Abstract

We present a demonstration and analysis of an industrialized design of a spatially dispersive displacement sensor, which is composed of an AlGaInP gain chip in visible range, optical assembly, and a spectrum analyzer. The sensor utilizes the spatial dispersion of focus from the optical assembly and wavelength spectrum's deviation induced by the displacement of the target. As a result, the sensor delivers a quick and simple way of measuring displacement. By adapting the magnification and resolution of the optical assembly, a displacement sensor with a middle measurement range, 10  μm, was obtained. However, we should note that 25   nm resolution is limited by the bandwidth and temperature fluctuation of the gain chip.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2004

2003

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Meigas, H. Hinrikus, R. Kattai, and J. Lass, "Self-mixing in a diode laser as a method for cardiovascular diagnostics," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 152-160 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. Hast, R. Myllylä, H. Sorvoja, and J. Miettinen, "Arterial pulsewave shape measurement using self-mixing effect in a diode laser," Quantum Electron. 32, 975-980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Lee, H. Mong, and W. Lin, "Noninterferometric wide-field optical profilometry with nanometer depth resolution," Opt. Lett. 27, 1773-1775 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Rembe and R. S. Muller, "Measurement system for full three-dimensional motion characterization of MEMS," IEEE J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11, 479-488 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, "Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283-294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllylä, and M. Rioux, "Laser ranging: a critical review of usual technologies for distance measurement," Opt. Eng. 40, 10-19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. de Groot, "Unusual techniques for absolute distance measurement," Opt. Eng. 40, 28-32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Courteville, T. Gharbi, and J. Y. Cornu, "Noncontact MMG sensor based on the optical feedback effect in a laser diode," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 281-285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

C.-H. Lee and J. Wang, "Noninterferometric differential confocal microscopy with 2-nm depth resolution," Opt. Commun. 135, 233-237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991

1987

M. Rioux, G. Bechthold, D. Taylor, and M. Duggan, "Design of a large depth of view three-dimensional camera for robot vision," Opt. Eng. 26, 1245-1250 (1987).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Microelectromech. Syst.

C. Rembe and R. S. Muller, "Measurement system for full three-dimensional motion characterization of MEMS," IEEE J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11, 479-488 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

K. Meigas, H. Hinrikus, R. Kattai, and J. Lass, "Self-mixing in a diode laser as a method for cardiovascular diagnostics," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 152-160 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Courteville, T. Gharbi, and J. Y. Cornu, "Noncontact MMG sensor based on the optical feedback effect in a laser diode," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 281-285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, "Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283-294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C.-H. Lee and J. Wang, "Noninterferometric differential confocal microscopy with 2-nm depth resolution," Opt. Commun. 135, 233-237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllylä, and M. Rioux, "Laser ranging: a critical review of usual technologies for distance measurement," Opt. Eng. 40, 10-19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. de Groot, "Unusual techniques for absolute distance measurement," Opt. Eng. 40, 28-32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Rioux, G. Bechthold, D. Taylor, and M. Duggan, "Design of a large depth of view three-dimensional camera for robot vision," Opt. Eng. 26, 1245-1250 (1987).

Opt. Lett.

Quantum Electron.

J. Hast, R. Myllylä, H. Sorvoja, and J. Miettinen, "Arterial pulsewave shape measurement using self-mixing effect in a diode laser," Quantum Electron. 32, 975-980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of the displacement sensor D featuring a laser diode with antireflection coating on the facet near L 1 and 5% transmission (95% reflection) coating on the facet near L 3 ; M is the mirrorlike target under measurement; L 1 , L 2 , and L 3 mark the aspheric lenses, and C is a collimator that feeds the output light into spectrometer by fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Normalized feedback intensity spectra for light traveling one round trip between D and M. The origin of l is taken at l max . The result is simulated using a ray-tracing program.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Weight center of S ( λ , l ) as a function of l in the simulation of a simple, small signal approximation model. (b) Measured weight center of S ( λ , l ) changing along with change in the value of l. Origins in both figures are set as λ max and l max .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Weight center of the spectrum versus the whole displacement range of M.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Weight center of the spectrum versus the displacement of M in the linear range. Over 100 measurement instances were performed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Packaged spatially dispersive displacement sensor with dimensions of 26   mm × 30   mm × 45   mm .

Equations (88)

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10   μm
25   nm
660   nm
50   mW
150   mA
25 ° C
L 1
15   nm
L 1
L 2
L 3
660   nm
L 1
L 2
0.11   nm
0 .05   ° C
6   μm
0 .06   nm
L 1
L 2
S ( λ , l ) G ( λ ) r ( λ , l ) + 1 R ( λ , l ) r ( λ , l ) ,
S ( λ , l )
R ( λ , l )
G ( λ )
r ( λ , l )
S ( λ , l )
R ( λ , l )
G ( λ )
λ max
l max
l max
l max
R ( λ , l )
G ( λ )
S ( λ , l )
λ max
λ max
l max
4   μm
λ max
4
+ 5 μ m
λ max
4   μm
λ max
660   nm
4
7   μm
G ( λ )
10   μm
660   nm
1550   nm
25   nm
1550   nm
G ( λ )
G ( λ )
G ( λ , T )
S ( λ , l , T ) G ( λ , T ) r ( λ , l ) + 1 R ( λ , l ) r ( λ , l ) .
G ( λ , T )
S ( λ , l , T )
G ( λ , T )
R ( λ , l )
G ( λ , T )
60   nm
15   nm
G ( λ , T )
G ( λ , T )
R ( λ , l )
S ( λ , l )
G ( λ , T )
R ( λ , l )
S ( λ , l )
25   nm
660   nm
25   nm
10   μm
R ( λ , l )
L 1
L 3
L 1
L 2
L 3
l max
S ( λ , l )
S ( λ , l )
λ max
l max
26   mm × 30   mm × 45   mm

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