Abstract

Aerosol Raman lidar observations of profiles of the particle extinction and backscatter coefficients and the respective extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) were performed under highly polluted conditions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China in October 2004 and at Beijing during a clear period with moderately polluted to background aerosol conditions in January 2005. The anthropogenic haze in the PRD is characterized by volume light-extinction coefficients of particles ranging from approximately 200 to 800Mm1 and lidar ratios mostly between 40 and 55 sr (average of 47±6  sr). Almost clean air masses were observed throughout the measurements of the Beijing campaign. These air masses originated from arid desert–steppe-like regions (greater Gobi area). Extinction values usually varied between 100 and 300Mm1, and the lidar ratios were considerably lower (compared with PRD values) with values mostly from 30 to 45 sr (average of 38±7  sr). Gobi dust partly influenced the observations. Unexpectedly low lidar ratios of approximately 25 sr were found for a case of background aerosol with a low optical depth of 0.05. The low lidar ratios are consistent with Mie-scattering calculations applied to ground-based observations of particle size distributions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and Y. Chen, "Observations of dust and spherical aerosols with networked polarization lidars in Asia," in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 22nd ILRC, G. Pappalardo and A. Amodeo, eds. (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), ESA SP-561, Vol. 1, pp. 873-876.
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  7. D. Müller, M. Tesche, H. Eichler, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Cheng, Y. H. Zhang, and M. Hu, "Strong particle light absorption over the Pearl River Delta (south China) and Beijing (north China) determined from combined Raman lidar and Sun photometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, doi: (2006).
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  8. A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  14. I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Multiyear aerosol observations with dual-wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y.-F. Cheng, H. Eichler, A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, Y. H. Zhang, M. Hu, H. Hermann, L. M. Zeng, S. Liu, T. Gnauk, E. Brüggemann, and L. Y. He, "Mixing state of elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing aerosol components derived from in situ particle optical properties at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. L. Anderson, S. J. Masonis, D. S. Covert, N. C. Ahlquist, S. G. Howell, A. D. Clarke, and C. S. McNaughton, "Variability of aerosol optical properties derived from in situ aircraft measurements during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. Xiangao, C. Hongbin, and W. Pucai, "Aerosol properties in a Chinese semiarid region," Atmos. Environ. 38, 4571-4581 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Xia, H. Cheng, P. Wang, X. Zong, J. Qiu, and P. Goloub, "Aerosol properties and their spatial and temporal variations over North China in spring 2001," Tellus 57B, 28-39 (2005).
  20. T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, "An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual-wavelength polarized lidar measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 112, doi: (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. Sugimoto, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan (personal communication, 2007).
  22. T. Sakai, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsumura, A. Ichiki, Y.-S. Kim, K. Tamura, D. Troshkin, and S. Hamdi, "Case study of Raman lidar measurements of Asian dust events in 2000 and 2001 at Nagoya and Tsukuba, Japan," Atmos. Environ. 36, 5479-5489 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, "Extintion-to-backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar," Appl. Opt. 41, 2760-2767 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. D. Spinehirne, J. A. Reagan, and B. M. Herman, "Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and inference of aerosol imaginary index in the tropopshere by lidar technique," J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426-438 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. A. Reagan, M. V. Apte, A. Ben-David, and B. M. Herman, "Assessment of aerosol extinction to backscatter ratio measurements made at 694.3 nm in Tucson, Arizona," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 8, 215-226 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  27. I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, "Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831-16847 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. F. Barnaba and G. P. Gobbi, "Lidar estimation of tropospheric aerosol extinction, surface area and volume: maritime and desert-dust cases," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3005-3018 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, "An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual-wavelength polarized lidar measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 112, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan (personal communication, 2007).

2006 (3)

M. Tesche, "Optische und mikrophysikalische Charakterisierung anthropogener Partikel in Südchina (Pearl River Delta) und Nordchina (Peking) anhand von Ramanlidar- und Sonnenphotometermessungen [Optical and mircrophysical characterization of anthropogenic particles in South China (Pearl River Delta) and North China (Beijing) by means of Raman lidar and Sun photometer measurements]," Diploma thesis (Leipzig University, 2006).

D. Müller, M. Tesche, H. Eichler, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Cheng, Y. H. Zhang, and M. Hu, "Strong particle light absorption over the Pearl River Delta (south China) and Beijing (north China) determined from combined Raman lidar and Sun photometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Cheng, H. Eichler, A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, Y. H. Zhang, M. Hu, H. Hermann, L. M. Zeng, S. Liu, T. Gnauk, E. Brüggemann, and L. Y. He, "Mixing state of elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing aerosol components derived from in situ particle optical properties at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

A. Ansmann and D. Müller, "Lidar and atmospheric aerosol particles," in LIDAR--Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 105-141.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, "Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, South China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Xia, H. Cheng, P. Wang, X. Zong, J. Qiu, and P. Goloub, "Aerosol properties and their spatial and temporal variations over North China in spring 2001," Tellus 57B, 28-39 (2005).

2004 (4)

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and Y. Chen, "Observations of dust and spherical aerosols with networked polarization lidars in Asia," in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 22nd ILRC, G. Pappalardo and A. Amodeo, eds. (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), ESA SP-561, Vol. 1, pp. 873-876.

X. Xiangao, C. Hongbin, and W. Pucai, "Aerosol properties in a Chinese semiarid region," Atmos. Environ. 38, 4571-4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, R. Foster, P. Rhone, and H. Baars, "Portable Raman lidar for determination of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients," in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 22nd ILRC, G. Pappalardo and A. Amodeo, eds. (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), ESA SP-561, Vol. 1, pp. 83-86.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Multiyear aerosol observations with dual-wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

R. R. Draxler and G. D. Rolph, "HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory)," model access via NOAA ARL READY web site, http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html (2003).

T. L. Anderson, S. J. Masonis, D. S. Covert, N. C. Ahlquist, S. G. Howell, A. D. Clarke, and C. S. McNaughton, "Variability of aerosol optical properties derived from in situ aircraft measurements during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Li, J. Mao, K.-H. A. Lau, J.-C. Chen, Z. Yuan, X. Liu, A. Zhu, and G. Liu, "Characteristics of distribution and seasonal variation of aerosol optical depth in eastern China with MODIS products," Chin. Sci. Bull. 48, 2488-2495 (2003).

D. M. Winker, J. R. Pelon, and M. P. Cormick, "The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds," Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

T. Sakai, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsumura, A. Ichiki, Y.-S. Kim, K. Tamura, D. Troshkin, and S. Hamdi, "Case study of Raman lidar measurements of Asian dust events in 2000 and 2001 at Nagoya and Tsukuba, Japan," Atmos. Environ. 36, 5479-5489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, "Extintion-to-backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar," Appl. Opt. 41, 2760-2767 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, "Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar," Appl. Opt. 41, 511-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Barnaba and G. P. Gobbi, "Lidar estimation of tropospheric aerosol extinction, surface area and volume: maritime and desert-dust cases," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3005-3018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, "Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831-16847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

J. A. Reagan, M. V. Apte, A. Ben-David, and B. M. Herman, "Assessment of aerosol extinction to backscatter ratio measurements made at 694.3 nm in Tucson, Arizona," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 8, 215-226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. D. Spinehirne, J. A. Reagan, and B. M. Herman, "Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and inference of aerosol imaginary index in the tropopshere by lidar technique," J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426-438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Abo, M.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ahlquist, N. C.

T. L. Anderson, S. J. Masonis, D. S. Covert, N. C. Ahlquist, S. G. Howell, A. D. Clarke, and C. S. McNaughton, "Variability of aerosol optical properties derived from in situ aircraft measurements during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

D. Müller, M. Tesche, H. Eichler, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Cheng, Y. H. Zhang, and M. Hu, "Strong particle light absorption over the Pearl River Delta (south China) and Beijing (north China) determined from combined Raman lidar and Sun photometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, South China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, R. Foster, P. Rhone, and H. Baars, "Portable Raman lidar for determination of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients," in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 22nd ILRC, G. Pappalardo and A. Amodeo, eds. (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), ESA SP-561, Vol. 1, pp. 83-86.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Multiyear aerosol observations with dual-wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. L.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Anderson, S. J. Masonis, D. S. Covert, N. C. Ahlquist, S. G. Howell, A. D. Clarke, and C. S. McNaughton, "Variability of aerosol optical properties derived from in situ aircraft measurements during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

D. Müller, M. Tesche, H. Eichler, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Cheng, Y. H. Zhang, and M. Hu, "Strong particle light absorption over the Pearl River Delta (south China) and Beijing (north China) determined from combined Raman lidar and Sun photometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann and D. Müller, "Lidar and atmospheric aerosol particles," in LIDAR--Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 105-141.

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, South China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Multiyear aerosol observations with dual-wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, "Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar," Appl. Opt. 41, 511-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoki, K.

T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, "An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual-wavelength polarized lidar measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 112, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Apte, M. V.

J. A. Reagan, M. V. Apte, A. Ben-David, and B. M. Herman, "Assessment of aerosol extinction to backscatter ratio measurements made at 694.3 nm in Tucson, Arizona," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 8, 215-226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Arao, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baars, H.

D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, R. Foster, P. Rhone, and H. Baars, "Portable Raman lidar for determination of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients," in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 22nd ILRC, G. Pappalardo and A. Amodeo, eds. (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), ESA SP-561, Vol. 1, pp. 83-86.

Bandy, A.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
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F. Barnaba and G. P. Gobbi, "Lidar estimation of tropospheric aerosol extinction, surface area and volume: maritime and desert-dust cases," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3005-3018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ben-David, A.

J. A. Reagan, M. V. Apte, A. Ben-David, and B. M. Herman, "Assessment of aerosol extinction to backscatter ratio measurements made at 694.3 nm in Tucson, Arizona," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 8, 215-226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Blomquist, B.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Böckmann, C.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bösenberg, J.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brüggemann, E.

Y.-F. Cheng, H. Eichler, A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, Y. H. Zhang, M. Hu, H. Hermann, L. M. Zeng, S. Liu, T. Gnauk, E. Brüggemann, and L. Y. He, "Mixing state of elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing aerosol components derived from in situ particle optical properties at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

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T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, "Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
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Chen, H. B.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, "Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-C.

C. C. Li, J. Mao, K.-H. A. Lau, J.-C. Chen, Z. Yuan, X. Liu, A. Zhu, and G. Liu, "Characteristics of distribution and seasonal variation of aerosol optical depth in eastern China with MODIS products," Chin. Sci. Bull. 48, 2488-2495 (2003).

Chen, Y.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and Y. Chen, "Observations of dust and spherical aerosols with networked polarization lidars in Asia," in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 22nd ILRC, G. Pappalardo and A. Amodeo, eds. (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), ESA SP-561, Vol. 1, pp. 873-876.

Cheng, H.

X. Xia, H. Cheng, P. Wang, X. Zong, J. Qiu, and P. Goloub, "Aerosol properties and their spatial and temporal variations over North China in spring 2001," Tellus 57B, 28-39 (2005).

Cheng, Y. F.

D. Müller, M. Tesche, H. Eichler, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Cheng, Y. H. Zhang, and M. Hu, "Strong particle light absorption over the Pearl River Delta (south China) and Beijing (north China) determined from combined Raman lidar and Sun photometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Cheng, H. Eichler, A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, Y. H. Zhang, M. Hu, H. Hermann, L. M. Zeng, S. Liu, T. Gnauk, E. Brüggemann, and L. Y. He, "Mixing state of elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing aerosol components derived from in situ particle optical properties at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
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Clarke, A.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, A. D.

T. L. Anderson, S. J. Masonis, D. S. Covert, N. C. Ahlquist, S. G. Howell, A. D. Clarke, and C. S. McNaughton, "Variability of aerosol optical properties derived from in situ aircraft measurements during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
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Cormick, M. P.

D. M. Winker, J. R. Pelon, and M. P. Cormick, "The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds," Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
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Covert, D. S.

T. L. Anderson, S. J. Masonis, D. S. Covert, N. C. Ahlquist, S. G. Howell, A. D. Clarke, and C. S. McNaughton, "Variability of aerosol optical properties derived from in situ aircraft measurements during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Draxler, R. R.

R. R. Draxler and G. D. Rolph, "HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory)," model access via NOAA ARL READY web site, http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html (2003).

Dubovik, O.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, "Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, "Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H.

D. Müller, M. Tesche, H. Eichler, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Cheng, Y. H. Zhang, and M. Hu, "Strong particle light absorption over the Pearl River Delta (south China) and Beijing (north China) determined from combined Raman lidar and Sun photometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Cheng, H. Eichler, A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, Y. H. Zhang, M. Hu, H. Hermann, L. M. Zeng, S. Liu, T. Gnauk, E. Brüggemann, and L. Y. He, "Mixing state of elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing aerosol components derived from in situ particle optical properties at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Engelmann, R.

D. Müller, M. Tesche, H. Eichler, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Cheng, Y. H. Zhang, and M. Hu, "Strong particle light absorption over the Pearl River Delta (south China) and Beijing (north China) determined from combined Raman lidar and Sun photometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, South China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, R. Foster, P. Rhone, and H. Baars, "Portable Raman lidar for determination of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients," in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 22nd ILRC, G. Pappalardo and A. Amodeo, eds. (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), ESA SP-561, Vol. 1, pp. 83-86.

Fiebig, M.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Foster, R.

D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, R. Foster, P. Rhone, and H. Baars, "Portable Raman lidar for determination of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients," in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 22nd ILRC, G. Pappalardo and A. Amodeo, eds. (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), ESA SP-561, Vol. 1, pp. 83-86.

Fukagawa, S.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giles, D.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, "Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gnauk, T.

Y.-F. Cheng, H. Eichler, A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, Y. H. Zhang, M. Hu, H. Hermann, L. M. Zeng, S. Liu, T. Gnauk, E. Brüggemann, and L. Y. He, "Mixing state of elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing aerosol components derived from in situ particle optical properties at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, G. P.

F. Barnaba and G. P. Gobbi, "Lidar estimation of tropospheric aerosol extinction, surface area and volume: maritime and desert-dust cases," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3005-3018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goloub, P.

X. Xia, H. Cheng, P. Wang, X. Zong, J. Qiu, and P. Goloub, "Aerosol properties and their spatial and temporal variations over North China in spring 2001," Tellus 57B, 28-39 (2005).

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, "Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, L.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, "Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hagiwara, N.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hamdi, S.

T. Sakai, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsumura, A. Ichiki, Y.-S. Kim, K. Tamura, D. Troshkin, and S. Hamdi, "Case study of Raman lidar measurements of Asian dust events in 2000 and 2001 at Nagoya and Tsukuba, Japan," Atmos. Environ. 36, 5479-5489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, L. Y.

Y.-F. Cheng, H. Eichler, A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, Y. H. Zhang, M. Hu, H. Hermann, L. M. Zeng, S. Liu, T. Gnauk, E. Brüggemann, and L. Y. He, "Mixing state of elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing aerosol components derived from in situ particle optical properties at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

He, Q.

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, South China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heintzenberg, J.

Y.-F. Cheng, H. Eichler, A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, Y. H. Zhang, M. Hu, H. Hermann, L. M. Zeng, S. Liu, T. Gnauk, E. Brüggemann, and L. Y. He, "Mixing state of elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing aerosol components derived from in situ particle optical properties at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

J. A. Reagan, M. V. Apte, A. Ben-David, and B. M. Herman, "Assessment of aerosol extinction to backscatter ratio measurements made at 694.3 nm in Tucson, Arizona," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 8, 215-226 (1988).
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J. D. Spinehirne, J. A. Reagan, and B. M. Herman, "Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and inference of aerosol imaginary index in the tropopshere by lidar technique," J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426-438 (1980).
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Hermann, H.

Y.-F. Cheng, H. Eichler, A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, Y. H. Zhang, M. Hu, H. Hermann, L. M. Zeng, S. Liu, T. Gnauk, E. Brüggemann, and L. Y. He, "Mixing state of elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing aerosol components derived from in situ particle optical properties at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, "Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
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Hongbin, C.

X. Xiangao, C. Hongbin, and W. Pucai, "Aerosol properties in a Chinese semiarid region," Atmos. Environ. 38, 4571-4581 (2004).
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Howell, S. G.

T. L. Anderson, S. J. Masonis, D. S. Covert, N. C. Ahlquist, S. G. Howell, A. D. Clarke, and C. S. McNaughton, "Variability of aerosol optical properties derived from in situ aircraft measurements during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, M.

D. Müller, M. Tesche, H. Eichler, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Cheng, Y. H. Zhang, and M. Hu, "Strong particle light absorption over the Pearl River Delta (south China) and Beijing (north China) determined from combined Raman lidar and Sun photometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Cheng, H. Eichler, A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, Y. H. Zhang, M. Hu, H. Hermann, L. M. Zeng, S. Liu, T. Gnauk, E. Brüggemann, and L. Y. He, "Mixing state of elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing aerosol components derived from in situ particle optical properties at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, South China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huebert, B.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ichiki, A.

T. Sakai, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsumura, A. Ichiki, Y.-S. Kim, K. Tamura, D. Troshkin, and S. Hamdi, "Case study of Raman lidar measurements of Asian dust events in 2000 and 2001 at Nagoya and Tsukuba, Japan," Atmos. Environ. 36, 5479-5489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iokibe, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
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Iwasaka, Y.

T. Sakai, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsumura, A. Ichiki, Y.-S. Kim, K. Tamura, D. Troshkin, and S. Hamdi, "Case study of Raman lidar measurements of Asian dust events in 2000 and 2001 at Nagoya and Tsukuba, Japan," Atmos. Environ. 36, 5479-5489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iwasakaet, Y.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ji, Q.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, "Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
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Kahn, R. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, "Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831-16847 (1997).
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Kim, Y.-S.

T. Sakai, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsumura, A. Ichiki, Y.-S. Kim, K. Tamura, D. Troshkin, and S. Hamdi, "Case study of Raman lidar measurements of Asian dust events in 2000 and 2001 at Nagoya and Tsukuba, Japan," Atmos. Environ. 36, 5479-5489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koga, R.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuze, H.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K.-H. A.

C. C. Li, J. Mao, K.-H. A. Lau, J.-C. Chen, Z. Yuan, X. Liu, A. Zhu, and G. Liu, "Characteristics of distribution and seasonal variation of aerosol optical depth in eastern China with MODIS products," Chin. Sci. Bull. 48, 2488-2495 (2003).

Li, C. C.

C. C. Li, J. Mao, K.-H. A. Lau, J.-C. Chen, Z. Yuan, X. Liu, A. Zhu, and G. Liu, "Characteristics of distribution and seasonal variation of aerosol optical depth in eastern China with MODIS products," Chin. Sci. Bull. 48, 2488-2495 (2003).

Li, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
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Liu, G.

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Liu, S.

Y.-F. Cheng, H. Eichler, A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, Y. H. Zhang, M. Hu, H. Hermann, L. M. Zeng, S. Liu, T. Gnauk, E. Brüggemann, and L. Y. He, "Mixing state of elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing aerosol components derived from in situ particle optical properties at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
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Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, "Extintion-to-backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar," Appl. Opt. 41, 2760-2767 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
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Mao, J.

C. C. Li, J. Mao, K.-H. A. Lau, J.-C. Chen, Z. Yuan, X. Liu, A. Zhu, and G. Liu, "Characteristics of distribution and seasonal variation of aerosol optical depth in eastern China with MODIS products," Chin. Sci. Bull. 48, 2488-2495 (2003).

Masonis, S. J.

T. L. Anderson, S. J. Masonis, D. S. Covert, N. C. Ahlquist, S. G. Howell, A. D. Clarke, and C. S. McNaughton, "Variability of aerosol optical properties derived from in situ aircraft measurements during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
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T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

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T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, "An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual-wavelength polarized lidar measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 112, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and Y. Chen, "Observations of dust and spherical aerosols with networked polarization lidars in Asia," in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 22nd ILRC, G. Pappalardo and A. Amodeo, eds. (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), ESA SP-561, Vol. 1, pp. 873-876.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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T. Sakai, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsumura, A. Ichiki, Y.-S. Kim, K. Tamura, D. Troshkin, and S. Hamdi, "Case study of Raman lidar measurements of Asian dust events in 2000 and 2001 at Nagoya and Tsukuba, Japan," Atmos. Environ. 36, 5479-5489 (2002).
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U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
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I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Multiyear aerosol observations with dual-wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
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I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
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T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Anderson, S. J. Masonis, D. S. Covert, N. C. Ahlquist, S. G. Howell, A. D. Clarke, and C. S. McNaughton, "Variability of aerosol optical properties derived from in situ aircraft measurements during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
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T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
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Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, "Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831-16847 (1997).
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Müller, D.

D. Müller, M. Tesche, H. Eichler, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Cheng, Y. H. Zhang, and M. Hu, "Strong particle light absorption over the Pearl River Delta (south China) and Beijing (north China) determined from combined Raman lidar and Sun photometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, doi: (2006).
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A. Ansmann and D. Müller, "Lidar and atmospheric aerosol particles," in LIDAR--Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 105-141.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Multiyear aerosol observations with dual-wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murayama, T.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, "Extintion-to-backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar," Appl. Opt. 41, 2760-2767 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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T. Sakai, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsumura, A. Ichiki, Y.-S. Kim, K. Tamura, D. Troshkin, and S. Hamdi, "Case study of Raman lidar measurements of Asian dust events in 2000 and 2001 at Nagoya and Tsukuba, Japan," Atmos. Environ. 36, 5479-5489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakazato, M.

T. Sakai, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsumura, A. Ichiki, Y.-S. Kim, K. Tamura, D. Troshkin, and S. Hamdi, "Case study of Raman lidar measurements of Asian dust events in 2000 and 2001 at Nagoya and Tsukuba, Japan," Atmos. Environ. 36, 5479-5489 (2002).
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Nishizawa, T.

T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, "An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual-wavelength polarized lidar measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 112, doi: (2007).
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Okamoto, H.

T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, "An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual-wavelength polarized lidar measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 112, doi: (2007).
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T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
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J. A. Reagan, M. V. Apte, A. Ben-David, and B. M. Herman, "Assessment of aerosol extinction to backscatter ratio measurements made at 694.3 nm in Tucson, Arizona," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 8, 215-226 (1988).
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Redemann, J.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
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D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, R. Foster, P. Rhone, and H. Baars, "Portable Raman lidar for determination of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients," in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 22nd ILRC, G. Pappalardo and A. Amodeo, eds. (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), ESA SP-561, Vol. 1, pp. 83-86.

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Rolph, G. D.

R. R. Draxler and G. D. Rolph, "HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory)," model access via NOAA ARL READY web site, http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html (2003).

Russell, P. B.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, T.

T. Sakai, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsumura, A. Ichiki, Y.-S. Kim, K. Tamura, D. Troshkin, and S. Hamdi, "Case study of Raman lidar measurements of Asian dust events in 2000 and 2001 at Nagoya and Tsukuba, Japan," Atmos. Environ. 36, 5479-5489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, B.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

T. Sakai, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsumura, A. Ichiki, Y.-S. Kim, K. Tamura, D. Troshkin, and S. Hamdi, "Case study of Raman lidar measurements of Asian dust events in 2000 and 2001 at Nagoya and Tsukuba, Japan," Atmos. Environ. 36, 5479-5489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, A.

T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, "An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual-wavelength polarized lidar measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 112, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and Y. Chen, "Observations of dust and spherical aerosols with networked polarization lidars in Asia," in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 22nd ILRC, G. Pappalardo and A. Amodeo, eds. (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), ESA SP-561, Vol. 1, pp. 873-876.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, "Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, "Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, B.-J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spinehirne, J. D.

J. D. Spinehirne, J. A. Reagan, and B. M. Herman, "Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and inference of aerosol imaginary index in the tropopshere by lidar technique," J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426-438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Stohl, A.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

N. Sugimoto, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan (personal communication, 2007).

T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, "An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual-wavelength polarized lidar measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 112, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and Y. Chen, "Observations of dust and spherical aerosols with networked polarization lidars in Asia," in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 22nd ILRC, G. Pappalardo and A. Amodeo, eds. (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), ESA SP-561, Vol. 1, pp. 873-876.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, "Extintion-to-backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar," Appl. Opt. 41, 2760-2767 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

T. Sakai, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsumura, A. Ichiki, Y.-S. Kim, K. Tamura, D. Troshkin, and S. Hamdi, "Case study of Raman lidar measurements of Asian dust events in 2000 and 2001 at Nagoya and Tsukuba, Japan," Atmos. Environ. 36, 5479-5489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tesche, M.

M. Tesche, "Optische und mikrophysikalische Charakterisierung anthropogener Partikel in Südchina (Pearl River Delta) und Nordchina (Peking) anhand von Ramanlidar- und Sonnenphotometermessungen [Optical and mircrophysical characterization of anthropogenic particles in South China (Pearl River Delta) and North China (Beijing) by means of Raman lidar and Sun photometer measurements]," Diploma thesis (Leipzig University, 2006).

D. Müller, M. Tesche, H. Eichler, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Cheng, Y. H. Zhang, and M. Hu, "Strong particle light absorption over the Pearl River Delta (south China) and Beijing (north China) determined from combined Raman lidar and Sun photometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, D.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, "Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831-16847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Troshkin, D.

T. Sakai, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsumura, A. Ichiki, Y.-S. Kim, K. Tamura, D. Troshkin, and S. Hamdi, "Case study of Raman lidar measurements of Asian dust events in 2000 and 2001 at Nagoya and Tsukuba, Japan," Atmos. Environ. 36, 5479-5489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S.-C.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, "Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Uno, I.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, South China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Multiyear aerosol observations with dual-wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, "Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar," Appl. Opt. 41, 511-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
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Wang, P.

X. Xia, H. Cheng, P. Wang, X. Zong, J. Qiu, and P. Goloub, "Aerosol properties and their spatial and temporal variations over North China in spring 2001," Tellus 57B, 28-39 (2005).

Weber, R. J.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, V.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

Wendisch, M.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

West, R. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, "Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831-16847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wiedensohler, A.

Y.-F. Cheng, H. Eichler, A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, Y. H. Zhang, M. Hu, H. Hermann, L. M. Zeng, S. Liu, T. Gnauk, E. Brüggemann, and L. Y. He, "Mixing state of elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing aerosol components derived from in situ particle optical properties at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker, J. R. Pelon, and M. P. Cormick, "The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds," Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Won, J.-G.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xia, X.

X. Xia, H. Cheng, P. Wang, X. Zong, J. Qiu, and P. Goloub, "Aerosol properties and their spatial and temporal variations over North China in spring 2001," Tellus 57B, 28-39 (2005).

Xiangao, X.

X. Xiangao, C. Hongbin, and W. Pucai, "Aerosol properties in a Chinese semiarid region," Atmos. Environ. 38, 4571-4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yabuki, M.

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.-C.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z.

C. C. Li, J. Mao, K.-H. A. Lau, J.-C. Chen, Z. Yuan, X. Liu, A. Zhu, and G. Liu, "Characteristics of distribution and seasonal variation of aerosol optical depth in eastern China with MODIS products," Chin. Sci. Bull. 48, 2488-2495 (2003).

Zeng, L. M.

Y.-F. Cheng, H. Eichler, A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, Y. H. Zhang, M. Hu, H. Hermann, L. M. Zeng, S. Liu, T. Gnauk, E. Brüggemann, and L. Y. He, "Mixing state of elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing aerosol components derived from in situ particle optical properties at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-Y.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, "Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, South China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. H.

D. Müller, M. Tesche, H. Eichler, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Cheng, Y. H. Zhang, and M. Hu, "Strong particle light absorption over the Pearl River Delta (south China) and Beijing (north China) determined from combined Raman lidar and Sun photometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Cheng, H. Eichler, A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, Y. H. Zhang, M. Hu, H. Hermann, L. M. Zeng, S. Liu, T. Gnauk, E. Brüggemann, and L. Y. He, "Mixing state of elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing aerosol components derived from in situ particle optical properties at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, A.

C. C. Li, J. Mao, K.-H. A. Lau, J.-C. Chen, Z. Yuan, X. Liu, A. Zhu, and G. Liu, "Characteristics of distribution and seasonal variation of aerosol optical depth in eastern China with MODIS products," Chin. Sci. Bull. 48, 2488-2495 (2003).

Zong, X.

X. Xia, H. Cheng, P. Wang, X. Zong, J. Qiu, and P. Goloub, "Aerosol properties and their spatial and temporal variations over North China in spring 2001," Tellus 57B, 28-39 (2005).

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Appl. Opt. (3)

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[CrossRef]

X. Xiangao, C. Hongbin, and W. Pucai, "Aerosol properties in a Chinese semiarid region," Atmos. Environ. 38, 4571-4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Sci. Bull. (1)

C. C. Li, J. Mao, K.-H. A. Lau, J.-C. Chen, Z. Yuan, X. Liu, A. Zhu, and G. Liu, "Characteristics of distribution and seasonal variation of aerosol optical depth in eastern China with MODIS products," Chin. Sci. Bull. 48, 2488-2495 (2003).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (3)

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, "High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, South China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, M. Tesche, H. Eichler, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Cheng, Y. H. Zhang, and M. Hu, "Strong particle light absorption over the Pearl River Delta (south China) and Beijing (north China) determined from combined Raman lidar and Sun photometer observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

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M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, "Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831-16847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Barnaba and G. P. Gobbi, "Lidar estimation of tropospheric aerosol extinction, surface area and volume: maritime and desert-dust cases," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3005-3018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, S. J. Masonis, J. Redemann, T. L. Anderson, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, B. Huebert, S. G. Howell, C. S. McNaughton, A. Clarke, M. Abo, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, M. Yabuki, H. Kuze, S. Fukagawa, K. M. Meier, R. J. Weber, D. A. Orsini, B. Blomquist, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, "An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, "An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual-wavelength polarized lidar measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 112, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasakaet, "Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, P. Goloub, H. B. Chen, B. Chatenet, L. Gomes, X.-Y. Zhang, S.-C. Tsay, Q. Ji, D. Giles, and I. Slutsker, "Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Multiyear aerosol observations with dual-wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Cheng, H. Eichler, A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, Y. H. Zhang, M. Hu, H. Hermann, L. M. Zeng, S. Liu, T. Gnauk, E. Brüggemann, and L. Y. He, "Mixing state of elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing aerosol components derived from in situ particle optical properties at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Anderson, S. J. Masonis, D. S. Covert, N. C. Ahlquist, S. G. Howell, A. D. Clarke, and C. S. McNaughton, "Variability of aerosol optical properties derived from in situ aircraft measurements during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. M. Winker, J. R. Pelon, and M. P. Cormick, "The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds," Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tellus (1)

X. Xia, H. Cheng, P. Wang, X. Zong, J. Qiu, and P. Goloub, "Aerosol properties and their spatial and temporal variations over North China in spring 2001," Tellus 57B, 28-39 (2005).

Other (6)

N. Sugimoto, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan (personal communication, 2007).

D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, R. Foster, P. Rhone, and H. Baars, "Portable Raman lidar for determination of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients," in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 22nd ILRC, G. Pappalardo and A. Amodeo, eds. (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), ESA SP-561, Vol. 1, pp. 83-86.

R. R. Draxler and G. D. Rolph, "HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory)," model access via NOAA ARL READY web site, http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html (2003).

A. Ansmann and D. Müller, "Lidar and atmospheric aerosol particles," in LIDAR--Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 105-141.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and Y. Chen, "Observations of dust and spherical aerosols with networked polarization lidars in Asia," in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 22nd ILRC, G. Pappalardo and A. Amodeo, eds. (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), ESA SP-561, Vol. 1, pp. 873-876.

M. Tesche, "Optische und mikrophysikalische Charakterisierung anthropogener Partikel in Südchina (Pearl River Delta) und Nordchina (Peking) anhand von Ramanlidar- und Sonnenphotometermessungen [Optical and mircrophysical characterization of anthropogenic particles in South China (Pearl River Delta) and North China (Beijing) by means of Raman lidar and Sun photometer measurements]," Diploma thesis (Leipzig University, 2006).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Particle backscatter ( β p ) and extinction ( σ p ) coefficients and respective lidar ratio ( S p = σ p / β p ) at 532   nm observed at Xinken, PRD, on 22–24 October 2004, at 1900–2100 local time (LT). The lidar signals are averaged over the indicated time period and vertically smoothed with a window length of 337   m . σ p below 600   m height (dashed curve) is calculated from β p multiplied by the lidar ratio determined for the lowest measurement height. Error bars (lidar ratio) indicate one standard deviation caused by statistical uncertainties (signal noise) and systematic uncertainties in the input parameters of the backscatter and extinction retrievals.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Five day backward trajectories ending at Xinken, PRD, at 500   m (triangles), 1500   m (squares), and 2500   m height (circles) on 22 October 2004, 0000 LT. The computation is based on reanalyzed meteorological data by using the HYSPLIT calculation scheme [13].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Particle backscatter ( β p ) and extinction ( σ p ) coefficients and respective lidar ratio S p at 532   nm observed at Beijing, China, on 9–10 January 2005. The same signal processing as in Fig. 1 is applied.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Five day backward trajectories ending at Beijing at 500   m (triangles), 1500   m (squares), and 2500   m height (circles) on (a) 10 January (haze case), (b) 17 January (case with some dust), and (c) 11 January (background aerosol) 2005, 0000 LT.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 3 except for 16–17 January 2005.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same as Fig. 3 except for 11 January 2005.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Frequency distributions of column lidar ratio (ratio of optical depth to profile-integrated backscatter coefficient, 2 h averages) based on 54 Beijing observations (top, background to moderately polluted conditions) and 53 PRD observations (bottom, heavily polluted conditions). Mean values are 38 ± 7   sr (Beijing) and 47 ± 6   sr (PRD).

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