Abstract

Triacetone triperoxide (C9H18O6, molecular mass of 222.24g/mol) (TATP) is a powerful explosive that is easy to synthesize using commonly available household chemicals, acetone, and hydrogen peroxide [1, 2]. Because of the simplicity of its synthesis, TATP is often the explosive of choice for terrorists, including suicide bombers. For providing safety to the population, early detection of TATP and isolation of such individuals are essential. We report unambiguous, high-sensitivity detection of TATP and its precursor, acetone, using room-temperature quantum cascade laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (QCL-PAS). The available sensitivity is such that TATP, carried on a person (at a nominal body temperature of 37°C), should be detectable at some distance. The combination of demonstrated detection of TATP and acetone should be ideal for screening at airports and other public places for providing increased public safety.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Wolfenstein, "Über die Einwirkung von Wasserstoff Superoxyd auf Aceton und Mesityloxyd," Chem. Ber. 28, 2265-2269 (1895).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. C. Oxley, J. L. Smith, K. Shinde, and J. Moran, "Determination of vapor density of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) using a gas chromatography headspace technique," Propellants, Explos. Pyrotech. 30, 127-130 (2005), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  3. See, for example, a detailed account in I. Cotte-Rodriguez, H. Chen, and R. G. Cooks, "Rapid trace detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) by compexation reactions during desorption electrospray ionization," Chem. Commun. 10, 953-955 (2006).
  4. M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, "Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2 laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 77, 381-385 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. E. Webber, M. B. Pushkarsky, and C. K. N. Patel, "Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals: simulation," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 113101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, T. Macdonald, and C. K. N. Patel, "High sensitivity, high selectivity detection of chemical warfare agents," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 044103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. B. Pushkarsky, I. G. Dunayevskiy, M. Prasanna, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "High sensitivity spectroscopic detection of TNT using continuously tunable CW room temperature high power quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 19630-19634 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. B. Pushkarsky, A. Tsekoun, I. G. Dunayevskiy, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "Sub-ppb level detection of NO2 using room temperature quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10846-10849 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Tsekoun, R. Go, M. B. Pushkarsky, M. Razeghi, and C. K. N. Patel, "Improved performance of quantum cascade lasers utilizing epi-down mounting," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4831-4835 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Schmohl, A. Miklos, and P. Hess, "Detection of ammonia by photoacoustic spectroscopy with semiconductor lasers," Appl. Opt. 41, 1815-1823 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Acetone permeation tube obtained from VICI Metronics, Inc., Poulsbo, Washington 98370 USA.
  13. S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, "Gas-phase databases for quantitative infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1452 (2004) and DOE/PNNL Infrared Spectral Library Release--11.0 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Vol. 4 (National Academy of Sciences, 2000).
  15. Continuous sample collection and analysis is routinely carried out in semiconductor fabrication clean rooms using Pranalytica's commercial CO2 laser-based PA sensors that detect the presence of ammonia at sub-ppb levels.

2006

See, for example, a detailed account in I. Cotte-Rodriguez, H. Chen, and R. G. Cooks, "Rapid trace detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) by compexation reactions during desorption electrospray ionization," Chem. Commun. 10, 953-955 (2006).

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, T. Macdonald, and C. K. N. Patel, "High sensitivity, high selectivity detection of chemical warfare agents," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 044103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Pushkarsky, I. G. Dunayevskiy, M. Prasanna, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "High sensitivity spectroscopic detection of TNT using continuously tunable CW room temperature high power quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 19630-19634 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Pushkarsky, A. Tsekoun, I. G. Dunayevskiy, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "Sub-ppb level detection of NO2 using room temperature quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10846-10849 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tsekoun, R. Go, M. B. Pushkarsky, M. Razeghi, and C. K. N. Patel, "Improved performance of quantum cascade lasers utilizing epi-down mounting," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4831-4835 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. C. Oxley, J. L. Smith, K. Shinde, and J. Moran, "Determination of vapor density of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) using a gas chromatography headspace technique," Propellants, Explos. Pyrotech. 30, 127-130 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. E. Webber, M. B. Pushkarsky, and C. K. N. Patel, "Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals: simulation," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 113101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, "Gas-phase databases for quantitative infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1452 (2004) and DOE/PNNL Infrared Spectral Library Release--11.0 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, "Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2 laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 77, 381-385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Vol. 4 (National Academy of Sciences, 2000).

1895

R. Wolfenstein, "Über die Einwirkung von Wasserstoff Superoxyd auf Aceton und Mesityloxyd," Chem. Ber. 28, 2265-2269 (1895).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. M.

S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, "Gas-phase databases for quantitative infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1452 (2004) and DOE/PNNL Infrared Spectral Library Release--11.0 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dunayevskiy, I. G.

M. B. Pushkarsky, A. Tsekoun, I. G. Dunayevskiy, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "Sub-ppb level detection of NO2 using room temperature quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10846-10849 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Pushkarsky, I. G. Dunayevskiy, M. Prasanna, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "High sensitivity spectroscopic detection of TNT using continuously tunable CW room temperature high power quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 19630-19634 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Go, R.

M. B. Pushkarsky, A. Tsekoun, I. G. Dunayevskiy, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "Sub-ppb level detection of NO2 using room temperature quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10846-10849 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Pushkarsky, I. G. Dunayevskiy, M. Prasanna, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "High sensitivity spectroscopic detection of TNT using continuously tunable CW room temperature high power quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 19630-19634 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tsekoun, R. Go, M. B. Pushkarsky, M. Razeghi, and C. K. N. Patel, "Improved performance of quantum cascade lasers utilizing epi-down mounting," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4831-4835 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hess, P.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. A.

S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, "Gas-phase databases for quantitative infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1452 (2004) and DOE/PNNL Infrared Spectral Library Release--11.0 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. J.

S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, "Gas-phase databases for quantitative infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1452 (2004) and DOE/PNNL Infrared Spectral Library Release--11.0 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, T.

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, T. Macdonald, and C. K. N. Patel, "High sensitivity, high selectivity detection of chemical warfare agents," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 044103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miklos, A.

Moran, J.

J. C. Oxley, J. L. Smith, K. Shinde, and J. Moran, "Determination of vapor density of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) using a gas chromatography headspace technique," Propellants, Explos. Pyrotech. 30, 127-130 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oxley, J. C.

J. C. Oxley, J. L. Smith, K. Shinde, and J. Moran, "Determination of vapor density of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) using a gas chromatography headspace technique," Propellants, Explos. Pyrotech. 30, 127-130 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

A. Tsekoun, R. Go, M. B. Pushkarsky, M. Razeghi, and C. K. N. Patel, "Improved performance of quantum cascade lasers utilizing epi-down mounting," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4831-4835 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, T. Macdonald, and C. K. N. Patel, "High sensitivity, high selectivity detection of chemical warfare agents," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 044103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Pushkarsky, A. Tsekoun, I. G. Dunayevskiy, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "Sub-ppb level detection of NO2 using room temperature quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10846-10849 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Pushkarsky, I. G. Dunayevskiy, M. Prasanna, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "High sensitivity spectroscopic detection of TNT using continuously tunable CW room temperature high power quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 19630-19634 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Webber, M. B. Pushkarsky, and C. K. N. Patel, "Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals: simulation," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 113101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, "Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2 laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 77, 381-385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prasanna, M.

M. B. Pushkarsky, I. G. Dunayevskiy, M. Prasanna, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "High sensitivity spectroscopic detection of TNT using continuously tunable CW room temperature high power quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 19630-19634 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pushkarsky, M. B.

M. B. Pushkarsky, I. G. Dunayevskiy, M. Prasanna, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "High sensitivity spectroscopic detection of TNT using continuously tunable CW room temperature high power quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 19630-19634 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Pushkarsky, A. Tsekoun, I. G. Dunayevskiy, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "Sub-ppb level detection of NO2 using room temperature quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10846-10849 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, T. Macdonald, and C. K. N. Patel, "High sensitivity, high selectivity detection of chemical warfare agents," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 044103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Tsekoun, R. Go, M. B. Pushkarsky, M. Razeghi, and C. K. N. Patel, "Improved performance of quantum cascade lasers utilizing epi-down mounting," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4831-4835 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Webber, M. B. Pushkarsky, and C. K. N. Patel, "Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals: simulation," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 113101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, "Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2 laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 77, 381-385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

A. Tsekoun, R. Go, M. B. Pushkarsky, M. Razeghi, and C. K. N. Patel, "Improved performance of quantum cascade lasers utilizing epi-down mounting," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4831-4835 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhoderick, G. C.

S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, "Gas-phase databases for quantitative infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1452 (2004) and DOE/PNNL Infrared Spectral Library Release--11.0 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sams, R. L.

S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, "Gas-phase databases for quantitative infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1452 (2004) and DOE/PNNL Infrared Spectral Library Release--11.0 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmohl, A.

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, S. W.

S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, "Gas-phase databases for quantitative infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1452 (2004) and DOE/PNNL Infrared Spectral Library Release--11.0 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinde, K.

J. C. Oxley, J. L. Smith, K. Shinde, and J. Moran, "Determination of vapor density of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) using a gas chromatography headspace technique," Propellants, Explos. Pyrotech. 30, 127-130 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. L.

J. C. Oxley, J. L. Smith, K. Shinde, and J. Moran, "Determination of vapor density of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) using a gas chromatography headspace technique," Propellants, Explos. Pyrotech. 30, 127-130 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsekoun, A.

M. B. Pushkarsky, A. Tsekoun, I. G. Dunayevskiy, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "Sub-ppb level detection of NO2 using room temperature quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10846-10849 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Pushkarsky, I. G. Dunayevskiy, M. Prasanna, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "High sensitivity spectroscopic detection of TNT using continuously tunable CW room temperature high power quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 19630-19634 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tsekoun, R. Go, M. B. Pushkarsky, M. Razeghi, and C. K. N. Patel, "Improved performance of quantum cascade lasers utilizing epi-down mounting," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4831-4835 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Webber, M. E.

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, T. Macdonald, and C. K. N. Patel, "High sensitivity, high selectivity detection of chemical warfare agents," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 044103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Webber, M. B. Pushkarsky, and C. K. N. Patel, "Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals: simulation," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 113101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, "Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2 laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 77, 381-385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolfenstein, R.

R. Wolfenstein, "Über die Einwirkung von Wasserstoff Superoxyd auf Aceton und Mesityloxyd," Chem. Ber. 28, 2265-2269 (1895).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, "Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2 laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 77, 381-385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, T. Macdonald, and C. K. N. Patel, "High sensitivity, high selectivity detection of chemical warfare agents," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 044103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, "Gas-phase databases for quantitative infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1452 (2004) and DOE/PNNL Infrared Spectral Library Release--11.0 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Ber.

R. Wolfenstein, "Über die Einwirkung von Wasserstoff Superoxyd auf Aceton und Mesityloxyd," Chem. Ber. 28, 2265-2269 (1895).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun.

See, for example, a detailed account in I. Cotte-Rodriguez, H. Chen, and R. G. Cooks, "Rapid trace detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) by compexation reactions during desorption electrospray ionization," Chem. Commun. 10, 953-955 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys.

M. E. Webber, M. B. Pushkarsky, and C. K. N. Patel, "Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals: simulation," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 113101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

M. B. Pushkarsky, I. G. Dunayevskiy, M. Prasanna, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "High sensitivity spectroscopic detection of TNT using continuously tunable CW room temperature high power quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 19630-19634 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Pushkarsky, A. Tsekoun, I. G. Dunayevskiy, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "Sub-ppb level detection of NO2 using room temperature quantum cascade lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10846-10849 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tsekoun, R. Go, M. B. Pushkarsky, M. Razeghi, and C. K. N. Patel, "Improved performance of quantum cascade lasers utilizing epi-down mounting," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4831-4835 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Propellants, Explos. Pyrotech.

J. C. Oxley, J. L. Smith, K. Shinde, and J. Moran, "Determination of vapor density of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) using a gas chromatography headspace technique," Propellants, Explos. Pyrotech. 30, 127-130 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Other

Acetone permeation tube obtained from VICI Metronics, Inc., Poulsbo, Washington 98370 USA.

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Vol. 4 (National Academy of Sciences, 2000).

Continuous sample collection and analysis is routinely carried out in semiconductor fabrication clean rooms using Pranalytica's commercial CO2 laser-based PA sensors that detect the presence of ammonia at sub-ppb levels.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TATP sample preparation schematic (valves controlling gas flow are not shown).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser PA signal measured from TATP sample vapors at several temperatures. Absorption spectrum of water vapor, obtained from HITRAN database [10], is also shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Laser PA spectrum of TATP at 3 ° C .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TATP L-PAS signal and TATP vapor pressure (vapor pressure data from Oxley et al. [2]) as a function of temperature with L-PAS noise floor determined using CDA as the carrier gas. The QCL-PAS data are fitted near the T = 25 ° C point. Clapeyron equation fit, only to the vapor pressure data [2], is shown in blue. A Clapeyron equation fit to all the data, QCL-PAS and vapor pressure, is shown in red.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured absorption coefficient of TATP at 30 ° C and HITRAN water vapor absorption coefficient for 1% water in air at 250 Torr on the same scales. The blue shaded regions are where the TATP absorption spectrum is relatively free from the interference from the strong absorption features of atmospheric water and, therefore, are initially chosen for the initial set of wavelengths (Smart Grid 1).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Measured QCL-PAS spectrum of TATP, at 25 ° C with CDA as the carrier gas, using the initial set of wavelengths from Smart Grid 1 that avoids the regions of strong water vapor absorption shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Measured QCL-PAS spectrum of TATP, at 25 ° C with 1% water in the CDA added by bubbling the CDA through water at controlled temperature (Fig. 2), using the initial set of wavelengths from Smart Grid 1 that avoids the regions of strong water vapor absorption shown in Fig. 6. Data from three consecutive runs are shown to confirm reproducibility.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Apparent TATP concentration obtained using QCL-PAS measured when only wet air with 1% water (CDA bubbled through water) is present in the PA cell, using the initial set of wavelengths from Smart Grid 1 that avoids only the strong water vapor absorption features.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Histogram of apparent TATP concentration reported by the QCL-PAS when only wet air (CDA bubbled through water) is present in the PA cell using the initial set of wavelengths from Smart Grid 1 that avoids only the strong water vapor absorption features. The water vapor concentration is 1% of the background air. A Gaussian fit for the histogram shows that the minimum detectable TATP concentration (noise floor) is 58 ppb (1σ).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured absorption coefficient of TATP at 30 ° C and HITRAN water vapor absorption coefficient for 1% water in air at 250 Torr on the same scales. The newly selected blue shaded regions are where the TATP absorption spectrum is relatively free from the interference from both strong and weak absorption features arising from atmospheric water absorption. This is the improved selection of the set of wavelengths (Smart Grid 2).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Measured QCL-PAS spectrum of TATP, at 25 ° C , with 30% relative humidity in the CDA added by bubbling the CDA through water at controlled temperature (Fig. 2), using the improved set of wavelengths from Smart Grid 2 that avoids the regions of both strong and weak water vapor absorption as shown in Fig. 11. Data from three consecutive runs are shown to confirm reproducibility.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Apparent TATP concentration obtained using QCL-PAS measured when only wet air with 1% water (CDA bubbled through water) is present in the photoacoustic cell, using the improved choice of wavelengths (Smart Grid 2) that avoids the regions of both strong and weak water vapor absorption as shown in Fig. 11.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Histogram of apparent TATP concentration reported by the QCL-PAS when only wet air (CDA bubbled through water) is present in the PA cell using the improved set of wavelengths from Smart Grid 2 that avoids both strong and weak absorption features of water vapor. The water vapor concentration is 1% of the background air. A Gaussian fit of the histogram shows that the minimum detectable TATP concentration (noise floor) is 18 ppb (1σ).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

QCL-PAS signal for 1.4 ppm acetone (precursor for synthesizing TATP) shown along PNNL acetone absorption simulation.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) QCL-PAS signal for acetone as a function of acetone concentration (L-PAS noise floor, with CDA as the carrier gas, is shown).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

QCL-PAS absorption spectra of TATP ( T = 25 ° C ) , TNT ( T = 60 ° C ) , and acetone ( 1.4 ppm ) .

Equations (80)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C 9 H 18 O 6
222.24 g / mol
37 ° C
CO 2
CO 2
5 ° C
37 ° C
2 × 10 5
10 9
7200 7500 nm
100 mW
7.3 μm
3 mm
10.6 μm
25 ° C
20 ° C
7.3 μm
> 200 mW
7.3 μm
1800 Hz
250 Torr
1800 Hz
250 Torr
30 ° C
+ 30 ° C
3 ° C
7300 nm
6500 nm
7300 nm
T 25 ° C
12 ° C
30 ° C
log 10 P = A B / T ,
30 ° C
+ 30 ° C
12 ° C
58 ° C
A = 15.855 ± 0.456
B = 4490 ± 131
A = 19.791
B = 5708
12 ° C
58 ° C
( 10 pg c m 3 )
1
1 ppb
6000 8000 nm
250 Torr
30 ° C
20 ° C
25 ° C
20 ° C
7360 nm
20 ° C
58 ppb
1 σ
7360 nm
25 ° C
7360 nm
18 ppb
30 ° C
18 ppb
10 6
3 ppb
( 8 pg / cm 3 )
( 2.5 ppb )
13 ppm
7.3 μm
7500 nm
( T = 60 ° C )
3 ° C
T = 25 ° C
30 ° C
25 ° C
25 ° C
30 ° C
25 ° C
( T = 25 ° C )
( T = 60 ° C )
( 1.4 ppm )

Metrics