Abstract

The application of UV lidar to measure isoprene concentrations for environmental studies has been investigated. With a hard target lidar system at 223  nm, isoprene mixing ratios above eucalyptus trees were measured with a sensitivity of about 1 ppbv. Results over a long timescale were compared with an existing model of isoprene emission for a wide range of temperature and sunlight values. Fast time dependent results yielded a leaf emission rate of 25   μg  g1hour1, consistent with emission from other eucalyptus species. Requirements for development of the system for range resolved isoprene number density measurements using atmospheric backscatter lidar are discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

P. Campuzano-Jost, M. B. Williams, L. D'Ottone, and A. J. Hynes, "Kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of the hydroxyl radical with h8-isoprene and d8-isoprene: isoprene absorption cross-sections, rate coefficients, and the mechanism of hydroperoxyl radical production," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 1537-1551 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Zunckel, K. Venjonoka, J. J. Pienaar, E.-G. Brunke, O. Pretorius, A. Koosialee, A. Raghunandan, and A. M. van Tienhoven, "Surface ozone over southern Africa: synthesis of monitoring results during the Cross border Air Pollution Impact Assessment project," Atmos. Environ. 38, 6139-6147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, "Versatile mobile lidar system for environmental monitoring," Appl. Opt. 42, 3583-3594 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, "Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry. Part 1. gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species," Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6179-6699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

F. Kühnemann, M. Wolfertz, S. Arnold, M. Lagemann, A. Popp, G. Schüler, A. Jux, and W. Boland, "Simultaneous online detection of isoprene and isoprene-d2 using infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 75, 397-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Apel, D. D. Riemer, A. Hills, W. Baugh, J. Orlando, I. Faloona, D. Tan, W. Brune, B. Lamb, H. Westberg, M. A. Carol, T. Thornberry, and C. D. Geron, "Measurement and interpretation of isoprene fluxes and isoprene, methacrolein, and methyl vinyl ketone mixing ratios at the PROPHET site during the 1998 Intensive," J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH-7-1-ACH-7-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

C. He, F. Murray, and T. Lyons, "Monoterpene and isoprene emissions from 15 Eucalyptus species in Australia: the study of uncertainties in physical measurements," Atmos. Environ. 34, 645-655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

J. Malicet, D. Daumont, J. Charbonnier, C. Parisse, A. Chakir, and J. Brion, "Ozone UV spectroscopy. II. Absorption cross-sections and temperature dependence," J. Atmos. Chem. 21, 263-273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Hester and R. M. Harrison, Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere, Issues in Environmental Science and Technology (The Royal Society of Chemistry, 1995).

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. B. Guenther, P. R. Zimmerman, and P. C. Harley, "Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: model evaluations and sensitivity analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12609-12617 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. B. Guenther, R. K. Monson, and R. Fall, "Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: observations with Eucalyptus and emission rate algorithm development," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10799-10808 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, 1984), Chap. 7.

Apel, E. C.

E. C. Apel, D. D. Riemer, A. Hills, W. Baugh, J. Orlando, I. Faloona, D. Tan, W. Brune, B. Lamb, H. Westberg, M. A. Carol, T. Thornberry, and C. D. Geron, "Measurement and interpretation of isoprene fluxes and isoprene, methacrolein, and methyl vinyl ketone mixing ratios at the PROPHET site during the 1998 Intensive," J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH-7-1-ACH-7-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

F. Kühnemann, M. Wolfertz, S. Arnold, M. Lagemann, A. Popp, G. Schüler, A. Jux, and W. Boland, "Simultaneous online detection of isoprene and isoprene-d2 using infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 75, 397-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, R.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, "Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry. Part 1. gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species," Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6179-6699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baugh, W.

E. C. Apel, D. D. Riemer, A. Hills, W. Baugh, J. Orlando, I. Faloona, D. Tan, W. Brune, B. Lamb, H. Westberg, M. A. Carol, T. Thornberry, and C. D. Geron, "Measurement and interpretation of isoprene fluxes and isoprene, methacrolein, and methyl vinyl ketone mixing ratios at the PROPHET site during the 1998 Intensive," J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH-7-1-ACH-7-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baulch, D. L.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, "Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry. Part 1. gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species," Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6179-6699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boland, W.

F. Kühnemann, M. Wolfertz, S. Arnold, M. Lagemann, A. Popp, G. Schüler, A. Jux, and W. Boland, "Simultaneous online detection of isoprene and isoprene-d2 using infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 75, 397-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brion, J.

J. Malicet, D. Daumont, J. Charbonnier, C. Parisse, A. Chakir, and J. Brion, "Ozone UV spectroscopy. II. Absorption cross-sections and temperature dependence," J. Atmos. Chem. 21, 263-273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brune, W.

E. C. Apel, D. D. Riemer, A. Hills, W. Baugh, J. Orlando, I. Faloona, D. Tan, W. Brune, B. Lamb, H. Westberg, M. A. Carol, T. Thornberry, and C. D. Geron, "Measurement and interpretation of isoprene fluxes and isoprene, methacrolein, and methyl vinyl ketone mixing ratios at the PROPHET site during the 1998 Intensive," J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH-7-1-ACH-7-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brunke, E.-G.

M. Zunckel, K. Venjonoka, J. J. Pienaar, E.-G. Brunke, O. Pretorius, A. Koosialee, A. Raghunandan, and A. M. van Tienhoven, "Surface ozone over southern Africa: synthesis of monitoring results during the Cross border Air Pollution Impact Assessment project," Atmos. Environ. 38, 6139-6147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campuzano-Jost, P.

P. Campuzano-Jost, M. B. Williams, L. D'Ottone, and A. J. Hynes, "Kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of the hydroxyl radical with h8-isoprene and d8-isoprene: isoprene absorption cross-sections, rate coefficients, and the mechanism of hydroperoxyl radical production," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 1537-1551 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carol, M. A.

E. C. Apel, D. D. Riemer, A. Hills, W. Baugh, J. Orlando, I. Faloona, D. Tan, W. Brune, B. Lamb, H. Westberg, M. A. Carol, T. Thornberry, and C. D. Geron, "Measurement and interpretation of isoprene fluxes and isoprene, methacrolein, and methyl vinyl ketone mixing ratios at the PROPHET site during the 1998 Intensive," J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH-7-1-ACH-7-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chakir, A.

J. Malicet, D. Daumont, J. Charbonnier, C. Parisse, A. Chakir, and J. Brion, "Ozone UV spectroscopy. II. Absorption cross-sections and temperature dependence," J. Atmos. Chem. 21, 263-273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Charbonnier, J.

J. Malicet, D. Daumont, J. Charbonnier, C. Parisse, A. Chakir, and J. Brion, "Ozone UV spectroscopy. II. Absorption cross-sections and temperature dependence," J. Atmos. Chem. 21, 263-273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chiloane, K.

M. Zunckel, K. Chiloane, M. Sowden, and L. Otter, "Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs): the state of knowledge in southern Africa and the challenges for air quality management," S. Afr. J. Sci. (to be published).

Cox, R. A.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, "Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry. Part 1. gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species," Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6179-6699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crowley, J. N.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, "Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry. Part 1. gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species," Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6179-6699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Daumont, D.

J. Malicet, D. Daumont, J. Charbonnier, C. Parisse, A. Chakir, and J. Brion, "Ozone UV spectroscopy. II. Absorption cross-sections and temperature dependence," J. Atmos. Chem. 21, 263-273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D'Ottone, L.

P. Campuzano-Jost, M. B. Williams, L. D'Ottone, and A. J. Hynes, "Kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of the hydroxyl radical with h8-isoprene and d8-isoprene: isoprene absorption cross-sections, rate coefficients, and the mechanism of hydroperoxyl radical production," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 1537-1551 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Edner, H.

Erickson, D.

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fall, R.

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Guenther, R. K. Monson, and R. Fall, "Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: observations with Eucalyptus and emission rate algorithm development," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10799-10808 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Faloona, I.

E. C. Apel, D. D. Riemer, A. Hills, W. Baugh, J. Orlando, I. Faloona, D. Tan, W. Brune, B. Lamb, H. Westberg, M. A. Carol, T. Thornberry, and C. D. Geron, "Measurement and interpretation of isoprene fluxes and isoprene, methacrolein, and methyl vinyl ketone mixing ratios at the PROPHET site during the 1998 Intensive," J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH-7-1-ACH-7-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

Fukuchi, T.

Geron, C.

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Geron, C. D.

E. C. Apel, D. D. Riemer, A. Hills, W. Baugh, J. Orlando, I. Faloona, D. Tan, W. Brune, B. Lamb, H. Westberg, M. A. Carol, T. Thornberry, and C. D. Geron, "Measurement and interpretation of isoprene fluxes and isoprene, methacrolein, and methyl vinyl ketone mixing ratios at the PROPHET site during the 1998 Intensive," J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH-7-1-ACH-7-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goto, N.

Graedel, T.

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, A.

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, A. B.

A. B. Guenther, P. R. Zimmerman, and P. C. Harley, "Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: model evaluations and sensitivity analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12609-12617 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Guenther, R. K. Monson, and R. Fall, "Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: observations with Eucalyptus and emission rate algorithm development," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10799-10808 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hampson, R. F.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, "Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry. Part 1. gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species," Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6179-6699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harley, P.

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harley, P. C.

A. B. Guenther, P. R. Zimmerman, and P. C. Harley, "Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: model evaluations and sensitivity analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12609-12617 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, R. M.

R. E. Hester and R. M. Harrison, Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere, Issues in Environmental Science and Technology (The Royal Society of Chemistry, 1995).

He, C.

C. He, F. Murray, and T. Lyons, "Monoterpene and isoprene emissions from 15 Eucalyptus species in Australia: the study of uncertainties in physical measurements," Atmos. Environ. 34, 645-655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hester, R. E.

R. E. Hester and R. M. Harrison, Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere, Issues in Environmental Science and Technology (The Royal Society of Chemistry, 1995).

Hewitt, C.

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hills, A.

E. C. Apel, D. D. Riemer, A. Hills, W. Baugh, J. Orlando, I. Faloona, D. Tan, W. Brune, B. Lamb, H. Westberg, M. A. Carol, T. Thornberry, and C. D. Geron, "Measurement and interpretation of isoprene fluxes and isoprene, methacrolein, and methyl vinyl ketone mixing ratios at the PROPHET site during the 1998 Intensive," J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH-7-1-ACH-7-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hynes, A. J.

P. Campuzano-Jost, M. B. Williams, L. D'Ottone, and A. J. Hynes, "Kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of the hydroxyl radical with h8-isoprene and d8-isoprene: isoprene absorption cross-sections, rate coefficients, and the mechanism of hydroperoxyl radical production," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 1537-1551 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hynes, R. G.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, "Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry. Part 1. gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species," Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6179-6699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jenkin, M. E.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, "Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry. Part 1. gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species," Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6179-6699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jux, A.

F. Kühnemann, M. Wolfertz, S. Arnold, M. Lagemann, A. Popp, G. Schüler, A. Jux, and W. Boland, "Simultaneous online detection of isoprene and isoprene-d2 using infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 75, 397-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klinger, L.

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koosialee, A.

M. Zunckel, K. Venjonoka, J. J. Pienaar, E.-G. Brunke, O. Pretorius, A. Koosialee, A. Raghunandan, and A. M. van Tienhoven, "Surface ozone over southern Africa: synthesis of monitoring results during the Cross border Air Pollution Impact Assessment project," Atmos. Environ. 38, 6139-6147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kühnemann, F.

F. Kühnemann, M. Wolfertz, S. Arnold, M. Lagemann, A. Popp, G. Schüler, A. Jux, and W. Boland, "Simultaneous online detection of isoprene and isoprene-d2 using infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 75, 397-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lagemann, M.

F. Kühnemann, M. Wolfertz, S. Arnold, M. Lagemann, A. Popp, G. Schüler, A. Jux, and W. Boland, "Simultaneous online detection of isoprene and isoprene-d2 using infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 75, 397-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, B.

E. C. Apel, D. D. Riemer, A. Hills, W. Baugh, J. Orlando, I. Faloona, D. Tan, W. Brune, B. Lamb, H. Westberg, M. A. Carol, T. Thornberry, and C. D. Geron, "Measurement and interpretation of isoprene fluxes and isoprene, methacrolein, and methyl vinyl ketone mixing ratios at the PROPHET site during the 1998 Intensive," J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH-7-1-ACH-7-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lerdau, M.

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, T.

C. He, F. Murray, and T. Lyons, "Monoterpene and isoprene emissions from 15 Eucalyptus species in Australia: the study of uncertainties in physical measurements," Atmos. Environ. 34, 645-655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Malicet, J.

J. Malicet, D. Daumont, J. Charbonnier, C. Parisse, A. Chakir, and J. Brion, "Ozone UV spectroscopy. II. Absorption cross-sections and temperature dependence," J. Atmos. Chem. 21, 263-273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McKay, W.

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, 1984), Chap. 7.

Monson, R. K.

A. B. Guenther, R. K. Monson, and R. Fall, "Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: observations with Eucalyptus and emission rate algorithm development," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10799-10808 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Murray, F.

C. He, F. Murray, and T. Lyons, "Monoterpene and isoprene emissions from 15 Eucalyptus species in Australia: the study of uncertainties in physical measurements," Atmos. Environ. 34, 645-655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, K.

Nunes, T. V.

T. V. Nunes and C. A. Pio, "Emission of volatile organic compounds from Portuguese Eucalyptus forests," Chemosphere Global Change Sci. 3, 239-248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Orlando, J.

E. C. Apel, D. D. Riemer, A. Hills, W. Baugh, J. Orlando, I. Faloona, D. Tan, W. Brune, B. Lamb, H. Westberg, M. A. Carol, T. Thornberry, and C. D. Geron, "Measurement and interpretation of isoprene fluxes and isoprene, methacrolein, and methyl vinyl ketone mixing ratios at the PROPHET site during the 1998 Intensive," J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH-7-1-ACH-7-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Otter, L.

M. Zunckel, K. Chiloane, M. Sowden, and L. Otter, "Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs): the state of knowledge in southern Africa and the challenges for air quality management," S. Afr. J. Sci. (to be published).

Parisse, C.

J. Malicet, D. Daumont, J. Charbonnier, C. Parisse, A. Chakir, and J. Brion, "Ozone UV spectroscopy. II. Absorption cross-sections and temperature dependence," J. Atmos. Chem. 21, 263-273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pienaar, J. J.

M. Zunckel, K. Venjonoka, J. J. Pienaar, E.-G. Brunke, O. Pretorius, A. Koosialee, A. Raghunandan, and A. M. van Tienhoven, "Surface ozone over southern Africa: synthesis of monitoring results during the Cross border Air Pollution Impact Assessment project," Atmos. Environ. 38, 6139-6147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, T.

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pio, C. A.

T. V. Nunes and C. A. Pio, "Emission of volatile organic compounds from Portuguese Eucalyptus forests," Chemosphere Global Change Sci. 3, 239-248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Popp, A.

F. Kühnemann, M. Wolfertz, S. Arnold, M. Lagemann, A. Popp, G. Schüler, A. Jux, and W. Boland, "Simultaneous online detection of isoprene and isoprene-d2 using infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 75, 397-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pretorius, O.

M. Zunckel, K. Venjonoka, J. J. Pienaar, E.-G. Brunke, O. Pretorius, A. Koosialee, A. Raghunandan, and A. M. van Tienhoven, "Surface ozone over southern Africa: synthesis of monitoring results during the Cross border Air Pollution Impact Assessment project," Atmos. Environ. 38, 6139-6147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raghunandan, A.

M. Zunckel, K. Venjonoka, J. J. Pienaar, E.-G. Brunke, O. Pretorius, A. Koosialee, A. Raghunandan, and A. M. van Tienhoven, "Surface ozone over southern Africa: synthesis of monitoring results during the Cross border Air Pollution Impact Assessment project," Atmos. Environ. 38, 6139-6147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Riemer, D. D.

E. C. Apel, D. D. Riemer, A. Hills, W. Baugh, J. Orlando, I. Faloona, D. Tan, W. Brune, B. Lamb, H. Westberg, M. A. Carol, T. Thornberry, and C. D. Geron, "Measurement and interpretation of isoprene fluxes and isoprene, methacrolein, and methyl vinyl ketone mixing ratios at the PROPHET site during the 1998 Intensive," J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH-7-1-ACH-7-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, M. J.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, "Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry. Part 1. gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species," Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6179-6699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saito, Y.

Scholes, B.

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schüler, G.

F. Kühnemann, M. Wolfertz, S. Arnold, M. Lagemann, A. Popp, G. Schüler, A. Jux, and W. Boland, "Simultaneous online detection of isoprene and isoprene-d2 using infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 75, 397-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sowden, M.

M. Zunckel, K. Chiloane, M. Sowden, and L. Otter, "Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs): the state of knowledge in southern Africa and the challenges for air quality management," S. Afr. J. Sci. (to be published).

Steinbrecher, R.

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

Takeuchi, N.

Tallamraju, R.

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tan, D.

E. C. Apel, D. D. Riemer, A. Hills, W. Baugh, J. Orlando, I. Faloona, D. Tan, W. Brune, B. Lamb, H. Westberg, M. A. Carol, T. Thornberry, and C. D. Geron, "Measurement and interpretation of isoprene fluxes and isoprene, methacrolein, and methyl vinyl ketone mixing ratios at the PROPHET site during the 1998 Intensive," J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH-7-1-ACH-7-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J.

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thornberry, T.

E. C. Apel, D. D. Riemer, A. Hills, W. Baugh, J. Orlando, I. Faloona, D. Tan, W. Brune, B. Lamb, H. Westberg, M. A. Carol, T. Thornberry, and C. D. Geron, "Measurement and interpretation of isoprene fluxes and isoprene, methacrolein, and methyl vinyl ketone mixing ratios at the PROPHET site during the 1998 Intensive," J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH-7-1-ACH-7-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Troe, J.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, "Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry. Part 1. gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species," Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6179-6699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Tienhoven, A. M.

M. Zunckel, K. Venjonoka, J. J. Pienaar, E.-G. Brunke, O. Pretorius, A. Koosialee, A. Raghunandan, and A. M. van Tienhoven, "Surface ozone over southern Africa: synthesis of monitoring results during the Cross border Air Pollution Impact Assessment project," Atmos. Environ. 38, 6139-6147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Venjonoka, K.

M. Zunckel, K. Venjonoka, J. J. Pienaar, E.-G. Brunke, O. Pretorius, A. Koosialee, A. Raghunandan, and A. M. van Tienhoven, "Surface ozone over southern Africa: synthesis of monitoring results during the Cross border Air Pollution Impact Assessment project," Atmos. Environ. 38, 6139-6147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weibring, P.

Westberg, H.

E. C. Apel, D. D. Riemer, A. Hills, W. Baugh, J. Orlando, I. Faloona, D. Tan, W. Brune, B. Lamb, H. Westberg, M. A. Carol, T. Thornberry, and C. D. Geron, "Measurement and interpretation of isoprene fluxes and isoprene, methacrolein, and methyl vinyl ketone mixing ratios at the PROPHET site during the 1998 Intensive," J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH-7-1-ACH-7-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Williams, M. B.

P. Campuzano-Jost, M. B. Williams, L. D'Ottone, and A. J. Hynes, "Kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of the hydroxyl radical with h8-isoprene and d8-isoprene: isoprene absorption cross-sections, rate coefficients, and the mechanism of hydroperoxyl radical production," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 1537-1551 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wolfertz, M.

F. Kühnemann, M. Wolfertz, S. Arnold, M. Lagemann, A. Popp, G. Schüler, A. Jux, and W. Boland, "Simultaneous online detection of isoprene and isoprene-d2 using infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 75, 397-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerman, P.

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerman, P. R.

A. B. Guenther, P. R. Zimmerman, and P. C. Harley, "Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: model evaluations and sensitivity analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12609-12617 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zunckel, M.

M. Zunckel, K. Venjonoka, J. J. Pienaar, E.-G. Brunke, O. Pretorius, A. Koosialee, A. Raghunandan, and A. M. van Tienhoven, "Surface ozone over southern Africa: synthesis of monitoring results during the Cross border Air Pollution Impact Assessment project," Atmos. Environ. 38, 6139-6147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Zunckel, K. Chiloane, M. Sowden, and L. Otter, "Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs): the state of knowledge in southern Africa and the challenges for air quality management," S. Afr. J. Sci. (to be published).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. Kühnemann, M. Wolfertz, S. Arnold, M. Lagemann, A. Popp, G. Schüler, A. Jux, and W. Boland, "Simultaneous online detection of isoprene and isoprene-d2 using infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 75, 397-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (1)

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, "Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry. Part 1. gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species," Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 3, 6179-6699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. (2)

M. Zunckel, K. Venjonoka, J. J. Pienaar, E.-G. Brunke, O. Pretorius, A. Koosialee, A. Raghunandan, and A. M. van Tienhoven, "Surface ozone over southern Africa: synthesis of monitoring results during the Cross border Air Pollution Impact Assessment project," Atmos. Environ. 38, 6139-6147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. He, F. Murray, and T. Lyons, "Monoterpene and isoprene emissions from 15 Eucalyptus species in Australia: the study of uncertainties in physical measurements," Atmos. Environ. 34, 645-655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chemosphere Global Change Sci. (1)

T. V. Nunes and C. A. Pio, "Emission of volatile organic compounds from Portuguese Eucalyptus forests," Chemosphere Global Change Sci. 3, 239-248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem. (1)

J. Malicet, D. Daumont, J. Charbonnier, C. Parisse, A. Chakir, and J. Brion, "Ozone UV spectroscopy. II. Absorption cross-sections and temperature dependence," J. Atmos. Chem. 21, 263-273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

A. Guenther, C. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions," J. Geophys. Res. 100(D5), 8873-8892 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Guenther, R. K. Monson, and R. Fall, "Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: observations with Eucalyptus and emission rate algorithm development," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10799-10808 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Guenther, P. R. Zimmerman, and P. C. Harley, "Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: model evaluations and sensitivity analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12609-12617 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Apel, D. D. Riemer, A. Hills, W. Baugh, J. Orlando, I. Faloona, D. Tan, W. Brune, B. Lamb, H. Westberg, M. A. Carol, T. Thornberry, and C. D. Geron, "Measurement and interpretation of isoprene fluxes and isoprene, methacrolein, and methyl vinyl ketone mixing ratios at the PROPHET site during the 1998 Intensive," J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH-7-1-ACH-7-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

P. Campuzano-Jost, M. B. Williams, L. D'Ottone, and A. J. Hynes, "Kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of the hydroxyl radical with h8-isoprene and d8-isoprene: isoprene absorption cross-sections, rate coefficients, and the mechanism of hydroperoxyl radical production," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 1537-1551 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Afr. J. Sci. (1)

M. Zunckel, K. Chiloane, M. Sowden, and L. Otter, "Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs): the state of knowledge in southern Africa and the challenges for air quality management," S. Afr. J. Sci. (to be published).

Other (2)

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, 1984), Chap. 7.

R. E. Hester and R. M. Harrison, Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere, Issues in Environmental Science and Technology (The Royal Society of Chemistry, 1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption cross section of isoprene and ozone versus wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results from fast opening valve experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of return signal and reference signal for conditions of no isoprene production.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Comparison of measured isoprene mixing ratio as a function of time with the normalized Guenther et al. [15] model using (b) the measured temperature and (c) PAR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurements of isoprene mixing ratios as a function of time (top) following a sequence of fast opening and closing of the tree enclosure (bottom).

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n = 1 2 ( σ on σ off ) L ln ( I off I on ) .
n min = 1 2 ( σ on σ off ) L ( δ I on I on ) .
n = 1 2 σ on L ln ( I ref I on ) .
d n d t = P R ,
P = all   leaves E .
E = E S C H C T C P A R ,
C T = exp [ c T1 ( T T S ) / ( R T S T ) ] [ 1 + exp ( c T2 ( T T M ) / ( R T S T ) ] ,
C PAR = α c L 1 PAR 1 + α 2 PAR 2 .
d n d t 0 , P R = n τ ,
R = | d n d t | | Chemistry | d n d t | Transport .
ISOP + * OH 0.23   MACR + 0.32   MVK .
τ 1 n OH k ,
0.3   hours < τ < 3   hours .
τ L t v 1 min for   v = 10   cm   s 1 .
P = 6.1 p p b v min 1 .
E = 24.6 μg isoprene ( gram of dry leaf weight ) 1 hour 1 .
E = 26.7   μg   g 1 hour 1 .

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