Abstract

A very-small-aperture laser (VSAL) with a circular aperture has a trade-off between the spot size and the output power. A nanometric annular aperture is fabricated to overcome this difficulty. The advantages of the annular aperture are demonstrated by measuring and comparing its near-field intensity distribution with that of a circular aperture. These apertures are fabricated on the same VSAL to ensure that they are under the same illumination conditions. The experimental results indicate that an annular aperture produces a smaller spot size and a higher peak intensity than a circular aperture. The confinement effect and the enhancement effect are attributed to the convergence of the power flow that passes through the annular aperture. The observed enhancement effect decreases when the distance from the VSAL facet is increased, but it does not vanish even when the distance is as large as 3.5  μm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester, and J. H.-J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 981-988 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Q. Gan, G. Song, G. Yang, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Y. Li, Q. Cao, L. Chen, H. Lu, Z. Chen, W. Zeng, and R. Yan, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy with an active probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121111 (2006).
  4. T. Ohno, A. V. Itagi, F. Chen, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Characterization of very small aperture GaN lasers," Proc. SPIE 5380, 393-402 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Gai, J. Wang, Q. Tian, W. Xia, X. Xu, S. Han, and Z. Hao, "Experimental research on the performance of a very-small-aperture laser," J. Microsc. to be published.
  6. Q. Gan, G. Song, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Q. Cao, X. Pan, Y. Zhong, G. Yang, X. Zhu, and L. Chen, "Performance analysis of very-small-aperture lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1470-1472 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. J. Bouwkamp, "On Bethe's theory of diffraction by small holes," Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321-332 (1950).
  9. X. Shi, R. L. Thornton, and L. Hesselink, "Nano-aperture with 1000× power throughput enhancement for very small aperture laser system (VSAL)," Proc. SPIE 4342, 320-327 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. V. Itagi, D. D. Stancil, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Ridge waveguide as a near-field optical source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4474-4476 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Rao, J. A. Matteo, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, "A C-shaped nanoaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for high-density near-field optical data storage," Proc. SPIE 6132, 61320 (2006).
  12. F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker, and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Stebounova, F. Chen, J. Bain, T. E. Schlesinger, S. Ip, and G. C. Walker, "Field localization in very small aperture lasers studied by apertureless near-field microscopy," Appl. Opt. 45, 6192-6197 (2006).
  14. J. Gao, G. Song, Q. Gan, B. Guo, and L. Chen, "Surface plasmon modulated nano-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 234-237 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, "Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836-838 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).
  17. K. Tanaka, T. Ohkubo, M. Oumi, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, "Numerical simulation on read-out characteristics of the planar aperture-mounted head with a minute scatterer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1542-1547 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Tanaka, H. Hosaka, K. Itao, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, T. Miyatani, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, and T. Ohkubo, "Improvements in near-field optical performance using localized surface plasmon excitation by a scatterer-formed aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1083-1085 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Hashizume and F. Koyama, "Plasmon enhanced optical near-field probing of metal nanoaperture surface emitting laser," Opt. Express 12, 6391-6396 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, "Extraordinary grating-coupled microwave transmission through a subwavelength annular aperture," Opt. Express 13, 1666-1671 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209, 17-22 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Three-dimensional structures for enhanced transmission through a metallic film: annular aperture arrays," Phys. Rev. B 67, 155314 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, "Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands," Appl. Phys. B 79, 1-8 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Microwave transmission through a single subwavelength annular aperture in a metal plate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193902 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. Chen, J. Zhai, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Fabrication of very small aperture laser (VSAL) from a commercial edge emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1794-1795 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Enhanced optical near field from a bowtie aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153110 (2006).
  27. K. S. Kunz and R. J. Luebbers, The Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics (CRC Press, 1993).
  28. H. Gai, J. Wang, and Q. Tian, "Modified Debye model parameters of metals applicable for broadband calculations," Appl. Opt. 46, 2229-2233 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Z. P. Liao, H. L. Wong, G. P. Yang, and Y. F. Yuan, "A transmitting boundary for transient wave analysis," Sci. Sin. 28, 1063-1076 (1984).

2007 (2)

J. Gao, G. Song, Q. Gan, B. Guo, and L. Chen, "Surface plasmon modulated nano-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 234-237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Gai, J. Wang, and Q. Tian, "Modified Debye model parameters of metals applicable for broadband calculations," Appl. Opt. 46, 2229-2233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Enhanced optical near field from a bowtie aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153110 (2006).

Z. Rao, J. A. Matteo, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, "A C-shaped nanoaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for high-density near-field optical data storage," Proc. SPIE 6132, 61320 (2006).

L. Stebounova, F. Chen, J. Bain, T. E. Schlesinger, S. Ip, and G. C. Walker, "Field localization in very small aperture lasers studied by apertureless near-field microscopy," Appl. Opt. 45, 6192-6197 (2006).

Q. Gan, G. Song, G. Yang, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Y. Li, Q. Cao, L. Chen, H. Lu, Z. Chen, W. Zeng, and R. Yan, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy with an active probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121111 (2006).

2005 (4)

Q. Gan, G. Song, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Q. Cao, X. Pan, Y. Zhong, G. Yang, X. Zhu, and L. Chen, "Performance analysis of very-small-aperture lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1470-1472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).

H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, "Extraordinary grating-coupled microwave transmission through a subwavelength annular aperture," Opt. Express 13, 1666-1671 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Microwave transmission through a single subwavelength annular aperture in a metal plate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, "Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands," Appl. Phys. B 79, 1-8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hashizume and F. Koyama, "Plasmon enhanced optical near-field probing of metal nanoaperture surface emitting laser," Opt. Express 12, 6391-6396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohno, A. V. Itagi, F. Chen, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Characterization of very small aperture GaN lasers," Proc. SPIE 5380, 393-402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, "Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836-838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Itagi, D. D. Stancil, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Ridge waveguide as a near-field optical source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4474-4476 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker, and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, H. Hosaka, K. Itao, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, T. Miyatani, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, and T. Ohkubo, "Improvements in near-field optical performance using localized surface plasmon excitation by a scatterer-formed aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1083-1085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Three-dimensional structures for enhanced transmission through a metallic film: annular aperture arrays," Phys. Rev. B 67, 155314 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209, 17-22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shi, R. L. Thornton, and L. Hesselink, "Nano-aperture with 1000× power throughput enhancement for very small aperture laser system (VSAL)," Proc. SPIE 4342, 320-327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

K. Tanaka, T. Ohkubo, M. Oumi, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, "Numerical simulation on read-out characteristics of the planar aperture-mounted head with a minute scatterer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1542-1547 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, J. Zhai, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Fabrication of very small aperture laser (VSAL) from a commercial edge emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1794-1795 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester, and J. H.-J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. S. Kunz and R. J. Luebbers, The Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics (CRC Press, 1993).

1984 (1)

Z. P. Liao, H. L. Wong, G. P. Yang, and Y. F. Yuan, "A transmitting boundary for transient wave analysis," Sci. Sin. 28, 1063-1076 (1984).

1950 (1)

C. J. Bouwkamp, "On Bethe's theory of diffraction by small holes," Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321-332 (1950).

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Akhremitchev, B. B.

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker, and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, "Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands," Appl. Phys. B 79, 1-8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Three-dimensional structures for enhanced transmission through a metallic film: annular aperture arrays," Phys. Rev. B 67, 155314 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209, 17-22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bain, J.

Bain, J. A.

T. Ohno, A. V. Itagi, F. Chen, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Characterization of very small aperture GaN lasers," Proc. SPIE 5380, 393-402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker, and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Itagi, D. D. Stancil, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Ridge waveguide as a near-field optical source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4474-4476 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, K.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester, and J. H.-J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Belkhir, A.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, "Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands," Appl. Phys. B 79, 1-8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Bouwkamp, C. J.

C. J. Bouwkamp, "On Bethe's theory of diffraction by small holes," Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321-332 (1950).

Bulu, I.

Caglayan, H.

Cao, Q.

Q. Gan, G. Song, G. Yang, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Y. Li, Q. Cao, L. Chen, H. Lu, Z. Chen, W. Zeng, and R. Yan, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy with an active probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121111 (2006).

Q. Gan, G. Song, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Q. Cao, X. Pan, Y. Zhong, G. Yang, X. Zhu, and L. Chen, "Performance analysis of very-small-aperture lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1470-1472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Challener, W. A.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-C.

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).

Chen, F.

L. Stebounova, F. Chen, J. Bain, T. E. Schlesinger, S. Ip, and G. C. Walker, "Field localization in very small aperture lasers studied by apertureless near-field microscopy," Appl. Opt. 45, 6192-6197 (2006).

T. Ohno, A. V. Itagi, F. Chen, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Characterization of very small aperture GaN lasers," Proc. SPIE 5380, 393-402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker, and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, J. Zhai, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Fabrication of very small aperture laser (VSAL) from a commercial edge emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1794-1795 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

J. Gao, G. Song, Q. Gan, B. Guo, and L. Chen, "Surface plasmon modulated nano-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 234-237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, G. Song, G. Yang, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Y. Li, Q. Cao, L. Chen, H. Lu, Z. Chen, W. Zeng, and R. Yan, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy with an active probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121111 (2006).

Q. Gan, G. Song, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Q. Cao, X. Pan, Y. Zhong, G. Yang, X. Zhu, and L. Chen, "Performance analysis of very-small-aperture lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1470-1472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-C.

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).

Chen, Z.

Q. Gan, G. Song, G. Yang, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Y. Li, Q. Cao, L. Chen, H. Lu, Z. Chen, W. Zeng, and R. Yan, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy with an active probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121111 (2006).

Chichester, R.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester, and J. H.-J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dhar, L.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester, and J. H.-J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gai, H.

H. Gai, J. Wang, and Q. Tian, "Modified Debye model parameters of metals applicable for broadband calculations," Appl. Opt. 46, 2229-2233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Gai, J. Wang, Q. Tian, W. Xia, X. Xu, S. Han, and Z. Hao, "Experimental research on the performance of a very-small-aperture laser," J. Microsc. to be published.

Gan, Q.

J. Gao, G. Song, Q. Gan, B. Guo, and L. Chen, "Surface plasmon modulated nano-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 234-237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, G. Song, G. Yang, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Y. Li, Q. Cao, L. Chen, H. Lu, Z. Chen, W. Zeng, and R. Yan, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy with an active probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121111 (2006).

Q. Gan, G. Song, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Q. Cao, X. Pan, Y. Zhong, G. Yang, X. Zhu, and L. Chen, "Performance analysis of very-small-aperture lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1470-1472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

J. Gao, G. Song, Q. Gan, B. Guo, and L. Chen, "Surface plasmon modulated nano-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 234-237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, G. Song, G. Yang, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Y. Li, Q. Cao, L. Chen, H. Lu, Z. Chen, W. Zeng, and R. Yan, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy with an active probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121111 (2006).

Q. Gan, G. Song, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Q. Cao, X. Pan, Y. Zhong, G. Yang, X. Zhu, and L. Chen, "Performance analysis of very-small-aperture lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1470-1472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Granet, G.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, "Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands," Appl. Phys. B 79, 1-8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, B.

J. Gao, G. Song, Q. Gan, B. Guo, and L. Chen, "Surface plasmon modulated nano-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 234-237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.

H. Gai, J. Wang, Q. Tian, W. Xia, X. Xu, S. Han, and Z. Hao, "Experimental research on the performance of a very-small-aperture laser," J. Microsc. to be published.

Hao, Z.

H. Gai, J. Wang, Q. Tian, W. Xia, X. Xu, S. Han, and Z. Hao, "Experimental research on the performance of a very-small-aperture laser," J. Microsc. to be published.

Harris, J. S.

Z. Rao, J. A. Matteo, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, "A C-shaped nanoaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for high-density near-field optical data storage," Proc. SPIE 6132, 61320 (2006).

Hashizume, J.

J. Hashizume and F. Koyama, "Plasmon enhanced optical near-field probing of metal nanoaperture surface emitting laser," Opt. Express 12, 6391-6396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, "Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836-838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

Z. Rao, J. A. Matteo, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, "A C-shaped nanoaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for high-density near-field optical data storage," Proc. SPIE 6132, 61320 (2006).

X. Shi, R. L. Thornton, and L. Hesselink, "Nano-aperture with 1000× power throughput enhancement for very small aperture laser system (VSAL)," Proc. SPIE 4342, 320-327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hibbins, A. P.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Microwave transmission through a single subwavelength annular aperture in a metal plate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hobson, W. S.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester, and J. H.-J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, L.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester, and J. H.-J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hosaka, H.

K. Tanaka, H. Hosaka, K. Itao, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, T. Miyatani, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, and T. Ohkubo, "Improvements in near-field optical performance using localized surface plasmon excitation by a scatterer-formed aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1083-1085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, T. Ohkubo, M. Oumi, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, "Numerical simulation on read-out characteristics of the planar aperture-mounted head with a minute scatterer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1542-1547 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K.-T.

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).

Ip, S.

Itagi, A.

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker, and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Itagi, A. V.

T. Ohno, A. V. Itagi, F. Chen, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Characterization of very small aperture GaN lasers," Proc. SPIE 5380, 393-402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Itagi, D. D. Stancil, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Ridge waveguide as a near-field optical source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4474-4476 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Itao, K.

K. Tanaka, H. Hosaka, K. Itao, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, T. Miyatani, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, and T. Ohkubo, "Improvements in near-field optical performance using localized surface plasmon excitation by a scatterer-formed aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1083-1085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, T. Ohkubo, M. Oumi, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, "Numerical simulation on read-out characteristics of the planar aperture-mounted head with a minute scatterer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1542-1547 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jin, E. X.

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Enhanced optical near field from a bowtie aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153110 (2006).

Koyama, F.

J. Hashizume and F. Koyama, "Plasmon enhanced optical near-field probing of metal nanoaperture surface emitting laser," Opt. Express 12, 6391-6396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, "Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836-838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, K. S.

K. S. Kunz and R. J. Luebbers, The Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics (CRC Press, 1993).

Lawrence, C. R.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Microwave transmission through a single subwavelength annular aperture in a metal plate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-K.

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).

Li, Y.

Q. Gan, G. Song, G. Yang, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Y. Li, Q. Cao, L. Chen, H. Lu, Z. Chen, W. Zeng, and R. Yan, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy with an active probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121111 (2006).

Liao, Z. P.

Z. P. Liao, H. L. Wong, G. P. Yang, and Y. F. Yuan, "A transmitting boundary for transient wave analysis," Sci. Sin. 28, 1063-1076 (1984).

Liaw, J.-W.

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).

Lin, D.-Z.

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).

Liu, J.-M.

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).

Lockyear, M. J.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Microwave transmission through a single subwavelength annular aperture in a metal plate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lopata, J.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester, and J. H.-J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

Q. Gan, G. Song, G. Yang, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Y. Li, Q. Cao, L. Chen, H. Lu, Z. Chen, W. Zeng, and R. Yan, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy with an active probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121111 (2006).

Luebbers, R. J.

K. S. Kunz and R. J. Luebbers, The Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics (CRC Press, 1993).

Matteo, J. A.

Z. Rao, J. A. Matteo, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, "A C-shaped nanoaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for high-density near-field optical data storage," Proc. SPIE 6132, 61320 (2006).

McDaniel, T. W.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mihalcea, C. D.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuoka, Y.

K. Tanaka, H. Hosaka, K. Itao, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, T. Miyatani, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, and T. Ohkubo, "Improvements in near-field optical performance using localized surface plasmon excitation by a scatterer-formed aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1083-1085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, T. Ohkubo, M. Oumi, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, "Numerical simulation on read-out characteristics of the planar aperture-mounted head with a minute scatterer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1542-1547 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miyatani, T.

K. Tanaka, H. Hosaka, K. Itao, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, T. Miyatani, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, and T. Ohkubo, "Improvements in near-field optical performance using localized surface plasmon excitation by a scatterer-formed aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1083-1085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, A.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, "Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands," Appl. Phys. B 79, 1-8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mountfield, K. R.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murray, C. A.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester, and J. H.-J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, K.

K. Tanaka, H. Hosaka, K. Itao, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, T. Miyatani, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, and T. Ohkubo, "Improvements in near-field optical performance using localized surface plasmon excitation by a scatterer-formed aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1083-1085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, T. Ohkubo, M. Oumi, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, "Numerical simulation on read-out characteristics of the planar aperture-mounted head with a minute scatterer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1542-1547 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Niwa, T.

K. Tanaka, H. Hosaka, K. Itao, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, T. Miyatani, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, and T. Ohkubo, "Improvements in near-field optical performance using localized surface plasmon excitation by a scatterer-formed aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1083-1085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohkubo, T.

K. Tanaka, H. Hosaka, K. Itao, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, T. Miyatani, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, and T. Ohkubo, "Improvements in near-field optical performance using localized surface plasmon excitation by a scatterer-formed aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1083-1085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, T. Ohkubo, M. Oumi, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, "Numerical simulation on read-out characteristics of the planar aperture-mounted head with a minute scatterer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1542-1547 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, T.

T. Ohno, A. V. Itagi, F. Chen, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Characterization of very small aperture GaN lasers," Proc. SPIE 5380, 393-402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oumi, M.

K. Tanaka, H. Hosaka, K. Itao, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, T. Miyatani, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, and T. Ohkubo, "Improvements in near-field optical performance using localized surface plasmon excitation by a scatterer-formed aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1083-1085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, T. Ohkubo, M. Oumi, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, "Numerical simulation on read-out characteristics of the planar aperture-mounted head with a minute scatterer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1542-1547 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

Pan, X.

Partovi, A.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester, and J. H.-J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peale, D.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester, and J. H.-J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pelhos, K.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Z.

Z. Rao, J. A. Matteo, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, "A C-shaped nanoaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for high-density near-field optical data storage," Proc. SPIE 6132, 61320 (2006).

Sambles, J. R.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Microwave transmission through a single subwavelength annular aperture in a metal plate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schlesinger, T. E.

L. Stebounova, F. Chen, J. Bain, T. E. Schlesinger, S. Ip, and G. C. Walker, "Field localization in very small aperture lasers studied by apertureless near-field microscopy," Appl. Opt. 45, 6192-6197 (2006).

T. Ohno, A. V. Itagi, F. Chen, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Characterization of very small aperture GaN lasers," Proc. SPIE 5380, 393-402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker, and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Itagi, D. D. Stancil, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Ridge waveguide as a near-field optical source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4474-4476 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, J. Zhai, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Fabrication of very small aperture laser (VSAL) from a commercial edge emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1794-1795 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sendur, I. K.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shi, X.

X. Shi, R. L. Thornton, and L. Hesselink, "Nano-aperture with 1000× power throughput enhancement for very small aperture laser system (VSAL)," Proc. SPIE 4342, 320-327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shinada, S.

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, "Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836-838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, G.

J. Gao, G. Song, Q. Gan, B. Guo, and L. Chen, "Surface plasmon modulated nano-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 234-237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, G. Song, G. Yang, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Y. Li, Q. Cao, L. Chen, H. Lu, Z. Chen, W. Zeng, and R. Yan, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy with an active probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121111 (2006).

Q. Gan, G. Song, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Q. Cao, X. Pan, Y. Zhong, G. Yang, X. Zhu, and L. Chen, "Performance analysis of very-small-aperture lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1470-1472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stancil, D. D.

A. V. Itagi, D. D. Stancil, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Ridge waveguide as a near-field optical source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4474-4476 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker, and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, J. Zhai, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Fabrication of very small aperture laser (VSAL) from a commercial edge emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1794-1795 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stebounova, L.

L. Stebounova, F. Chen, J. Bain, T. E. Schlesinger, S. Ip, and G. C. Walker, "Field localization in very small aperture lasers studied by apertureless near-field microscopy," Appl. Opt. 45, 6192-6197 (2006).

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker, and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, H. Hosaka, K. Itao, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, T. Miyatani, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, and T. Ohkubo, "Improvements in near-field optical performance using localized surface plasmon excitation by a scatterer-formed aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1083-1085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, T. Ohkubo, M. Oumi, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, "Numerical simulation on read-out characteristics of the planar aperture-mounted head with a minute scatterer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1542-1547 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, R. L.

X. Shi, R. L. Thornton, and L. Hesselink, "Nano-aperture with 1000× power throughput enhancement for very small aperture laser system (VSAL)," Proc. SPIE 4342, 320-327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Q.

H. Gai, J. Wang, and Q. Tian, "Modified Debye model parameters of metals applicable for broadband calculations," Appl. Opt. 46, 2229-2233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Gai, J. Wang, Q. Tian, W. Xia, X. Xu, S. Han, and Z. Hao, "Experimental research on the performance of a very-small-aperture laser," J. Microsc. to be published.

Van Labeke, D.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, "Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands," Appl. Phys. B 79, 1-8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Three-dimensional structures for enhanced transmission through a metallic film: annular aperture arrays," Phys. Rev. B 67, 155314 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209, 17-22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walker, G. C.

L. Stebounova, F. Chen, J. Bain, T. E. Schlesinger, S. Ip, and G. C. Walker, "Field localization in very small aperture lasers studied by apertureless near-field microscopy," Appl. Opt. 45, 6192-6197 (2006).

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker, and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

H. Gai, J. Wang, and Q. Tian, "Modified Debye model parameters of metals applicable for broadband calculations," Appl. Opt. 46, 2229-2233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Gai, J. Wang, Q. Tian, W. Xia, X. Xu, S. Han, and Z. Hao, "Experimental research on the performance of a very-small-aperture laser," J. Microsc. to be published.

Wong, H. L.

Z. P. Liao, H. L. Wong, G. P. Yang, and Y. F. Yuan, "A transmitting boundary for transient wave analysis," Sci. Sin. 28, 1063-1076 (1984).

Wuttig, M.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester, and J. H.-J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wynn, J.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester, and J. H.-J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xia, W.

H. Gai, J. Wang, Q. Tian, W. Xia, X. Xu, S. Han, and Z. Hao, "Experimental research on the performance of a very-small-aperture laser," J. Microsc. to be published.

Xu, X.

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Enhanced optical near field from a bowtie aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153110 (2006).

H. Gai, J. Wang, Q. Tian, W. Xia, X. Xu, S. Han, and Z. Hao, "Experimental research on the performance of a very-small-aperture laser," J. Microsc. to be published.

Xu, Y.

Q. Gan, G. Song, G. Yang, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Y. Li, Q. Cao, L. Chen, H. Lu, Z. Chen, W. Zeng, and R. Yan, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy with an active probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121111 (2006).

Q. Gan, G. Song, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Q. Cao, X. Pan, Y. Zhong, G. Yang, X. Zhu, and L. Chen, "Performance analysis of very-small-aperture lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1470-1472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yan, R.

Q. Gan, G. Song, G. Yang, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Y. Li, Q. Cao, L. Chen, H. Lu, Z. Chen, W. Zeng, and R. Yan, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy with an active probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121111 (2006).

Yang, G.

Q. Gan, G. Song, G. Yang, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Y. Li, Q. Cao, L. Chen, H. Lu, Z. Chen, W. Zeng, and R. Yan, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy with an active probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121111 (2006).

Q. Gan, G. Song, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Q. Cao, X. Pan, Y. Zhong, G. Yang, X. Zhu, and L. Chen, "Performance analysis of very-small-aperture lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1470-1472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. P.

Z. P. Liao, H. L. Wong, G. P. Yang, and Y. F. Yuan, "A transmitting boundary for transient wave analysis," Sci. Sin. 28, 1063-1076 (1984).

Yeh, C.-S.

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).

Yeh, J. H.-J.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester, and J. H.-J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, J.-T.

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).

Yu, L.-B.

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).

Yuan, Y. F.

Z. P. Liao, H. L. Wong, G. P. Yang, and Y. F. Yuan, "A transmitting boundary for transient wave analysis," Sci. Sin. 28, 1063-1076 (1984).

Zeng, W.

Q. Gan, G. Song, G. Yang, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Y. Li, Q. Cao, L. Chen, H. Lu, Z. Chen, W. Zeng, and R. Yan, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy with an active probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121111 (2006).

Zhai, J.

F. Chen, J. Zhai, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Fabrication of very small aperture laser (VSAL) from a commercial edge emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1794-1795 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Y.

Zhu, X.

Zydzik, G.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester, and J. H.-J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, "Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands," Appl. Phys. B 79, 1-8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Enhanced optical near field from a bowtie aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153110 (2006).

K. Tanaka, H. Hosaka, K. Itao, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, T. Miyatani, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, and T. Ohkubo, "Improvements in near-field optical performance using localized surface plasmon excitation by a scatterer-formed aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1083-1085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Itagi, D. D. Stancil, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Ridge waveguide as a near-field optical source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4474-4476 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, "Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836-838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker, and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester, and J. H.-J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, G. Song, G. Yang, Y. Xu, J. Gao, Y. Li, Q. Cao, L. Chen, H. Lu, Z. Chen, W. Zeng, and R. Yan, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy with an active probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121111 (2006).

J. Microsc. (1)

H. Gai, J. Wang, Q. Tian, W. Xia, X. Xu, S. Han, and Z. Hao, "Experimental research on the performance of a very-small-aperture laser," J. Microsc. to be published.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (3)

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, T. Ohkubo, M. Oumi, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, "Numerical simulation on read-out characteristics of the planar aperture-mounted head with a minute scatterer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1542-1547 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, J. Zhai, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Fabrication of very small aperture laser (VSAL) from a commercial edge emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 1794-1795 (2001).
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J. Gao, G. Song, Q. Gan, B. Guo, and L. Chen, "Surface plasmon modulated nano-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 234-237 (2007).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Microwave transmission through a single subwavelength annular aperture in a metal plate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

Z. Rao, J. A. Matteo, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, "A C-shaped nanoaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for high-density near-field optical data storage," Proc. SPIE 6132, 61320 (2006).

X. Shi, R. L. Thornton, and L. Hesselink, "Nano-aperture with 1000× power throughput enhancement for very small aperture laser system (VSAL)," Proc. SPIE 4342, 320-327 (2002).
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T. Ohno, A. V. Itagi, F. Chen, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Characterization of very small aperture GaN lasers," Proc. SPIE 5380, 393-402 (2004).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Top view and (b) side view of the VSAL facet with an annular aperture (left) and a circular aperture (right). The outer diameter of the annular aperture is D = 300   nm ; the inner diameter is d = 100   nm . The circular aperture has the same outer diameter as the annular aperture. The separation between these two apertures is approximately 1.2   μm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output power-drive current (P-I) curve of the VSAL. The threshold current is approximately 15.3 mA; the slope efficiency is approximately 4.6   μW / mA .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized intensity distribution detected at approximately (a) 0 μm (near field), (b) 1.75   μm , and (c) 3.5   μm from the VSAL facet. (d)–(f) The associated intensity profiles through the spot centers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Poynting vector plot of (a) the annular aperture and (b) the circular aperture in a plane 5   nm behind the apertures. The dashed lines denote the location of the apertures.

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