Abstract

We present a data-fidelity metric for quantifying distortion in slow-light optical pulse delay devices. We demonstrate the utility of this metric by applying it to the performance optimization of gain-based slow-light delay systems for Gaussian and super-Gaussian pulses. Symmetric Lorentzian double-line and triple-line gain systems are optimized and achieve maximum delay of 1.5 and 1.7 times the single-line gain system delay, respectively. The resulting double-line gain system design is qualitatively similar to the double-line gain system designed with a previous metric, but is tuned specifically to constrain data fidelity.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. G. Sedgwick, B. Pesala, J. Y. Lin, W. S. Ko, X. Zhao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "THz-bandwidth tunable slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Express 15, 747-753 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Shumakher, A. Willinger, R. Blit, D. Dahan, and G. Eisenstein, "Large tunable delay with low distortion of 10 Gbit/s data in a slow-light system based on narrowband fiber parametric amplification," Opt. Express 14, 8540-8545 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Broadband SBS slow light in optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. G. Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Zadok, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Express 14, 8498-8505 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Chin, M. G. Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, "Zero-gain slow- and fast-light propagation in an optical fiber," Opt. Express 14, 10684-10692 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Blair and K. Zheng, "Intensity-tunable group delay using stimulated Raman scattering in silicon slow-light waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 1064-1069 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zhubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Y. Song, M. G. Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, "Long optically controlled delays in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1782-1784 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. E. Heebner and R. W. Boyd, "Slow and fast light in resonator-coupled waveguides," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2629-2636 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, "Superluminal and slow-light propagation in a room-temperature solid," Science 301, 200-202 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Mori and T. Baba, "Dispersion-controlled optical group delay device by chirped photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1101-1103 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Delay-bandwidth product and storage density in slow-light optical buffers," Electron. Lett. 41, 208-209 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2002), Chap. 6, pp. 497-530.
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Gauthier, "Slow light brings faster communication," Phys. World 18, 30-32 (2005).
  19. D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and R. W. Boyd, "Slow light: from basics to future prospects," Photonics Spectra , March 2006, pp. 44-50.
  20. R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, and A. L. Gaeta, "Applications of slow light in telecommunications," Opt. Photon. News 17(4), 18-23 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Wilner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow-light medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 023801 (2005).
  22. M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 13, 9995-10002 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. G. P. Agarwal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001), Chap. 3, pp. 72-73.
  24. Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Wilner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. Shumakher, N. Orbach, A. Nevet, D. Dahan, and G. Eisenstein, "On the balance between delay, bandwidth, and signal distortion in slow-light systems based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 5877-5884 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. T. Mok, J. L. Blows, and B. J. Eggleton, "Investigation of group delay ripple distorted signals transmitted through all-optical 2R regenerators," Opt. Express 12, 4411-4422 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. F. G. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnian, P. C. Ku, and R. S. Tucker, "Storage-bit-rate product in slow-light optical buffers," Electron. Lett. 41, 1347-1348 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. C. Henion, and K. A. Rauschenbach, "Power penalty for optical signals due to dispersion slope in WDM filter cascades," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411-1413 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. D. Downie, "Relationship of Q penalty to eye-closure penalty for NRZ and RZ signals with signal-dependent noise," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2031-2038 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Z. Lu., Y. Dong, and Q. Li, "Slow light in multi-line Brillouin gain spectrum," Opt. Express 15, 1871-1877 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. B. Khurgin, "Performance limits of delay lines based on optical amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 31, 948-950 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, "Distortion-reduced pulse-train propagation with large delay in a triple gain media," in OSA Slow and Fast Light Conference (OSA, 2006).
  33. A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, "Low distortion Brillouin slow light in optical fibers using AM modulation," Opt. Express 14, 5866-5876 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetic induced transparency: propagation dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2451 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. B. Macke and B. Segard, "Pulse normalization in slow-light media," Phys. Rev. A 73, 043802 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (12)

B. Macke and B. Segard, "Pulse normalization in slow-light media," Phys. Rev. A 73, 043802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Blair and K. Zheng, "Intensity-tunable group delay using stimulated Raman scattering in silicon slow-light waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 1064-1069 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Khurgin, "Performance limits of delay lines based on optical amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 31, 948-950 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, "Low distortion Brillouin slow light in optical fibers using AM modulation," Opt. Express 14, 5866-5876 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Shumakher, N. Orbach, A. Nevet, D. Dahan, and G. Eisenstein, "On the balance between delay, bandwidth, and signal distortion in slow-light systems based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 5877-5884 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zadok, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Express 14, 8498-8505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Shumakher, A. Willinger, R. Blit, D. Dahan, and G. Eisenstein, "Large tunable delay with low distortion of 10 Gbit/s data in a slow-light system based on narrowband fiber parametric amplification," Opt. Express 14, 8540-8545 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chin, M. G. Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, "Zero-gain slow- and fast-light propagation in an optical fiber," Opt. Express 14, 10684-10692 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and R. W. Boyd, "Slow light: from basics to future prospects," Photonics Spectra , March 2006, pp. 44-50.

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, and A. L. Gaeta, "Applications of slow light in telecommunications," Opt. Photon. News 17(4), 18-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, "Distortion-reduced pulse-train propagation with large delay in a triple gain media," in OSA Slow and Fast Light Conference (OSA, 2006).

2005 (11)

D. Gauthier, "Slow light brings faster communication," Phys. World 18, 30-32 (2005).

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Wilner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow-light medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 023801 (2005).

F. G. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnian, P. C. Ku, and R. S. Tucker, "Storage-bit-rate product in slow-light optical buffers," Electron. Lett. 41, 1347-1348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zhubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Delay-bandwidth product and storage density in slow-light optical buffers," Electron. Lett. 41, 208-209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Song, M. G. Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, "Long optically controlled delays in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1782-1784 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Downie, "Relationship of Q penalty to eye-closure penalty for NRZ and RZ signals with signal-dependent noise," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2031-2038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Wilner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 13, 9995-10002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. T. Mok, J. L. Blows, and B. J. Eggleton, "Investigation of group delay ripple distorted signals transmitted through all-optical 2R regenerators," Opt. Express 12, 4411-4422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mori and T. Baba, "Dispersion-controlled optical group delay device by chirped photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1101-1103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, "Superluminal and slow-light propagation in a room-temperature solid," Science 301, 200-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. E. Heebner and R. W. Boyd, "Slow and fast light in resonator-coupled waveguides," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2629-2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2002), Chap. 6, pp. 497-530.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. P. Agarwal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001), Chap. 3, pp. 72-73.

1999 (2)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. C. Henion, and K. A. Rauschenbach, "Power penalty for optical signals due to dispersion slope in WDM filter cascades," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411-1413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetic induced transparency: propagation dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, G. P.

G. P. Agarwal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001), Chap. 3, pp. 72-73.

Baba, T.

D. Mori and T. Baba, "Dispersion-controlled optical group delay device by chirped photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1101-1103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

Bigelow, M. S.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, "Superluminal and slow-light propagation in a room-temperature solid," Science 301, 200-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blair, S.

Blit, R.

Blows, J. L.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, and A. L. Gaeta, "Applications of slow light in telecommunications," Opt. Photon. News 17(4), 18-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and R. W. Boyd, "Slow light: from basics to future prospects," Photonics Spectra , March 2006, pp. 44-50.

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, "Distortion-reduced pulse-train propagation with large delay in a triple gain media," in OSA Slow and Fast Light Conference (OSA, 2006).

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Wilner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow-light medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 023801 (2005).

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Wilner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, "Superluminal and slow-light propagation in a room-temperature solid," Science 301, 200-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2002), Chap. 6, pp. 497-530.
[CrossRef]

J. E. Heebner and R. W. Boyd, "Slow and fast light in resonator-coupled waveguides," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2629-2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

F. G. Sedgwick, B. Pesala, J. Y. Lin, W. S. Ko, X. Zhao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "THz-bandwidth tunable slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Express 15, 747-753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Delay-bandwidth product and storage density in slow-light optical buffers," Electron. Lett. 41, 208-209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnian, C. J.

F. G. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnian, P. C. Ku, and R. S. Tucker, "Storage-bit-rate product in slow-light optical buffers," Electron. Lett. 41, 1347-1348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S.

Dahan, D.

Dawes, A. M. C.

Dong, Y.

Dowling, J. P.

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zhubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Downie, J. D.

Dutton, Z.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Eisenstein, G.

Eyal, A.

Froberg, N. M.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. C. Henion, and K. A. Rauschenbach, "Power penalty for optical signals due to dispersion slope in WDM filter cascades," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411-1413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and R. W. Boyd, "Slow light: from basics to future prospects," Photonics Spectra , March 2006, pp. 44-50.

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, and A. L. Gaeta, "Applications of slow light in telecommunications," Opt. Photon. News 17(4), 18-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Wilner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow-light medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 023801 (2005).

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Wilner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D.

D. Gauthier, "Slow light brings faster communication," Phys. World 18, 30-32 (2005).

Gauthier, D. J.

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Broadband SBS slow light in optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, and A. L. Gaeta, "Applications of slow light in telecommunications," Opt. Photon. News 17(4), 18-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and R. W. Boyd, "Slow light: from basics to future prospects," Photonics Spectra , March 2006, pp. 44-50.

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, "Distortion-reduced pulse-train propagation with large delay in a triple gain media," in OSA Slow and Fast Light Conference (OSA, 2006).

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Wilner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow-light medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 023801 (2005).

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Wilner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 13, 9995-10002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2002), Chap. 6, pp. 497-530.
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetic induced transparency: propagation dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hau, L. V.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heebner, J. E.

J. E. Heebner and R. W. Boyd, "Slow and fast light in resonator-coupled waveguides," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2629-2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Henion, S. C.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. C. Henion, and K. A. Rauschenbach, "Power penalty for optical signals due to dispersion slope in WDM filter cascades," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411-1413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herráez, M. G.

Jain, M.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetic induced transparency: propagation dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasapi, A.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetic induced transparency: propagation dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khurgin, J. B.

Ko, W. S.

Ku, P. C.

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Delay-bandwidth product and storage density in slow-light optical buffers," Electron. Lett. 41, 208-209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnian, P. C. Ku, and R. S. Tucker, "Storage-bit-rate product in slow-light optical buffers," Electron. Lett. 41, 1347-1348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. C. Henion, and K. A. Rauschenbach, "Power penalty for optical signals due to dispersion slope in WDM filter cascades," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411-1413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lepeshkin, N. N.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, "Superluminal and slow-light propagation in a room-temperature solid," Science 301, 200-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

Lin, J. Y.

Lu., Z.

Macke, B.

B. Macke and B. Segard, "Pulse normalization in slow-light media," Phys. Rev. A 73, 043802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minardo, A.

Mok, J. T.

Mori, D.

D. Mori and T. Baba, "Dispersion-controlled optical group delay device by chirped photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1101-1103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neifeld, M. A.

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, "Distortion-reduced pulse-train propagation with large delay in a triple gain media," in OSA Slow and Fast Light Conference (OSA, 2006).

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 13, 9995-10002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nevet, A.

O'Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okawachi, Y.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Wilner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Orbach, N.

Pant, R.

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, "Distortion-reduced pulse-train propagation with large delay in a triple gain media," in OSA Slow and Fast Light Conference (OSA, 2006).

Pesala, B.

Rauschenbach, K. A.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. C. Henion, and K. A. Rauschenbach, "Power penalty for optical signals due to dispersion slope in WDM filter cascades," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411-1413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zhubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schweinsberg, A.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zhubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sedgwick, F. G.

F. G. Sedgwick, B. Pesala, J. Y. Lin, W. S. Ko, X. Zhao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "THz-bandwidth tunable slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Express 15, 747-753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnian, P. C. Ku, and R. S. Tucker, "Storage-bit-rate product in slow-light optical buffers," Electron. Lett. 41, 1347-1348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Segard, B.

B. Macke and B. Segard, "Pulse normalization in slow-light media," Phys. Rev. A 73, 043802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Wilner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, "Distortion-reduced pulse-train propagation with large delay in a triple gain media," in OSA Slow and Fast Light Conference (OSA, 2006).

Shumakher, E.

Song, K. Y.

Stenner, M. D.

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, "Distortion-reduced pulse-train propagation with large delay in a triple gain media," in OSA Slow and Fast Light Conference (OSA, 2006).

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 13, 9995-10002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zhubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thévenaz, L.

Tucker, R. S.

F. G. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnian, P. C. Ku, and R. S. Tucker, "Storage-bit-rate product in slow-light optical buffers," Electron. Lett. 41, 1347-1348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Delay-bandwidth product and storage density in slow-light optical buffers," Electron. Lett. 41, 208-209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willinger, A.

Willner, A. E.

Wilner, A. E.

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Wilner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow-light medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 023801 (2005).

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Wilner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G. Y.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetic induced transparency: propagation dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zadok, A.

Zeni, L.

Zhang, L.

Zhao, X.

Zheng, K.

Zhu, Z.

Zhu, Z. M.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhubairy, M. S.

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zhubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Mori and T. Baba, "Dispersion-controlled optical group delay device by chirped photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1101-1103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Delay-bandwidth product and storage density in slow-light optical buffers," Electron. Lett. 41, 208-209 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnian, P. C. Ku, and R. S. Tucker, "Storage-bit-rate product in slow-light optical buffers," Electron. Lett. 41, 1347-1348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. C. Henion, and K. A. Rauschenbach, "Power penalty for optical signals due to dispersion slope in WDM filter cascades," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411-1413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. E. Heebner and R. W. Boyd, "Slow and fast light in resonator-coupled waveguides," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2629-2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (2)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (11)

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 13, 9995-10002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Blair and K. Zheng, "Intensity-tunable group delay using stimulated Raman scattering in silicon slow-light waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 1064-1069 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Mok, J. L. Blows, and B. J. Eggleton, "Investigation of group delay ripple distorted signals transmitted through all-optical 2R regenerators," Opt. Express 12, 4411-4422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, "Low distortion Brillouin slow light in optical fibers using AM modulation," Opt. Express 14, 5866-5876 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Shumakher, N. Orbach, A. Nevet, D. Dahan, and G. Eisenstein, "On the balance between delay, bandwidth, and signal distortion in slow-light systems based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 5877-5884 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zadok, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Express 14, 8498-8505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Shumakher, A. Willinger, R. Blit, D. Dahan, and G. Eisenstein, "Large tunable delay with low distortion of 10 Gbit/s data in a slow-light system based on narrowband fiber parametric amplification," Opt. Express 14, 8540-8545 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chin, M. G. Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, "Zero-gain slow- and fast-light propagation in an optical fiber," Opt. Express 14, 10684-10692 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Sedgwick, B. Pesala, J. Y. Lin, W. S. Ko, X. Zhao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "THz-bandwidth tunable slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Express 15, 747-753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu., Y. Dong, and Q. Li, "Slow light in multi-line Brillouin gain spectrum," Opt. Express 15, 1871-1877 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, and A. L. Gaeta, "Applications of slow light in telecommunications," Opt. Photon. News 17(4), 18-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Photonics Spectra (1)

D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and R. W. Boyd, "Slow light: from basics to future prospects," Photonics Spectra , March 2006, pp. 44-50.

Phys. Rev. A (2)

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zhubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Macke and B. Segard, "Pulse normalization in slow-light media," Phys. Rev. A 73, 043802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetic induced transparency: propagation dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Wilner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow-light medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 023801 (2005).

Phys. World (1)

D. Gauthier, "Slow light brings faster communication," Phys. World 18, 30-32 (2005).

Science (1)

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, "Superluminal and slow-light propagation in a room-temperature solid," Science 301, 200-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2002), Chap. 6, pp. 497-530.
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agarwal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001), Chap. 3, pp. 72-73.

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, "Distortion-reduced pulse-train propagation with large delay in a triple gain media," in OSA Slow and Fast Light Conference (OSA, 2006).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Input (solid curve) and output (dashed curve) (a) Gaussian pulse and (b) super-Gaussian pulse after propagation through a single-line gain system with gain exponent g 0 L = 10 and B N = 0.058 . This bit rate is chosen to demonstrate visible distortion even at small B N .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Eye diagram for (a) input data stream and (b) output data stream after propagation through a single-line gain system with gain exponent g 0 L = 4.0 and B N = 0.42 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of (a) fractional delay and (b) resulting distortion with fractional bit rate for a single-line gain system. Results are obtained for g 0 L = 10 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Optimized fractional delay plotted against normalized bit rate B N for a single-line gain system subject to the distortion constraint D 0.35 and the gain constraint g 0 L 10 . That the maximum delay is approximately 1 is purely coincidental and depends on the values of the gain and distortion constraints as well as the pulse shape. (b) Corresponding value of the gain exponent g 0 L and (c) distortion D of the transmitted pulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Gain versus detuning from carrier frequency for (a) example double-line gain system with g L = 6.75 and δ / γ = 0.67 and (b) example triple-line gain system with g 0 L = 3.2 , g L = 6.67 , and δ / γ = 0.99 . In each case, the dotted curve shows the net gain exponent and the solid curves show the constituent Lorentzian lines.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Comparison of (a) optimized fractional delay, (b) optimized gain exponent, and (c) optimized frequency separation for super-Gaussian data sequences for three gain systems.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Comparison of (a) optimized fractional delay, (b) optimized gain exponent, and (c) optimized frequency separation for Gaussian data sequences for three gain systems.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Maximum Fractional Delay and Respective Pulse Bandwidth

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E g ( t ) = exp ( t 2 τ 2 ) ,
E s g ( t ) = exp ( t n τ n ) ,   n > 2 ,
T 1 ( ω ) = exp [ j ( ω c + g 0 γ 2 ( ω ω 0 + j γ ) ) L ] ,
E p z + n f g c E p t = α E p 2 + j g 2 E s ρ ,
E s z + n f g c E s t = α E s 2 + j g 2 E p ρ * ,
ρ t + ( γ j Δ ω ) ρ = j g 1 E p E * s η ,
E s z j ( ω ω s 0 ) n f g E s c = j g 2 E p ρ * ,
[ γ j ( ω ω 0 ) ] ρ * = j g 1 η E * p E s .
E s z = j k ( ω ) E s ,
D = 1 max ( E ) .
P P = 10 log 10 ( 1 + r e x 1 r e x ) ,
T 2 ( ω ) = exp [ j ( ω c + g γ 2 ( ( ω ω 0 δ ) + j γ ) + g γ 2 ( ( ω ω 0 + δ ) + j γ ) ) L ] ,
T 3 ( ω ) = exp [ j ( ω c + g γ 2 ( ( ω ω 0 δ ) + j γ ) + g 0 γ 2 ( ( ω ω 0 ) + j γ ) + g γ 2 ( ( ω ω 0 + δ ) + j γ ) ) L ] ,

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