Abstract

Biomechanical studies often involve measurements of the strains developed in tendons or ligaments in posture or locomotion. Fiber-optic sensors present an attractive option for the measurement of strains in tendons and ligaments because of their low cost, ease of implementation, and increased accuracy compared with other implantable transducers. A new displacement sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating and shape memory alloy technology is proposed for the monitoring of tendon and ligament strains in different postures and in locomotion. After sensor calibration in the laboratory, a comparison of the fiber sensors and traditional camera displacement sensors was carried out to evaluate the performance of the fiber sensor during the application of tension to the Achilles tendon. Additional experiments were performed in cadaver knees to assess the suitability of these fiber sensors to measure ligament deformation in a variety of simulated postures. The results demonstrate that the proposed fiber Bragg grating sensor is a highly accurate, easily implantable, and minimally invasive method of measuring tendon and ligament displacement.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Kawada, T. Abe, K. Yamamoto, S. Hirokawa, T. Soejima, N. Tanaka, and A. Inoue, "Analysis of strain distribution in the medial collateral ligament using a photoelastic coating method," Med. Eng. Phys. 21, 279-291 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Tsutsumi, A. Kyusojin, M. Nagaya, and K. Kokihara, "High precision 3D coordinate measuring by the two CCD camera system," J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 64(12), 1752-1756 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Erdemir, S. J. Piazza, and N. A. Sharkey, "Influence of loading rate and cable migration on fiberoptic measurement of tendon force," J. Biomech. 35, 857-862 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. W. Morey, J. R. Dunphy, and G. Meltz, "Multiplexing fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE 1586, 216-224 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Kersey AD, Michael AD, Heather JP, Michel L, Koo KP, Askins CG, Putnam MA, and Friebele EJ, 1997, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463.
  6. H.-N. Li, D.-S. Li, and G. Song, "Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering," Eng. Struct. 26, 1647-1657 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. J. Rao, "Recent progress in applications of in-fibre Bragg grating sensors," Opt. Lasers Eng. 31, 297-324 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H.-N. Li, D.-S. Li, and G. Song, "Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering," Eng. Struct. 26, 1647-1657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Erdemir, S. J. Piazza, and N. A. Sharkey, "Influence of loading rate and cable migration on fiberoptic measurement of tendon force," J. Biomech. 35, 857-862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

T. Kawada, T. Abe, K. Yamamoto, S. Hirokawa, T. Soejima, N. Tanaka, and A. Inoue, "Analysis of strain distribution in the medial collateral ligament using a photoelastic coating method," Med. Eng. Phys. 21, 279-291 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Rao, "Recent progress in applications of in-fibre Bragg grating sensors," Opt. Lasers Eng. 31, 297-324 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Tsutsumi, A. Kyusojin, M. Nagaya, and K. Kokihara, "High precision 3D coordinate measuring by the two CCD camera system," J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 64(12), 1752-1756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. W. Morey, J. R. Dunphy, and G. Meltz, "Multiplexing fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE 1586, 216-224 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abe, T.

T. Kawada, T. Abe, K. Yamamoto, S. Hirokawa, T. Soejima, N. Tanaka, and A. Inoue, "Analysis of strain distribution in the medial collateral ligament using a photoelastic coating method," Med. Eng. Phys. 21, 279-291 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AD, Kersey

Kersey AD, Michael AD, Heather JP, Michel L, Koo KP, Askins CG, Putnam MA, and Friebele EJ, 1997, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463.

AD, Michael

Kersey AD, Michael AD, Heather JP, Michel L, Koo KP, Askins CG, Putnam MA, and Friebele EJ, 1997, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463.

CG, Askins

Kersey AD, Michael AD, Heather JP, Michel L, Koo KP, Askins CG, Putnam MA, and Friebele EJ, 1997, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463.

Dunphy, J. R.

W. W. Morey, J. R. Dunphy, and G. Meltz, "Multiplexing fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE 1586, 216-224 (1992).
[CrossRef]

EJ, Friebele

Kersey AD, Michael AD, Heather JP, Michel L, Koo KP, Askins CG, Putnam MA, and Friebele EJ, 1997, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463.

Erdemir, A.

A. Erdemir, S. J. Piazza, and N. A. Sharkey, "Influence of loading rate and cable migration on fiberoptic measurement of tendon force," J. Biomech. 35, 857-862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirokawa, S.

T. Kawada, T. Abe, K. Yamamoto, S. Hirokawa, T. Soejima, N. Tanaka, and A. Inoue, "Analysis of strain distribution in the medial collateral ligament using a photoelastic coating method," Med. Eng. Phys. 21, 279-291 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, A.

T. Kawada, T. Abe, K. Yamamoto, S. Hirokawa, T. Soejima, N. Tanaka, and A. Inoue, "Analysis of strain distribution in the medial collateral ligament using a photoelastic coating method," Med. Eng. Phys. 21, 279-291 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

JP, Heather

Kersey AD, Michael AD, Heather JP, Michel L, Koo KP, Askins CG, Putnam MA, and Friebele EJ, 1997, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463.

Kawada, T.

T. Kawada, T. Abe, K. Yamamoto, S. Hirokawa, T. Soejima, N. Tanaka, and A. Inoue, "Analysis of strain distribution in the medial collateral ligament using a photoelastic coating method," Med. Eng. Phys. 21, 279-291 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kokihara, K.

H. Tsutsumi, A. Kyusojin, M. Nagaya, and K. Kokihara, "High precision 3D coordinate measuring by the two CCD camera system," J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 64(12), 1752-1756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

KP, Koo

Kersey AD, Michael AD, Heather JP, Michel L, Koo KP, Askins CG, Putnam MA, and Friebele EJ, 1997, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463.

Kyusojin, A.

H. Tsutsumi, A. Kyusojin, M. Nagaya, and K. Kokihara, "High precision 3D coordinate measuring by the two CCD camera system," J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 64(12), 1752-1756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L, Michel

Kersey AD, Michael AD, Heather JP, Michel L, Koo KP, Askins CG, Putnam MA, and Friebele EJ, 1997, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463.

Li, D.-S.

H.-N. Li, D.-S. Li, and G. Song, "Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering," Eng. Struct. 26, 1647-1657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.-N.

H.-N. Li, D.-S. Li, and G. Song, "Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering," Eng. Struct. 26, 1647-1657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

MA, Putnam

Kersey AD, Michael AD, Heather JP, Michel L, Koo KP, Askins CG, Putnam MA, and Friebele EJ, 1997, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463.

Meltz, G.

W. W. Morey, J. R. Dunphy, and G. Meltz, "Multiplexing fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE 1586, 216-224 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W. W.

W. W. Morey, J. R. Dunphy, and G. Meltz, "Multiplexing fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE 1586, 216-224 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nagaya, M.

H. Tsutsumi, A. Kyusojin, M. Nagaya, and K. Kokihara, "High precision 3D coordinate measuring by the two CCD camera system," J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 64(12), 1752-1756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Piazza, S. J.

A. Erdemir, S. J. Piazza, and N. A. Sharkey, "Influence of loading rate and cable migration on fiberoptic measurement of tendon force," J. Biomech. 35, 857-862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, Y. J.

Y. J. Rao, "Recent progress in applications of in-fibre Bragg grating sensors," Opt. Lasers Eng. 31, 297-324 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sharkey, N. A.

A. Erdemir, S. J. Piazza, and N. A. Sharkey, "Influence of loading rate and cable migration on fiberoptic measurement of tendon force," J. Biomech. 35, 857-862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soejima, T.

T. Kawada, T. Abe, K. Yamamoto, S. Hirokawa, T. Soejima, N. Tanaka, and A. Inoue, "Analysis of strain distribution in the medial collateral ligament using a photoelastic coating method," Med. Eng. Phys. 21, 279-291 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, G.

H.-N. Li, D.-S. Li, and G. Song, "Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering," Eng. Struct. 26, 1647-1657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, N.

T. Kawada, T. Abe, K. Yamamoto, S. Hirokawa, T. Soejima, N. Tanaka, and A. Inoue, "Analysis of strain distribution in the medial collateral ligament using a photoelastic coating method," Med. Eng. Phys. 21, 279-291 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsutsumi, H.

H. Tsutsumi, A. Kyusojin, M. Nagaya, and K. Kokihara, "High precision 3D coordinate measuring by the two CCD camera system," J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 64(12), 1752-1756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

T. Kawada, T. Abe, K. Yamamoto, S. Hirokawa, T. Soejima, N. Tanaka, and A. Inoue, "Analysis of strain distribution in the medial collateral ligament using a photoelastic coating method," Med. Eng. Phys. 21, 279-291 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eng. Struct. (1)

H.-N. Li, D.-S. Li, and G. Song, "Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering," Eng. Struct. 26, 1647-1657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomech. (1)

A. Erdemir, S. J. Piazza, and N. A. Sharkey, "Influence of loading rate and cable migration on fiberoptic measurement of tendon force," J. Biomech. 35, 857-862 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. (1)

H. Tsutsumi, A. Kyusojin, M. Nagaya, and K. Kokihara, "High precision 3D coordinate measuring by the two CCD camera system," J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 64(12), 1752-1756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Kersey AD, Michael AD, Heather JP, Michel L, Koo KP, Askins CG, Putnam MA, and Friebele EJ, 1997, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463.

Med. Eng. Phys. (1)

T. Kawada, T. Abe, K. Yamamoto, S. Hirokawa, T. Soejima, N. Tanaka, and A. Inoue, "Analysis of strain distribution in the medial collateral ligament using a photoelastic coating method," Med. Eng. Phys. 21, 279-291 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

Y. J. Rao, "Recent progress in applications of in-fibre Bragg grating sensors," Opt. Lasers Eng. 31, 297-324 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. W. Morey, J. R. Dunphy, and G. Meltz, "Multiplexing fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE 1586, 216-224 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Photograph of the FBG displacement sensor mounted on a leather sheet.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) FBG displacement sensor calibration result.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Pictures of Achilles tendon tests.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Comparison of measured tendon elongation of the FBG sensor and camera stereovision sensor.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Repeatability and stability investigation of the FBG sensor and camera stereovision sensor.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Specimen with surface-mounted FBG sensors in the ligaments.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Results of FBG sensors when the specimen was in a horizontal position.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Results of FBG sensors when the specimen was in a vertical position.

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