Abstract

Theoretical analysis and experimental investigations are presented on the resolution of a ratiometric wavelength measurement system. Theoretical modeling indicates that the resolution of a ratiometric wavelength measurement system is determined by the signal-to-noise ratio of the input signal and the noise of the photodetectors associated with optical-to-electronic conversion. For experimental verification, a ratiometric system employing a macrobending standard single-mode fiber is developed and corresponding results are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Mason, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, "Tunable sampled-grating DBR lasers with integrated wavelength mornitors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1085-1087 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. J. Lepley and A. S. Siddiqui, "Primary referenced DWDM frequency comb generator," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 146, 121-124 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave. Technol . 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. M. Melle, K. Liu, and R. M. Measures, "A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516-518 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Sookdhis, T. Mei, H. S. Djie, and J. Arokiaraj, "Passive wavelength monitor based on multimode interference waveguide," Opt. Eng. 42, 3421-3422 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Z. Xiao, P. Zhao, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, Z. Zhang, and C. P. Grover, "Interrogating fiber Bragg grating sensors by thermally scanning a demultiplexer based on arrayed waveguide gratings," Opt. Lett. 29, 2222-2224 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. B. L. Ribeiro, L. A. Ferreira, M. Tsvekov, and J. L. Santos, "All-fiber interrogation technique for fiber Bragg sensors using a biconical fiber filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 382-383 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Liu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Fabricating fibre edge filters with arbitrary spectral response based on tilted chirped grating structures," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, L1-L3 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Mason, S. P. Denbarrs, and L. A. Coldren, "Tunable sampled-grating D. B. R. lasers with integrated wavelength monitors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1085-1087 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Q. Wang, G. Farrell, T. Freir, G. Rajan, and P. Wang, "Low-cost wavelength measurement based on a macrobending single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1785-1787 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Q. Wang and G. Farrell, "Multimode fiber based edge filter for optical wavelength measurement application," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 900-902 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and T. Freir, "Study of transmission response of edge filters employed in wavelength measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 7789-7792 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, T. Freir, G. Rajan, and P. Wang, "Low-cost wavelength measurement based on a macrobending single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1785-1787 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang and G. Farrell, "Multimode fiber based edge filter for optical wavelength measurement application," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 900-902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

G. Z. Xiao, P. Zhao, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, Z. Zhang, and C. P. Grover, "Interrogating fiber Bragg grating sensors by thermally scanning a demultiplexer based on arrayed waveguide gratings," Opt. Lett. 29, 2222-2224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

C. Sookdhis, T. Mei, H. S. Djie, and J. Arokiaraj, "Passive wavelength monitor based on multimode interference waveguide," Opt. Eng. 42, 3421-3422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. J. Lepley and A. S. Siddiqui, "Primary referenced DWDM frequency comb generator," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 146, 121-124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Fabricating fibre edge filters with arbitrary spectral response based on tilted chirped grating structures," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, L1-L3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. Mason, S. P. Denbarrs, and L. A. Coldren, "Tunable sampled-grating D. B. R. lasers with integrated wavelength monitors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1085-1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Mason, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, "Tunable sampled-grating DBR lasers with integrated wavelength mornitors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1085-1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave. Technol . 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. B. L. Ribeiro, L. A. Ferreira, M. Tsvekov, and J. L. Santos, "All-fiber interrogation technique for fiber Bragg sensors using a biconical fiber filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 382-383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, and R. M. Measures, "A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516-518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Arokiaraj, J.

C. Sookdhis, T. Mei, H. S. Djie, and J. Arokiaraj, "Passive wavelength monitor based on multimode interference waveguide," Opt. Eng. 42, 3421-3422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave. Technol . 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Fabricating fibre edge filters with arbitrary spectral response based on tilted chirped grating structures," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, L1-L3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

B. Mason, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, "Tunable sampled-grating DBR lasers with integrated wavelength mornitors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1085-1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Mason, S. P. Denbarrs, and L. A. Coldren, "Tunable sampled-grating D. B. R. lasers with integrated wavelength monitors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1085-1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave. Technol . 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

B. Mason, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, "Tunable sampled-grating DBR lasers with integrated wavelength mornitors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1085-1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Denbarrs, S. P.

B. Mason, S. P. Denbarrs, and L. A. Coldren, "Tunable sampled-grating D. B. R. lasers with integrated wavelength monitors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1085-1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Djie, H. S.

C. Sookdhis, T. Mei, H. S. Djie, and J. Arokiaraj, "Passive wavelength monitor based on multimode interference waveguide," Opt. Eng. 42, 3421-3422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, G.

Q. Wang and G. Farrell, "Multimode fiber based edge filter for optical wavelength measurement application," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 900-902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, T. Freir, G. Rajan, and P. Wang, "Low-cost wavelength measurement based on a macrobending single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1785-1787 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and T. Freir, "Study of transmission response of edge filters employed in wavelength measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 7789-7792 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferreira, L. A.

A. B. L. Ribeiro, L. A. Ferreira, M. Tsvekov, and J. L. Santos, "All-fiber interrogation technique for fiber Bragg sensors using a biconical fiber filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 382-383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Freir, T.

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, T. Freir, G. Rajan, and P. Wang, "Low-cost wavelength measurement based on a macrobending single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1785-1787 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and T. Freir, "Study of transmission response of edge filters employed in wavelength measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 7789-7792 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave. Technol . 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grover, C. P.

G. Z. Xiao, P. Zhao, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, Z. Zhang, and C. P. Grover, "Interrogating fiber Bragg grating sensors by thermally scanning a demultiplexer based on arrayed waveguide gratings," Opt. Lett. 29, 2222-2224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave. Technol . 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave. Technol . 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave. Technol . 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lepley, J. J.

J. J. Lepley and A. S. Siddiqui, "Primary referenced DWDM frequency comb generator," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 146, 121-124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, and R. M. Measures, "A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516-518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Fabricating fibre edge filters with arbitrary spectral response based on tilted chirped grating structures," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, L1-L3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. G.

G. Z. Xiao, P. Zhao, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, Z. Zhang, and C. P. Grover, "Interrogating fiber Bragg grating sensors by thermally scanning a demultiplexer based on arrayed waveguide gratings," Opt. Lett. 29, 2222-2224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mason, B.

B. Mason, S. P. Denbarrs, and L. A. Coldren, "Tunable sampled-grating D. B. R. lasers with integrated wavelength monitors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1085-1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Mason, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, "Tunable sampled-grating DBR lasers with integrated wavelength mornitors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1085-1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, and R. M. Measures, "A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516-518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mei, T.

C. Sookdhis, T. Mei, H. S. Djie, and J. Arokiaraj, "Passive wavelength monitor based on multimode interference waveguide," Opt. Eng. 42, 3421-3422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Melle, S. M.

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, and R. M. Measures, "A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516-518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave. Technol . 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave. Technol . 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rajan, G.

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, T. Freir, G. Rajan, and P. Wang, "Low-cost wavelength measurement based on a macrobending single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1785-1787 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ribeiro, A. B. L.

A. B. L. Ribeiro, L. A. Ferreira, M. Tsvekov, and J. L. Santos, "All-fiber interrogation technique for fiber Bragg sensors using a biconical fiber filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 382-383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

A. B. L. Ribeiro, L. A. Ferreira, M. Tsvekov, and J. L. Santos, "All-fiber interrogation technique for fiber Bragg sensors using a biconical fiber filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 382-383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siddiqui, A. S.

J. J. Lepley and A. S. Siddiqui, "Primary referenced DWDM frequency comb generator," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 146, 121-124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sookdhis, C.

C. Sookdhis, T. Mei, H. S. Djie, and J. Arokiaraj, "Passive wavelength monitor based on multimode interference waveguide," Opt. Eng. 42, 3421-3422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F. G.

G. Z. Xiao, P. Zhao, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, Z. Zhang, and C. P. Grover, "Interrogating fiber Bragg grating sensors by thermally scanning a demultiplexer based on arrayed waveguide gratings," Opt. Lett. 29, 2222-2224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsvekov, M.

A. B. L. Ribeiro, L. A. Ferreira, M. Tsvekov, and J. L. Santos, "All-fiber interrogation technique for fiber Bragg sensors using a biconical fiber filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 382-383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, T. Freir, G. Rajan, and P. Wang, "Low-cost wavelength measurement based on a macrobending single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1785-1787 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang and G. Farrell, "Multimode fiber based edge filter for optical wavelength measurement application," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 900-902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, T. Freir, G. Rajan, and P. Wang, "Low-cost wavelength measurement based on a macrobending single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1785-1787 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and T. Freir, "Study of transmission response of edge filters employed in wavelength measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 7789-7792 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, G. Z.

G. Z. Xiao, P. Zhao, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, Z. Zhang, and C. P. Grover, "Interrogating fiber Bragg grating sensors by thermally scanning a demultiplexer based on arrayed waveguide gratings," Opt. Lett. 29, 2222-2224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Fabricating fibre edge filters with arbitrary spectral response based on tilted chirped grating structures," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, L1-L3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

G. Z. Xiao, P. Zhao, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, Z. Zhang, and C. P. Grover, "Interrogating fiber Bragg grating sensors by thermally scanning a demultiplexer based on arrayed waveguide gratings," Opt. Lett. 29, 2222-2224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, P.

G. Z. Xiao, P. Zhao, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, Z. Zhang, and C. P. Grover, "Interrogating fiber Bragg grating sensors by thermally scanning a demultiplexer based on arrayed waveguide gratings," Opt. Lett. 29, 2222-2224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

A. B. L. Ribeiro, L. A. Ferreira, M. Tsvekov, and J. L. Santos, "All-fiber interrogation technique for fiber Bragg sensors using a biconical fiber filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 382-383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron.

J. J. Lepley and A. S. Siddiqui, "Primary referenced DWDM frequency comb generator," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 146, 121-124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, and R. M. Measures, "A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516-518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Mason, S. P. Denbarrs, and L. A. Coldren, "Tunable sampled-grating D. B. R. lasers with integrated wavelength monitors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1085-1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Mason, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, "Tunable sampled-grating DBR lasers with integrated wavelength mornitors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1085-1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave. Technol

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave. Technol . 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Fabricating fibre edge filters with arbitrary spectral response based on tilted chirped grating structures," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, L1-L3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett.

Q. Wang and G. Farrell, "Multimode fiber based edge filter for optical wavelength measurement application," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 900-902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

C. Sookdhis, T. Mei, H. S. Djie, and J. Arokiaraj, "Passive wavelength monitor based on multimode interference waveguide," Opt. Eng. 42, 3421-3422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

G. Z. Xiao, P. Zhao, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, Z. Zhang, and C. P. Grover, "Interrogating fiber Bragg grating sensors by thermally scanning a demultiplexer based on arrayed waveguide gratings," Opt. Lett. 29, 2222-2224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, T. Freir, G. Rajan, and P. Wang, "Low-cost wavelength measurement based on a macrobending single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1785-1787 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the ratiometric wavelength measurement system employing an edge filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modeled ratios of the system as the tunable laser has a wavelength shift of 10 pm at 1500 nm for different fluctuation values of the power monitor: (a) 0.007 dB, (b) 0.005 dB, (c) 0.002 dB.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contour plot of the theoretical achievable resolution for different SNRs of the input light and fluctuation of the system ratio.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Bend loss of a single-mode fiber within the wavelength range from 1500 to 1600 nm for different bending lengths. (b) Calibration curves for different turns within the wavelength range from 1500 to 1600 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Recorded ratios of the system as the tunable laser has a wavelength shift at 1530 nm for different averaging values of the powermeter: (a) Avg = 32, wavelength shift of 10 pm; (b) Avg = 32, wavelength shift of 20 pm; (c) Avg = 32, wavelength shift of 30 pm; (d) Avg = 64, wavelength shift of 10 pm; (e) Avg = 64, wavelength shift of 20 pm; (f) Avg = 64, wavelength shift of 30 pm; (g) Avg = 128, wavelength shift of 10 pm; (h) Avg = 128, wavelength shift of 20 pm; (i) Avg = 128, wavelength shift of 30 pm.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R ( λ 0 ) = 10 log 10 ( P 1 ( λ ) I λ 0 ( λ ) T f ( λ ) d λ P 2 ( λ ) I λ 0 ( λ ) d λ ) = P f P r ,
R r ( λ 0 ) = R ( λ 0 ) + r R M ,
T ¯ f ( λ ) = T ¯ f ( λ 1 ) + [ T ¯ f ( λ 2 ) T ¯ f ( λ 1 ) ] ( λ 2 λ 1 ) ( λ λ 1 ) .

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