Abstract

Generation and effects of atmospherically propagated electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) initiated by photoelectrons ejected by the high density and temperature target surface plasmas from multiterawatt laser pulses are analyzed. These laser radiation pulse interactions can significantly increase noise levels, thereby obscuring data (sometimes totally) and may even damage sensitive probe and detection instrumentation. Noise effects from high energy density (approximately multiterawatt) laser pulses (300400  ps pulse widths) interacting with thick (1  mm) metallic and dielectric solid targets and dielectric–metallic powder mixtures are interpreted as transient resonance radiation associated with surface charge fluctuations on the target chamber that functions as a radiating antenna. Effective solutions that minimize atmospheric EMP effects on internal and proximate electronic and electro-optical equipment external to the system based on systematic measurements using Moebius loop antennas, interpretations of signal periodicities, and dissipation indicators determining transient noise origin characteristics from target emissions are described. Analytic models for the effect of target chamber resonances and associated noise current and temperature in a probe diode laser are described.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. J. Mead, D. Neely, J. Gauoin, R. Heathcote, and P. Patel, "Electromagnetic pulse generation within a petawatt laser target chamber," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4225-4227 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. J. Mooney, Optoelectronic Devices and Principles (Prentice-Hall, 1991).
  3. R. H. Kingston, Optical Sources, Detectors, and Systems (Academic, 1995).
  4. J. L. Remo and R. G. Adams are preparing a manuscript to be called, "High energy density laser beam interactions simulating astrophysical and planetary processes: methodology, dielectrics, and powders."
  5. E. R. Davies, Electronic Noise and Signal Review (Academic, 1993).
  6. P. H. Duncan, "Analysis of the Moebius loop magnetic field sensor," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. EMC-16, 83-89 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. M. Celliers, D. K. Bradley, G. W. Collins, D. G. Hicks, T. R. Boehly, and W. J. Armstrong, "Line-imaging velocimeter for shock diagnostics at the OMEGA laser facility," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4916-4929 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. E. Siegman, An Introduction to Lasers and Masers (McGraw-Hill, 1971).
  9. W. C. Elmore and M. A. Heald, Physics of Waves (McGraw-Hill, 1969).

2004 (2)

M. J. Mead, D. Neely, J. Gauoin, R. Heathcote, and P. Patel, "Electromagnetic pulse generation within a petawatt laser target chamber," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4225-4227 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Celliers, D. K. Bradley, G. W. Collins, D. G. Hicks, T. R. Boehly, and W. J. Armstrong, "Line-imaging velocimeter for shock diagnostics at the OMEGA laser facility," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4916-4929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

P. H. Duncan, "Analysis of the Moebius loop magnetic field sensor," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. EMC-16, 83-89 (1974).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. (1)

P. H. Duncan, "Analysis of the Moebius loop magnetic field sensor," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. EMC-16, 83-89 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

P. M. Celliers, D. K. Bradley, G. W. Collins, D. G. Hicks, T. R. Boehly, and W. J. Armstrong, "Line-imaging velocimeter for shock diagnostics at the OMEGA laser facility," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4916-4929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Mead, D. Neely, J. Gauoin, R. Heathcote, and P. Patel, "Electromagnetic pulse generation within a petawatt laser target chamber," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4225-4227 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

W. J. Mooney, Optoelectronic Devices and Principles (Prentice-Hall, 1991).

R. H. Kingston, Optical Sources, Detectors, and Systems (Academic, 1995).

J. L. Remo and R. G. Adams are preparing a manuscript to be called, "High energy density laser beam interactions simulating astrophysical and planetary processes: methodology, dielectrics, and powders."

E. R. Davies, Electronic Noise and Signal Review (Academic, 1993).

A. E. Siegman, An Introduction to Lasers and Masers (McGraw-Hill, 1971).

W. C. Elmore and M. A. Heald, Physics of Waves (McGraw-Hill, 1969).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Experimental configuration for electro-optic real-time arrival time and shock wave velocity measurements using direct reflection from the target rear surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Electro-optic measurement of the arrival time ( 1475   ns ) of the ZBL laser beam at a solid dunite target.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) Detailed noisy electro-optic measurement of the shock arrival time ( 213   ns ) for the ZBL laser irradiation of an Al target at 9.90 TW / cm 2 . (b) Fourier transform of Fig. 3(a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (a) Detailed noisy electro-optic measurement of the shock arrival time ( 117   ns ) for the ZBL laser irradiation of a solid dunite target at 5.96 TW / cm 2 . (b) Fourier transform of Fig. 4(a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) (a) Detailed noisy electro-optic measurement of the shock arrival time ( 295   ns ) for the ZBL laser irradiation of a dunite 90%∕Fe 10% powder target at 8.25 TW / cm 2 . (b) Fourier transform of Fig. 5(a).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) (a) Detailed noisy electro-optic measurement of the shock arrival time ( 285   ns ) for the ZBL laser irradiation of a dunite 50%∕Fe 50% powder target at 5.46 TW / cm 2 . (b) Fourier transform of Fig. 6(a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Layout of the ZBL target chamber showing its vacuum ports and beam focusing path.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) (a) Noise signal for Moebius loop vertically positioned at the target chamber exterior for ZBL “pilc” (pre-ionization lamp check) shot with no laser beam entering the chamber. (b) Fourier transform of Fig. 8(a).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) (a) Noise signal for Moebius loop vertically positioned at the exterior of the target chamber for a regular ZBL laser shot irradiating a target at the center of the chamber. Both pilc shot and laser target interaction noise are measured by external Moebius loop. (b) Fourier transform of Fig. 9(a).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) (a) Noise signal for Moebius loop vertically positioned in the interior of the target chamber for a regular laser shot (ZBL 46) irradiating a sample at the chamber center. Laser target interaction noise is measured by internal Moebius loop. (b) Fourier transform of Fig. 10(a).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of the Noise Response in Terms of Frequency ( f ), Bandwidth ( df ), and Resonator Quality or Q ( df f ) as Well as the Electronic Noise Signals (σ) from the Plasma Photoelectrons and the Cavity EMP for the Five Targets Tested

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I n 2 = 2 q i d f ,
I n 2 4 K T d f R ,
V n 2 = I n 2 R 2 4 K T R d f .
P T = I n 2 R .
P = η h f q ( I d I t ) ,
P = η h f q ( I d I t ) + P n ,
P n = η n h f q I n ,
η n = η I n I d .
P = η h f q ( I d I t ) + η n h f q I n ,
P = η h f q ( I d I t + I n 2 I d ) .
I n 2 = 2 q i d f ,
P = η h f q ( I d I t + 2 q i d f I d ) .
i = q v c n ,
P = η h f q ( I d I t + 2 q 2 v e n d f I d ) .
I n 2 = 4 h v d f R   exp ( h f K T 1 ) .
I n 2 4 K T d f R ,
V n 2 = I n 2 R 2 4 K T R d f .
P T = I n V n = 4 K T d f ,
P T = I n 2 R = 4 K T d f .
Q = 1 / 4 ε | E | 2 V ω P
E = 4 Q P ε V ω .
Q = ω δ ω ,
δ ω δ t 1 / 2 .

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