Abstract

This paper presents a study on the quality of interference fringes formed from a pulsed UV (255  nm, 5.6  kHz, and 40  ns) source for an application in writing fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The interference fringes of separation of about 8μm, formed by a biprism of apex angle 2°, were studied for their contrast, evolution of contrast, and positional and intensity stability over a period of 5  min (over 106 pulses). Second harmonic UV (255  nm) sources of different spatial coherence and pointing stability characteristics were employed as the inputs. It is established that the UV fringes contrast and interference pattern stability with time is largely controlled by the optical resonator geometry of the fundamental wavelength (510  nm) copper vapor laser (CVL) oscillator. In particular, the generalized diffraction filtered resonator (GDFR) CVL produced the highest quality second harmonic beam with the highest fringes contrast and stability. The implications of these results were studied by employing these UV sources for the fabrication of the C-band FBGs by a 24° apex angle biprism.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. O. Prakash, R. Mahakud, S. K. Dixit, and U. Nundy, "Effect of the spatial coherence of ultraviolet radiation (255 nm) on the fabrication efficiency of phase mask based fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Commun. 263, 65-70 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Prakash, S. K. Dixit, and R. Bhatnagar, "On the role of coherence width and its evolution in a short pulse fundamental beam in second harmonic generation from beta barium borate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 603-613 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. Prakash, P. K. Shukla, S. K. Dixit, S. Chatterjee, H. S. Vora, and R. Bhatnagar, "Spatial coherence of Generalized diffraction filtered resonator copper vapor laser," Appl. Opt. 37, 7752-7757 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. O. Prakash, R. Mahakud, H. S. Vora, and S. K. Dixit, "A cylindrical lens based wave front reversing shear interferometer for the spatial coherence measurement of UV radiations," Opt. Eng. 45, 055601-055606 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. S. Vora, S. V. Nakhe, K. K. Sharangpani, P. Saxena, R. Bhatnagar, and N. D. Shirke, Profile Monitor for Laser Beam Parameter Measurements, U. Nundy, ed. (National Laser Program, Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, India, 1994), pp. 260-261.

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

O. Prakash, R. Mahakud, S. K. Dixit, and U. Nundy, "Effect of the spatial coherence of ultraviolet radiation (255 nm) on the fabrication efficiency of phase mask based fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Commun. 263, 65-70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Prakash, R. Mahakud, H. S. Vora, and S. K. Dixit, "A cylindrical lens based wave front reversing shear interferometer for the spatial coherence measurement of UV radiations," Opt. Eng. 45, 055601-055606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

O. Prakash, S. K. Dixit, and R. Bhatnagar, "On the role of coherence width and its evolution in a short pulse fundamental beam in second harmonic generation from beta barium borate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 603-613 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

O. Prakash, P. K. Shukla, S. K. Dixit, S. Chatterjee, H. S. Vora, and R. Bhatnagar, "Spatial coherence of Generalized diffraction filtered resonator copper vapor laser," Appl. Opt. 37, 7752-7757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Paddison, J. M. Dawes, D. J. W. Brown, M. J. Withford, R. I. Tricket, and P. A. Krug, "Multiple fiber gratings fabricated using frequency-doubled copper vapour laser," Electron. Lett. 34, 2407-2408 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamental and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

I. Bennion, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, K. Sugden, and N. J. Doran, "UV written in fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 93-135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. Othonos and X. Lee, "Novel and inproved methods of writing Bragg grating with phase masks," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 7, 1183-1185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Rizvi and M. C. Gower, "Production of submicrometer period Bragg grating in optical fibers using wavefront division with a bi-prism and an excimer laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 739-741 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1993 (2)

H. Patrick and S. L. Gilbert, "Growth of bragg gratings produced by continuous wave ultra-violet light in optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 1484-86 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

N. H. Rizvi and M. C. Gower, "Production of submicrometer period Bragg grating in optical fibers using wavefront division with a bi-prism and an excimer laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 739-741 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. J. Paddison, J. M. Dawes, D. J. W. Brown, M. J. Withford, R. I. Tricket, and P. A. Krug, "Multiple fiber gratings fabricated using frequency-doubled copper vapour laser," Electron. Lett. 34, 2407-2408 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

O. Prakash, S. K. Dixit, and R. Bhatnagar, "On the role of coherence width and its evolution in a short pulse fundamental beam in second harmonic generation from beta barium borate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 603-613 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Othonos and X. Lee, "Novel and inproved methods of writing Bragg grating with phase masks," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 7, 1183-1185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamental and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

O. Prakash, R. Mahakud, S. K. Dixit, and U. Nundy, "Effect of the spatial coherence of ultraviolet radiation (255 nm) on the fabrication efficiency of phase mask based fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Commun. 263, 65-70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

O. Prakash, R. Mahakud, H. S. Vora, and S. K. Dixit, "A cylindrical lens based wave front reversing shear interferometer for the spatial coherence measurement of UV radiations," Opt. Eng. 45, 055601-055606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Bennion, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, K. Sugden, and N. J. Doran, "UV written in fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 93-135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Grating (Academic, 1999).

H. S. Vora, S. V. Nakhe, K. K. Sharangpani, P. Saxena, R. Bhatnagar, and N. D. Shirke, Profile Monitor for Laser Beam Parameter Measurements, U. Nundy, ed. (National Laser Program, Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, India, 1994), pp. 260-261.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for CVL based SH generation, beam stability measurements, and the fiber Bragg grating writing using a biprism.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

For UV 12 .5 beam (a) A time stacked picture (300 s) of selected line of interferograms generated from 2° biprism. (b) Variation in selected fringes' position and intensity over 300 s. (c) Variation of two adjacent fringes' peak position with time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

For UV 100 beam (a) A time stacked picture ( 300   s ) of selected line of interferograms generated from 2° biprism. (b) Variation in selected fringes' position and intensity over 300 s. (c) Variation of two adjacent fringes' peak position with time.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

For UV GDFR beam (a) A time stacked picture (300 s) of selected line of interferograms generated from 2° biprism. (b) Variation in selected fringes' position and intensity over 300 s. (c) Variation of two adjacent fringes' peak position with time.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spatial coherence of UV beams: Typical interferograms along with intensity variation recorded from modified Michelson interferometer (a) UV 12 .5 , (b) UV 100 , and (c) UV GDFR .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time stacked (600 s) CVL far field intensity and peak position fluctuations for (a) GDFR CVL (b) URCVL M = 100 (c) URCVL M = 12.5 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variation of average UV powers with time (in 300 s) for UV GDFR and UV 100 beams.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Maximum transmission-dip of the written FBGs versus wavelength for the beams (a) UV 12 .5 , (b) UV 100 , and (c) UV GDFR .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Average Power∕Energy Density, Exposure Time, Reflectivity, and Bandwidth of a Biprism Based FBG Writing with Different UV Sources

Equations (2)

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R = 10 R p / 10 ,
R = [ 1 10 T d / 10 ] ,

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