Abstract

A three-dimensional common-path interferometer is proposed, which can achromatically null out an on-axis source while maintaining the detectability of an off-axis source. A geometric phase in the three-dimensional interferometer introduces an achromatic π-phase shift to the light from the on-axis source, such that destructive interference nulls out the axial light at one of the ports of the interferometer. Light from the off-axis source, which is exempt from destructive interference, comes out from both ports with equal intensity. The common-path scheme makes the system highly immune to environmental disturbances. In the described experiment, a 6×106 peak-to-peak nulling contrast was obtained.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Serabyn, J. K. Wallace, G. J. Hardy, E. G. H. Schmidtlin, and H. T. Nguyen, "Deep nulling of visible laser light," Appl. Opt. 38, 7128-7132 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy. I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319-329 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, "Nulling interferometry by use of geometric phase," Opt. Lett. 26, 1167-1169 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. N. Bracewell, "Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer," Nature 274, 780-781 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A. Labeyrie, "The four-quadrant phase mask coronagraph," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Roddier and C. Roddier, "Stellar coronograph with phase mask," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 815-820 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. van der Avoort, A. Mieremet, S. Pereira, and J. Braat, "Demonstration of nulling using delay line phase shifters," Proc. SPIE 5491, 816-823 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, E. Bascou, and J. L. Schneider, Contract 14398/00/NL/MV Report (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2001).
  9. J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, "Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exoplanets," Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, R. Burg, L. Petro, P. Bely, B. Fleury, P.-Y. Madec, and F. Charbonnier, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy II," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 341-350 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. A. V. Tavrov, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Shioda, Y. Otani, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda, "Common-path achromatic interferometer-coronagraph: nulling of polychromatic light," Opt. Lett. 30, 2224-2226 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. S. Scholl and G. Paez, "Cancellation of star light generated by a nearby star-planet system upon detection with a rotationally shearing interferometer," Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 357-365 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Itoh, "Interferometric multispectral imaging," in Progress in Optics XXXV, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier Science, 1996), pp. 145-196.
  15. P. Hariharan, "Interferometers," in Handbook of Optics 2: Devices, Measurements and Properties, M.Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Chap. 21.
  16. A. Tavrov, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kawabata, M. Takeda, and V. Andreev, "Generalized algorithm for the unified analysis and simultaneous evaluation of geometrical spin-redirection phase and Pancharatnam phase in a complex interferometric system," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 17, 154-161 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison Wesley, 1995), Chap. 4.3.1.
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  19. W. Traub, "Beam combination and fringe measurement," in Principles of Long Baseline Stellar Inteferometry, P. Lawson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1999), Publ. 00009 07/00, Chap. 3.
  20. A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, and D. Rouan, "Speckle symmetry with high-contrast coronagraphs," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 132-136 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, D. Nadeau, D. Lafreniere, P. Vallee, M. Riopel, and B. Macintosh, "Direct exoplanet imaging around Sun-like stars: beating the speckle noise with innovative imaging technique," J. R. Astron. Soc. Canada 99, 130-135 (2005).
  22. B. Biller, L. Close, R. Lenzen, W. Brandner, D. McCarthy, E. Nielsen, and M. Hartung, "Supressing speckle noise for simultaneous differential extrasolar planet imaging (SDI) at the VLT and MMT," Proc. SPIE 5490, 389-397 (2004).

2005 (3)

A. V. Tavrov, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Shioda, Y. Otani, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda, "Common-path achromatic interferometer-coronagraph: nulling of polychromatic light," Opt. Lett. 30, 2224-2226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, "Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exoplanets," Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, D. Nadeau, D. Lafreniere, P. Vallee, M. Riopel, and B. Macintosh, "Direct exoplanet imaging around Sun-like stars: beating the speckle noise with innovative imaging technique," J. R. Astron. Soc. Canada 99, 130-135 (2005).

2004 (3)

B. Biller, L. Close, R. Lenzen, W. Brandner, D. McCarthy, E. Nielsen, and M. Hartung, "Supressing speckle noise for simultaneous differential extrasolar planet imaging (SDI) at the VLT and MMT," Proc. SPIE 5490, 389-397 (2004).

A. V. Tavrov, Y. Tanaka, T. Shioda, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda , "Achromatic coronagraph based on out-of-plane common-path nulling interferometer," Proc. SPIE 5491, 824-830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. van der Avoort, A. Mieremet, S. Pereira, and J. Braat, "Demonstration of nulling using delay line phase shifters," Proc. SPIE 5491, 816-823 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, and D. Rouan, "Speckle symmetry with high-contrast coronagraphs," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 132-136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 2002), Chap. 10.

2001 (2)

Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, E. Bascou, and J. L. Schneider, Contract 14398/00/NL/MV Report (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2001).

N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, "Nulling interferometry by use of geometric phase," Opt. Lett. 26, 1167-1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy. I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319-329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A. Labeyrie, "The four-quadrant phase mask coronagraph," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, R. Burg, L. Petro, P. Bely, B. Fleury, P.-Y. Madec, and F. Charbonnier, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy II," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 341-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Tavrov, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kawabata, M. Takeda, and V. Andreev, "Generalized algorithm for the unified analysis and simultaneous evaluation of geometrical spin-redirection phase and Pancharatnam phase in a complex interferometric system," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 17, 154-161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. S. Scholl and G. Paez, "Cancellation of star light generated by a nearby star-planet system upon detection with a rotationally shearing interferometer," Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 357-365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, J. K. Wallace, G. J. Hardy, E. G. H. Schmidtlin, and H. T. Nguyen, "Deep nulling of visible laser light," Appl. Opt. 38, 7128-7132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Traub, "Beam combination and fringe measurement," in Principles of Long Baseline Stellar Inteferometry, P. Lawson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1999), Publ. 00009 07/00, Chap. 3.

1997 (1)

F. Roddier and C. Roddier, "Stellar coronograph with phase mask," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 815-820 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Itoh, "Interferometric multispectral imaging," in Progress in Optics XXXV, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier Science, 1996), pp. 145-196.

1995 (2)

P. Hariharan, "Interferometers," in Handbook of Optics 2: Devices, Measurements and Properties, M.Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Chap. 21.

E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison Wesley, 1995), Chap. 4.3.1.

1978 (1)

R. N. Bracewell, "Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer," Nature 274, 780-781 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, V.

A. Tavrov, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kawabata, M. Takeda, and V. Andreev, "Generalized algorithm for the unified analysis and simultaneous evaluation of geometrical spin-redirection phase and Pancharatnam phase in a complex interferometric system," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 17, 154-161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baba, N.

J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, "Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exoplanets," Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, "Nulling interferometry by use of geometric phase," Opt. Lett. 26, 1167-1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bascou, E.

Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, E. Bascou, and J. L. Schneider, Contract 14398/00/NL/MV Report (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2001).

Baudoz, P.

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, R. Burg, L. Petro, P. Bely, B. Fleury, P.-Y. Madec, and F. Charbonnier, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy II," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 341-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy. I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319-329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bely, P.

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, R. Burg, L. Petro, P. Bely, B. Fleury, P.-Y. Madec, and F. Charbonnier, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy II," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 341-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biller, B.

B. Biller, L. Close, R. Lenzen, W. Brandner, D. McCarthy, E. Nielsen, and M. Hartung, "Supressing speckle noise for simultaneous differential extrasolar planet imaging (SDI) at the VLT and MMT," Proc. SPIE 5490, 389-397 (2004).

Boccaletti, A.

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, and D. Rouan, "Speckle symmetry with high-contrast coronagraphs," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 132-136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A. Labeyrie, "The four-quadrant phase mask coronagraph," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 2002), Chap. 10.

Braat, J.

C. van der Avoort, A. Mieremet, S. Pereira, and J. Braat, "Demonstration of nulling using delay line phase shifters," Proc. SPIE 5491, 816-823 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bracewell, R. N.

R. N. Bracewell, "Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer," Nature 274, 780-781 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Brandner, W.

B. Biller, L. Close, R. Lenzen, W. Brandner, D. McCarthy, E. Nielsen, and M. Hartung, "Supressing speckle noise for simultaneous differential extrasolar planet imaging (SDI) at the VLT and MMT," Proc. SPIE 5490, 389-397 (2004).

Burg, R.

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, R. Burg, L. Petro, P. Bely, B. Fleury, P.-Y. Madec, and F. Charbonnier, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy II," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 341-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Charbonnier, F.

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, R. Burg, L. Petro, P. Bely, B. Fleury, P.-Y. Madec, and F. Charbonnier, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy II," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 341-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clenet, Y.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A. Labeyrie, "The four-quadrant phase mask coronagraph," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Close, L.

B. Biller, L. Close, R. Lenzen, W. Brandner, D. McCarthy, E. Nielsen, and M. Hartung, "Supressing speckle noise for simultaneous differential extrasolar planet imaging (SDI) at the VLT and MMT," Proc. SPIE 5490, 389-397 (2004).

Doyon, R.

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, D. Nadeau, D. Lafreniere, P. Vallee, M. Riopel, and B. Macintosh, "Direct exoplanet imaging around Sun-like stars: beating the speckle noise with innovative imaging technique," J. R. Astron. Soc. Canada 99, 130-135 (2005).

Fleury, B.

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, R. Burg, L. Petro, P. Bely, B. Fleury, P.-Y. Madec, and F. Charbonnier, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy II," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 341-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gay, J.

Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, E. Bascou, and J. L. Schneider, Contract 14398/00/NL/MV Report (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2001).

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, R. Burg, L. Petro, P. Bely, B. Fleury, P.-Y. Madec, and F. Charbonnier, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy II," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 341-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy. I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319-329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, G. J.

Hariharan, P.

P. Hariharan, "Interferometers," in Handbook of Optics 2: Devices, Measurements and Properties, M.Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Chap. 21.

Hartung, M.

B. Biller, L. Close, R. Lenzen, W. Brandner, D. McCarthy, E. Nielsen, and M. Hartung, "Supressing speckle noise for simultaneous differential extrasolar planet imaging (SDI) at the VLT and MMT," Proc. SPIE 5490, 389-397 (2004).

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison Wesley, 1995), Chap. 4.3.1.

Ishigaki, T.

Itoh, K.

K. Itoh, "Interferometric multispectral imaging," in Progress in Optics XXXV, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier Science, 1996), pp. 145-196.

Itoh, Y.

J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, "Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exoplanets," Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawabata, T.

A. Tavrov, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kawabata, M. Takeda, and V. Andreev, "Generalized algorithm for the unified analysis and simultaneous evaluation of geometrical spin-redirection phase and Pancharatnam phase in a complex interferometric system," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 17, 154-161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

Kotani, T.

J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, "Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exoplanets," Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

A. V. Tavrov, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Shioda, Y. Otani, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda, "Common-path achromatic interferometer-coronagraph: nulling of polychromatic light," Opt. Lett. 30, 2224-2226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Tavrov, Y. Tanaka, T. Shioda, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda , "Achromatic coronagraph based on out-of-plane common-path nulling interferometer," Proc. SPIE 5491, 824-830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A. Labeyrie, "The four-quadrant phase mask coronagraph," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lafreniere, D.

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, D. Nadeau, D. Lafreniere, P. Vallee, M. Riopel, and B. Macintosh, "Direct exoplanet imaging around Sun-like stars: beating the speckle noise with innovative imaging technique," J. R. Astron. Soc. Canada 99, 130-135 (2005).

Lawson, P.

W. Traub, "Beam combination and fringe measurement," in Principles of Long Baseline Stellar Inteferometry, P. Lawson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1999), Publ. 00009 07/00, Chap. 3.

Lenzen, R.

B. Biller, L. Close, R. Lenzen, W. Brandner, D. McCarthy, E. Nielsen, and M. Hartung, "Supressing speckle noise for simultaneous differential extrasolar planet imaging (SDI) at the VLT and MMT," Proc. SPIE 5490, 389-397 (2004).

Macintosh, B.

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, D. Nadeau, D. Lafreniere, P. Vallee, M. Riopel, and B. Macintosh, "Direct exoplanet imaging around Sun-like stars: beating the speckle noise with innovative imaging technique," J. R. Astron. Soc. Canada 99, 130-135 (2005).

Madec, P.-Y.

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, R. Burg, L. Petro, P. Bely, B. Fleury, P.-Y. Madec, and F. Charbonnier, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy II," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 341-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marois, C.

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, D. Nadeau, D. Lafreniere, P. Vallee, M. Riopel, and B. Macintosh, "Direct exoplanet imaging around Sun-like stars: beating the speckle noise with innovative imaging technique," J. R. Astron. Soc. Canada 99, 130-135 (2005).

McCarthy, D.

B. Biller, L. Close, R. Lenzen, W. Brandner, D. McCarthy, E. Nielsen, and M. Hartung, "Supressing speckle noise for simultaneous differential extrasolar planet imaging (SDI) at the VLT and MMT," Proc. SPIE 5490, 389-397 (2004).

Mieremet, A.

C. van der Avoort, A. Mieremet, S. Pereira, and J. Braat, "Demonstration of nulling using delay line phase shifters," Proc. SPIE 5491, 816-823 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

A. Tavrov, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kawabata, M. Takeda, and V. Andreev, "Generalized algorithm for the unified analysis and simultaneous evaluation of geometrical spin-redirection phase and Pancharatnam phase in a complex interferometric system," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 17, 154-161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, N.

J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, "Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exoplanets," Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, "Nulling interferometry by use of geometric phase," Opt. Lett. 26, 1167-1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nadeau, D.

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, D. Nadeau, D. Lafreniere, P. Vallee, M. Riopel, and B. Macintosh, "Direct exoplanet imaging around Sun-like stars: beating the speckle noise with innovative imaging technique," J. R. Astron. Soc. Canada 99, 130-135 (2005).

Nguyen, H. T.

Nielsen, E.

B. Biller, L. Close, R. Lenzen, W. Brandner, D. McCarthy, E. Nielsen, and M. Hartung, "Supressing speckle noise for simultaneous differential extrasolar planet imaging (SDI) at the VLT and MMT," Proc. SPIE 5490, 389-397 (2004).

Nishikawa, J.

J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, "Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exoplanets," Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Otani, Y.

Paez, G.

M. S. Scholl and G. Paez, "Cancellation of star light generated by a nearby star-planet system upon detection with a rotationally shearing interferometer," Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 357-365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S.

C. van der Avoort, A. Mieremet, S. Pereira, and J. Braat, "Demonstration of nulling using delay line phase shifters," Proc. SPIE 5491, 816-823 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petro, L.

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, R. Burg, L. Petro, P. Bely, B. Fleury, P.-Y. Madec, and F. Charbonnier, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy II," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 341-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rabbia, Y.

Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, E. Bascou, and J. L. Schneider, Contract 14398/00/NL/MV Report (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2001).

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, R. Burg, L. Petro, P. Bely, B. Fleury, P.-Y. Madec, and F. Charbonnier, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy II," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 341-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy. I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319-329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Racine, R.

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, D. Nadeau, D. Lafreniere, P. Vallee, M. Riopel, and B. Macintosh, "Direct exoplanet imaging around Sun-like stars: beating the speckle noise with innovative imaging technique," J. R. Astron. Soc. Canada 99, 130-135 (2005).

Riaud, P.

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, and D. Rouan, "Speckle symmetry with high-contrast coronagraphs," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 132-136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A. Labeyrie, "The four-quadrant phase mask coronagraph," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riopel, M.

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, D. Nadeau, D. Lafreniere, P. Vallee, M. Riopel, and B. Macintosh, "Direct exoplanet imaging around Sun-like stars: beating the speckle noise with innovative imaging technique," J. R. Astron. Soc. Canada 99, 130-135 (2005).

Roddier, C.

F. Roddier and C. Roddier, "Stellar coronograph with phase mask," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 815-820 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier and C. Roddier, "Stellar coronograph with phase mask," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 815-820 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rouan, D.

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, and D. Rouan, "Speckle symmetry with high-contrast coronagraphs," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 132-136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A. Labeyrie, "The four-quadrant phase mask coronagraph," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtlin, E. G. H.

Schneider, J. L.

Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, E. Bascou, and J. L. Schneider, Contract 14398/00/NL/MV Report (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2001).

Scholl, M. S.

M. S. Scholl and G. Paez, "Cancellation of star light generated by a nearby star-planet system upon detection with a rotationally shearing interferometer," Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 357-365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Serabyn, E.

Shioda, T.

A. V. Tavrov, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Shioda, Y. Otani, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda, "Common-path achromatic interferometer-coronagraph: nulling of polychromatic light," Opt. Lett. 30, 2224-2226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Tavrov, Y. Tanaka, T. Shioda, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda , "Achromatic coronagraph based on out-of-plane common-path nulling interferometer," Proc. SPIE 5491, 824-830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

A. V. Tavrov, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Shioda, Y. Otani, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda, "Common-path achromatic interferometer-coronagraph: nulling of polychromatic light," Opt. Lett. 30, 2224-2226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Tavrov, Y. Tanaka, T. Shioda, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda , "Achromatic coronagraph based on out-of-plane common-path nulling interferometer," Proc. SPIE 5491, 824-830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Tavrov, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kawabata, M. Takeda, and V. Andreev, "Generalized algorithm for the unified analysis and simultaneous evaluation of geometrical spin-redirection phase and Pancharatnam phase in a complex interferometric system," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 17, 154-161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, M.

J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, "Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exoplanets," Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

A. V. Tavrov, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Shioda, Y. Otani, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda, "Common-path achromatic interferometer-coronagraph: nulling of polychromatic light," Opt. Lett. 30, 2224-2226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Tavrov, Y. Tanaka, T. Shioda, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda , "Achromatic coronagraph based on out-of-plane common-path nulling interferometer," Proc. SPIE 5491, 824-830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tavrov, A.

A. Tavrov, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kawabata, M. Takeda, and V. Andreev, "Generalized algorithm for the unified analysis and simultaneous evaluation of geometrical spin-redirection phase and Pancharatnam phase in a complex interferometric system," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 17, 154-161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tavrov, A. V.

A. V. Tavrov, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Shioda, Y. Otani, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda, "Common-path achromatic interferometer-coronagraph: nulling of polychromatic light," Opt. Lett. 30, 2224-2226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Tavrov, Y. Tanaka, T. Shioda, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda , "Achromatic coronagraph based on out-of-plane common-path nulling interferometer," Proc. SPIE 5491, 824-830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W.

W. Traub, "Beam combination and fringe measurement," in Principles of Long Baseline Stellar Inteferometry, P. Lawson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1999), Publ. 00009 07/00, Chap. 3.

Vallee, P.

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, D. Nadeau, D. Lafreniere, P. Vallee, M. Riopel, and B. Macintosh, "Direct exoplanet imaging around Sun-like stars: beating the speckle noise with innovative imaging technique," J. R. Astron. Soc. Canada 99, 130-135 (2005).

van der Avoort, C.

C. van der Avoort, A. Mieremet, S. Pereira, and J. Braat, "Demonstration of nulling using delay line phase shifters," Proc. SPIE 5491, 816-823 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, J. K.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 2002), Chap. 10.

K. Itoh, "Interferometric multispectral imaging," in Progress in Optics XXXV, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier Science, 1996), pp. 145-196.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

J. Nishikawa, T. Kotani, N. Murakami, N. Baba, Y. Itoh, and M. Tamura, "Combination of nulling interferometer and modified pupil for observations of exoplanets," Astron. Astrophys. 435, 379-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (2)

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, R. Burg, L. Petro, P. Bely, B. Fleury, P.-Y. Madec, and F. Charbonnier, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy II," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 341-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, "Achromatic interfero coronagraphy. I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319-329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

M. S. Scholl and G. Paez, "Cancellation of star light generated by a nearby star-planet system upon detection with a rotationally shearing interferometer," Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 357-365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am A (1)

A. Tavrov, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kawabata, M. Takeda, and V. Andreev, "Generalized algorithm for the unified analysis and simultaneous evaluation of geometrical spin-redirection phase and Pancharatnam phase in a complex interferometric system," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 17, 154-161 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Astron. Soc. Canada (1)

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, D. Nadeau, D. Lafreniere, P. Vallee, M. Riopel, and B. Macintosh, "Direct exoplanet imaging around Sun-like stars: beating the speckle noise with innovative imaging technique," J. R. Astron. Soc. Canada 99, 130-135 (2005).

Nature (1)

R. N. Bracewell, "Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer," Nature 274, 780-781 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. V. Tavrov, Y. Tanaka, T. Shioda, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda , "Achromatic coronagraph based on out-of-plane common-path nulling interferometer," Proc. SPIE 5491, 824-830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. van der Avoort, A. Mieremet, S. Pereira, and J. Braat, "Demonstration of nulling using delay line phase shifters," Proc. SPIE 5491, 816-823 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (3)

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A. Labeyrie, "The four-quadrant phase mask coronagraph," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Roddier and C. Roddier, "Stellar coronograph with phase mask," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 815-820 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, and D. Rouan, "Speckle symmetry with high-contrast coronagraphs," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 132-136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

K. Itoh, "Interferometric multispectral imaging," in Progress in Optics XXXV, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier Science, 1996), pp. 145-196.

P. Hariharan, "Interferometers," in Handbook of Optics 2: Devices, Measurements and Properties, M.Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Chap. 21.

E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison Wesley, 1995), Chap. 4.3.1.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 2002), Chap. 10.

W. Traub, "Beam combination and fringe measurement," in Principles of Long Baseline Stellar Inteferometry, P. Lawson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1999), Publ. 00009 07/00, Chap. 3.

Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, E. Bascou, and J. L. Schneider, Contract 14398/00/NL/MV Report (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2001).

B. Biller, L. Close, R. Lenzen, W. Brandner, D. McCarthy, E. Nielsen, and M. Hartung, "Supressing speckle noise for simultaneous differential extrasolar planet imaging (SDI) at the VLT and MMT," Proc. SPIE 5490, 389-397 (2004).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic schematic of nulling for long baseline interferometry and coronagraphy.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Common-path interferometer. (a) Schematics, (b), (c) p and s polarization vector tracing along the interferometer arms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) AIC nulling contrast versus the effective source size.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Experimental schematic.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pupil plane interference patterns: (a) extended on-axis source, (b) off-axis source, (c) superposition of the on-axis source and the off-axis sources.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Achromatic nulling of the on-axis source, the bright output is above the nulled output. (a) Off-axis source switched on; normal display (left) and contrast-enhanced display. (b) On-axis source switched on. (c) Unsaturated intensity values are summed up inside the zoomed areas. The nulling contrast is about 10 3 . (d) Both the on-axis and the off-axis sources switched on; normal display (left) and contrast-enhanced display.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Partially developed speckles pattern (below). The reference bright image is attenuated in 2 × 10 4 times (above).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Peak-to-peak residual speckle contrast around 6.5 × 10 6 . (a) Nulled port image and bright port image for reference is 10 5 attenuated (down left). (b) Residual intensity after nulling. (c) Cross-sectional intensity profiles, shown by solid curve, is not averaged, shown by line with * marks, is averaged over the Airy ring with corresponding λ / D radius.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Nulling of spatially filtered image.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Photo and principal rays in experimental setup.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Photo and schematics of prismatic design.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nulling Contrast Versus the Maximal Tilt Misalignment

Equations (11)

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NC = I Nulled I Bright .
N C ( Θ ) 0.5 ( 1 ( 1 J 0 ( 2 k θ R ) ) / ( k θ R ) 2 ) ,
NC { 0.006 ( λ / D ) } 10 5 ,
NC { 0.002 ( λ / D ) } 10 6 .
μ ¯ = Pupil A ( x , y ) [ μ ( x , y ; x , y ) ] d x d y / Pupil A ( x , y ) d x d y ,
NC ( 1 Re { μ ¯ } ) / ( 1 + Re { μ ¯ } ) .
D coherence 3.83 λ 0 F / ( d π ) + 2 L λ 0 / D ,
V exp { ( 2 π δ 0 / λ ) 2 } .
δ 0 2 λ / ( m 5.5   cos   45 ° ) .
D Airy = 1.22 λ F / D .
R s T p = T s R p ,

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