, and W. Lee, "Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) with integrated optoelectronic readout," in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2001), pp. 875-881.

2000 (2)

E. B. Cooper, E. R. Post, S. Griffith, J. Levitan, S. R. Manalis, M. A. Schmidt, and C. F. Quate, "High-resolution micromachined interferometric accelerometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3316-3318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gibbons and R. N. Miles, "Design of a biomimetic directional microphone diaphragm," ASME, Noise Control and Acoustics Division (Publication) NCA (ASME, 2000), Vol. 27, pp. 173-179.

1999 (2)

D. S. Greywall, "Micromachined optical-interference microphone," Sens. Actuators A 75, 257-268 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jager, and K. J. Ebeling, "Sub-Poissonian intensity noise from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3075-3077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Wiedenmann, P. Schnitzer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, "Noise characteristics of 860 nm single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 717-719 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

N. Bilaniuk, "Optical microphone transduction techniques, Appl. Acoust. 50, 35-63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. C. D. Hobbs, "Ultrasensitive laser measurements without tears," Appl. Opt. 36, 903-920 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreou, A. G.

F. Tejada, D. Wesolek, J. Lehtonen, J. A. Mirragliotta, A. G. Andreou, and R. Osiander, "An SOS MEMS interferometer," Proc. SPIE 5346, 27-36 (2004).

F. Tejada, A. G. Andreou, J. A. Miraqliotta, R. Osiander, and D. Wesolek, "Silicon on sapphire CMOS architectures for interferometric array readout," in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2004), pp. 880-883.

Belleville, G.

P. Signoret, G. Belleville, and B. Orsal, "Experimental investigation of the 1/f amplitude noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Fluct. Noise Lett. 1, L1-L5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bicen, B.

C. Weili, B. Bicen, N. A. Hall, S. A. Jones, F. L. Degertekin, and R. N. Miles, "Optical sensing in a directional MEMS microphone inspired by the ears of the parasitoid fly, Ormia ochracea," in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 614-617.

N. A. Hall, R. Littrell, M. Okandan, B. Bicen, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined optical microphones with low thermal-mechanical noise levels," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Bilaniuk, N.

N. Bilaniuk, "Optical microphone transduction techniques, Appl. Acoust. 50, 35-63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cauwengberghs, G.

M. Stanacevic, G. Cauwengberghs, and G. Zweig, "Gradient flow adaptive beamforming and signal separation in a miniature microphone array," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2002), pp. 416-419.

Cooper, E. B.

E. B. Cooper, E. R. Post, S. Griffith, J. Levitan, S. R. Manalis, M. A. Schmidt, and C. F. Quate, "High-resolution micromachined interferometric accelerometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3316-3318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Degertekin, F. L.

C. Weili, B. Bicen, N. A. Hall, S. A. Jones, F. L. Degertekin, and R. N. Miles, "Optical sensing in a directional MEMS microphone inspired by the ears of the parasitoid fly, Ormia ochracea," in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 614-617.

W. Lee, N. A. Hall, Z. Zhou, and F. L. Degertekin, "Fabrication and characterization of a micromachined acoustic sensor with integrated optical readout," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 643-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee, N. A. Hall, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined acoustic sensor array with diffraction-based optical interferometric detection," Proc. SPIE 4985, 140-151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Hall, W. Lee, J. Dervan, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined capacitive transducers with improved optical detection for ultrasound applications in air," in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1027-1030.

F. L. Degertekin, N. A. Hall, and W. Lee, "Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) with integrated optoelectronic readout," in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2001), pp. 875-881.

N. A. Hall, R. Littrell, M. Okandan, B. Bicen, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined optical microphones with low thermal-mechanical noise levels," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Dervan, J.

N. A. Hall, W. Lee, J. Dervan, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined capacitive transducers with improved optical detection for ultrasound applications in air," in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1027-1030.

Ebeling, K. J.

D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jager, and K. J. Ebeling, "Sub-Poissonian intensity noise from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3075-3077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Wiedenmann, P. Schnitzer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, "Noise characteristics of 860 nm single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 717-719 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gibbons, C.

C. Gibbons and R. N. Miles, "Design of a biomimetic directional microphone diaphragm," ASME, Noise Control and Acoustics Division (Publication) NCA (ASME, 2000), Vol. 27, pp. 173-179.

Grabherr, M.

D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jager, and K. J. Ebeling, "Sub-Poissonian intensity noise from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3075-3077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Wiedenmann, P. Schnitzer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, "Noise characteristics of 860 nm single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 717-719 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Greywall, D. S.

D. S. Greywall, "Micromachined optical-interference microphone," Sens. Actuators A 75, 257-268 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Griffith, S.

E. B. Cooper, E. R. Post, S. Griffith, J. Levitan, S. R. Manalis, M. A. Schmidt, and C. F. Quate, "High-resolution micromachined interferometric accelerometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3316-3318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hall, N. A.

C. Weili, B. Bicen, N. A. Hall, S. A. Jones, F. L. Degertekin, and R. N. Miles, "Optical sensing in a directional MEMS microphone inspired by the ears of the parasitoid fly, Ormia ochracea," in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 614-617.

W. Lee, N. A. Hall, Z. Zhou, and F. L. Degertekin, "Fabrication and characterization of a micromachined acoustic sensor with integrated optical readout," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 643-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee, N. A. Hall, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined acoustic sensor array with diffraction-based optical interferometric detection," Proc. SPIE 4985, 140-151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Hall, W. Lee, J. Dervan, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined capacitive transducers with improved optical detection for ultrasound applications in air," in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1027-1030.

F. L. Degertekin, N. A. Hall, and W. Lee, "Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) with integrated optoelectronic readout," in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2001), pp. 875-881.

N. A. Hall, R. Littrell, M. Okandan, B. Bicen, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined optical microphones with low thermal-mechanical noise levels," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Hobbs, P. C. D.

Jager, R.

D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jager, and K. J. Ebeling, "Sub-Poissonian intensity noise from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3075-3077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Wiedenmann, P. Schnitzer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, "Noise characteristics of 860 nm single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 717-719 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jones, S. A.

C. Weili, B. Bicen, N. A. Hall, S. A. Jones, F. L. Degertekin, and R. N. Miles, "Optical sensing in a directional MEMS microphone inspired by the ears of the parasitoid fly, Ormia ochracea," in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 614-617.

Jung, C.

D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jager, and K. J. Ebeling, "Sub-Poissonian intensity noise from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3075-3077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Wiedenmann, P. Schnitzer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, "Noise characteristics of 860 nm single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 717-719 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kicherer, M.

D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jager, and K. J. Ebeling, "Sub-Poissonian intensity noise from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3075-3077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

W. Lee, N. A. Hall, Z. Zhou, and F. L. Degertekin, "Fabrication and characterization of a micromachined acoustic sensor with integrated optical readout," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 643-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee, N. A. Hall, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined acoustic sensor array with diffraction-based optical interferometric detection," Proc. SPIE 4985, 140-151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Hall, W. Lee, J. Dervan, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined capacitive transducers with improved optical detection for ultrasound applications in air," in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1027-1030.

F. L. Degertekin, N. A. Hall, and W. Lee, "Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) with integrated optoelectronic readout," in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2001), pp. 875-881.

Lehtonen, J.

F. Tejada, D. Wesolek, J. Lehtonen, J. A. Mirragliotta, A. G. Andreou, and R. Osiander, "An SOS MEMS interferometer," Proc. SPIE 5346, 27-36 (2004).

Levitan, J.

E. B. Cooper, E. R. Post, S. Griffith, J. Levitan, S. R. Manalis, M. A. Schmidt, and C. F. Quate, "High-resolution micromachined interferometric accelerometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3316-3318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Littrell, R.

N. A. Hall, R. Littrell, M. Okandan, B. Bicen, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined optical microphones with low thermal-mechanical noise levels," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Manalis, S. R.

E. B. Cooper, E. R. Post, S. Griffith, J. Levitan, S. R. Manalis, M. A. Schmidt, and C. F. Quate, "High-resolution micromachined interferometric accelerometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3316-3318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Michalzik, R.

D. Wiedenmann, P. Schnitzer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, "Noise characteristics of 860 nm single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 717-719 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. N.

C. Weili, B. Bicen, N. A. Hall, S. A. Jones, F. L. Degertekin, and R. N. Miles, "Optical sensing in a directional MEMS microphone inspired by the ears of the parasitoid fly, Ormia ochracea," in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 614-617.

C. Gibbons and R. N. Miles, "Design of a biomimetic directional microphone diaphragm," ASME, Noise Control and Acoustics Division (Publication) NCA (ASME, 2000), Vol. 27, pp. 173-179.

Miller, M.

D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jager, and K. J. Ebeling, "Sub-Poissonian intensity noise from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3075-3077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miraqliotta, J. A.

F. Tejada, A. G. Andreou, J. A. Miraqliotta, R. Osiander, and D. Wesolek, "Silicon on sapphire CMOS architectures for interferometric array readout," in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2004), pp. 880-883.

Mirragliotta, J. A.

F. Tejada, D. Wesolek, J. Lehtonen, J. A. Mirragliotta, A. G. Andreou, and R. Osiander, "An SOS MEMS interferometer," Proc. SPIE 5346, 27-36 (2004).

Okandan, M.

N. A. Hall, R. Littrell, M. Okandan, B. Bicen, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined optical microphones with low thermal-mechanical noise levels," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Orsal, B.

P. Signoret, G. Belleville, and B. Orsal, "Experimental investigation of the 1/f amplitude noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Fluct. Noise Lett. 1, L1-L5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Osiander, R.

F. Tejada, D. Wesolek, J. Lehtonen, J. A. Mirragliotta, A. G. Andreou, and R. Osiander, "An SOS MEMS interferometer," Proc. SPIE 5346, 27-36 (2004).

F. Tejada, A. G. Andreou, J. A. Miraqliotta, R. Osiander, and D. Wesolek, "Silicon on sapphire CMOS architectures for interferometric array readout," in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2004), pp. 880-883.

Post, E. R.

E. B. Cooper, E. R. Post, S. Griffith, J. Levitan, S. R. Manalis, M. A. Schmidt, and C. F. Quate, "High-resolution micromachined interferometric accelerometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3316-3318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Quate, C. F.

E. B. Cooper, E. R. Post, S. Griffith, J. Levitan, S. R. Manalis, M. A. Schmidt, and C. F. Quate, "High-resolution micromachined interferometric accelerometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3316-3318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. A.

E. B. Cooper, E. R. Post, S. Griffith, J. Levitan, S. R. Manalis, M. A. Schmidt, and C. F. Quate, "High-resolution micromachined interferometric accelerometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3316-3318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, P.

D. Wiedenmann, P. Schnitzer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, "Noise characteristics of 860 nm single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 717-719 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Signoret, P.

P. Signoret, G. Belleville, and B. Orsal, "Experimental investigation of the 1/f amplitude noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Fluct. Noise Lett. 1, L1-L5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stanacevic, M.

M. Stanacevic, G. Cauwengberghs, and G. Zweig, "Gradient flow adaptive beamforming and signal separation in a miniature microphone array," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2002), pp. 416-419.

Tejada, F.

F. Tejada, A. G. Andreou, J. A. Miraqliotta, R. Osiander, and D. Wesolek, "Silicon on sapphire CMOS architectures for interferometric array readout," in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2004), pp. 880-883.

F. Tejada, D. Wesolek, J. Lehtonen, J. A. Mirragliotta, A. G. Andreou, and R. Osiander, "An SOS MEMS interferometer," Proc. SPIE 5346, 27-36 (2004).

Weili, C.

C. Weili, B. Bicen, N. A. Hall, S. A. Jones, F. L. Degertekin, and R. N. Miles, "Optical sensing in a directional MEMS microphone inspired by the ears of the parasitoid fly, Ormia ochracea," in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 614-617.

Wesolek, D.

F. Tejada, A. G. Andreou, J. A. Miraqliotta, R. Osiander, and D. Wesolek, "Silicon on sapphire CMOS architectures for interferometric array readout," in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2004), pp. 880-883.

F. Tejada, D. Wesolek, J. Lehtonen, J. A. Mirragliotta, A. G. Andreou, and R. Osiander, "An SOS MEMS interferometer," Proc. SPIE 5346, 27-36 (2004).

Wiedenmann, D.

D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jager, and K. J. Ebeling, "Sub-Poissonian intensity noise from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3075-3077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Wiedenmann, P. Schnitzer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, "Noise characteristics of 860 nm single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 717-719 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

W. Lee, N. A. Hall, Z. Zhou, and F. L. Degertekin, "Fabrication and characterization of a micromachined acoustic sensor with integrated optical readout," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 643-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zweig, G.

M. Stanacevic, G. Cauwengberghs, and G. Zweig, "Gradient flow adaptive beamforming and signal separation in a miniature microphone array," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2002), pp. 416-419.

Appl. Acoust. (1)

N. Bilaniuk, "Optical microphone transduction techniques, Appl. Acoust. 50, 35-63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jager, and K. J. Ebeling, "Sub-Poissonian intensity noise from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3075-3077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Wiedenmann, P. Schnitzer, C. Jung, M. Grabherr, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, "Noise characteristics of 860 nm single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 717-719 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Cooper, E. R. Post, S. Griffith, J. Levitan, S. R. Manalis, M. A. Schmidt, and C. F. Quate, "High-resolution micromachined interferometric accelerometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3316-3318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fluct. Noise Lett. (1)

P. Signoret, G. Belleville, and B. Orsal, "Experimental investigation of the 1/f amplitude noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Fluct. Noise Lett. 1, L1-L5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Lee, N. A. Hall, Z. Zhou, and F. L. Degertekin, "Fabrication and characterization of a micromachined acoustic sensor with integrated optical readout," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 643-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

N. A. Hall, R. Littrell, M. Okandan, B. Bicen, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined optical microphones with low thermal-mechanical noise levels," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Lee, N. A. Hall, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined acoustic sensor array with diffraction-based optical interferometric detection," Proc. SPIE 4985, 140-151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators (1)

D. S. Greywall, "Micromachined optical-interference microphone," Sens. Actuators A 75, 257-268 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

F. L. Degertekin, N. A. Hall, and W. Lee, "Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) with integrated optoelectronic readout," in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2001), pp. 875-881.

N. A. Hall, W. Lee, J. Dervan, and F. L. Degertekin, "Micromachined capacitive transducers with improved optical detection for ultrasound applications in air," in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1027-1030.

C. Weili, B. Bicen, N. A. Hall, S. A. Jones, F. L. Degertekin, and R. N. Miles, "Optical sensing in a directional MEMS microphone inspired by the ears of the parasitoid fly, Ormia ochracea," in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 614-617.

C. Gibbons and R. N. Miles, "Design of a biomimetic directional microphone diaphragm," ASME, Noise Control and Acoustics Division (Publication) NCA (ASME, 2000), Vol. 27, pp. 173-179.

F. Tejada, A. G. Andreou, J. A. Miraqliotta, R. Osiander, and D. Wesolek, "Silicon on sapphire CMOS architectures for interferometric array readout," in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2004), pp. 880-883.

F. Tejada, D. Wesolek, J. Lehtonen, J. A. Mirragliotta, A. G. Andreou, and R. Osiander, "An SOS MEMS interferometer," Proc. SPIE 5346, 27-36 (2004).

M. Stanacevic, G. Cauwengberghs, and G. Zweig, "Gradient flow adaptive beamforming and signal separation in a miniature microphone array," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2002), pp. 416-419.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Noise measurement test setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the intensity noise cancellation circuit used in the measurements. This circuit is based on that initially demonstrated by Hobbs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) VCSEL intensity noise spectra in the audio frequency regime with and without relative intensity noise cancellation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Measured frequency response function of the laser noise cancellation circuitry, showing the anticipated low-frequency cutoff.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) VCSEL intensity noise spectra in the seismic frequency regime with and without cancellation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Calculated A-Weighted Displacement and Sound Pressure Noise Levels (SPLs) a

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