Abstract

Planar nephelometry is a laser-based technique of imaging the light scattered from particles to provide information about the local number density of these particles. In many seeded flows of practical interest, such as pulverized coal flames, particle loadings are sufficiently high for the incident laser beam to be severely attenuated. Measurements in these flows are therefore difficult, and limited data are available under these conditions. Laser attenuation experiments were conducted in suspensions of spherical particles in water at various concentrations. This is used to formulate a calibration for the effects of diffuse scattering and laser sheet extinction. A model for the distribution of light through a heavily seeded, light-scattering medium is also developed and is compared with experimental results. It is demonstrated that the scattered signal may be considered proportional to the local particle concentration multiplied by the incident laser power. The incident laser power varies as a function of the attenuation by obscurement. This correction for planar nephelometry images thus extends the technique to provide pseudoquantitative data for instantaneous particle concentration measurements.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. R. Fessler, J. D. Kulick, and J. K. Eaton, "Preferential concentration of heavy particles in a turbulent channel flow," Phys. Fluids 6, 3742-3749 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. K. Eaton and J. R. Fessler, "Preferential concentration of particls by turbulence," Int. J. Multiphase Flows 20, 169-209 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. K. Longmire and J. R. Eaton, "Structure of a particle-laden round jet," J. Fluid Mech. 236, 217-257 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Fan, H. Zhao, and K. Cen, "An experimental study of two-phase turbulent coaxial jets," Exp. Fluids 13, 279-287 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Fan, H. Zhao, and K. Cen, "Particle concentration and size measurements in two-phase turbulent coaxial jets measurements in two-phase turbulent coaxial jets," Chem. Eng. Commun. 156, 115-129 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Tsuji, Y. Morikawa, T. Tanaka, and K. Karimine, "Measurement of an axisymmetric jet laden with coarse particles," Int. J. Multiphase Flows 14, 565-574 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martisson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration," Appl. Phys. B 65, 411-417 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. M. Hertz and M. Aldén, "Calibration of imaging laser-induced fluorescence measurements in highly absorbing flames," Appl. Phys. B 42, 97-102 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Abu-Gharbieh, J. L. Persson, M. Försth, A. Rosén, A. Karlström, and T. Gustavsson, "Compensation method for attenuated planar laser images of optically dense sprays," Appl. Opt. 39, 1260-1267 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. A. M. Kalt and G. J. Nathan, "Corrections to facilitate planar imaging of particle concentration in particle-laden flow using Mie-scattering, Part 2: Diverging laser sheets," Appl. Opt. (submitted 2007).
    [PubMed]
  24. A. Beer, Einleitung in die höhere Optik (Bonn, 1854).
  25. J. H. Lambert, Photometria (Augsburg, 1760).
  26. P. A. M. Kalt and C. H. Birzer, "Calibrations for planar nephelometry in densely-seeded two phase flows," in Proceedings of the 4th Australian Conference on Laser Diagnostics in Fluid Mechanics and Combustion (The University of Adelaide, 2005).
    [PubMed]
  27. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, 1957).
  28. H. A. Becker, H. C. Hottel, and G. C. Williams, "On the light-scatter technique for the study of turbulence and mixing," J. Fluid Mech. 30, 259-284 (1967).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

P. A. M. Kalt and G. J. Nathan, "Corrections to facilitate planar imaging of particle concentration in particle-laden flow using Mie-scattering, Part 2: Diverging laser sheets," Appl. Opt. (submitted 2007).
[PubMed]

2005 (1)

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, "Combustion at the focus: laser diagnostics and control," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 89-123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Koh, J. Jeon, D. Kim, Y. Yoon, and J.-Y. Koo, "Analysis of signal attenuation for quantification of a planar imaging technique," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1829-1838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. L. Smith, N. P. Megalos, G. J. Nathan, and D.-K. Zhang, "The significance of particle clustering in pulversied coal flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 797-804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

M. C. Jermy and D. A. Greenhalgh, "Planar dropsizing by elastic and fluorescence scattering in sprays too dense for phase doppler measurement," Appl. Phys. B 71, 703-710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Abu-Gharbieh, J. L. Persson, M. Försth, A. Rosén, A. Karlström, and T. Gustavsson, "Compensation method for attenuated planar laser images of optically dense sprays," Appl. Opt. 39, 1260-1267 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martisson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration," Appl. Phys. B 65, 411-417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

D. G. Talley, J. F. Verdieck, S. W. Lee, V. G. Mcdonell, and G. S. Samuelsen, "Accounting for laser sheet extinction in applying PLLIF to sprays," in 34th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit (AIAA, 1996), pp. 96-469.

D. L. Black, M. Q. McQuay, and M. P. Bonin, "Laser-based techniques for particle-size measurement: a review of sizing methods and their industrial applications," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 22, 267-306 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Fan, H. Zhao, and K. Cen, "Particle concentration and size measurements in two-phase turbulent coaxial jets measurements in two-phase turbulent coaxial jets," Chem. Eng. Commun. 156, 115-129 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

J. R. Fessler, J. D. Kulick, and J. K. Eaton, "Preferential concentration of heavy particles in a turbulent channel flow," Phys. Fluids 6, 3742-3749 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Eaton and J. R. Fessler, "Preferential concentration of particls by turbulence," Int. J. Multiphase Flows 20, 169-209 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

E. K. Longmire and J. R. Eaton, "Structure of a particle-laden round jet," J. Fluid Mech. 236, 217-257 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Fan, H. Zhao, and K. Cen, "An experimental study of two-phase turbulent coaxial jets," Exp. Fluids 13, 279-287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Y. Hardalupas, A. M. K. P. Taylor, and J. H. Whitelaw, "Velocity and particle-flux characteristics of turbulent particle-laden jets," Proc. R. Soc. London 426, 31-78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Y. Tsuji, Y. Morikawa, T. Tanaka, and K. Karimine, "Measurement of an axisymmetric jet laden with coarse particles," Int. J. Multiphase Flows 14, 565-574 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

H. M. Hertz and M. Aldén, "Calibration of imaging laser-induced fluorescence measurements in highly absorbing flames," Appl. Phys. B 42, 97-102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J.-S. Shuen, A. S. P. Solomon, Q.-F. Zhang, and G. M. Faeth, "Structure of particle-laden jets: measurements and predictions," AIAA J. 23, 396-404 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

H. A. Becker, H. C. Hottel, and G. C. Williams, "On the light-scatter technique for the study of turbulence and mixing," J. Fluid Mech. 30, 259-284 (1967).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (1)

J.-S. Shuen, A. S. P. Solomon, Q.-F. Zhang, and G. M. Faeth, "Structure of particle-laden jets: measurements and predictions," AIAA J. 23, 396-404 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martisson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration," Appl. Phys. B 65, 411-417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Hertz and M. Aldén, "Calibration of imaging laser-induced fluorescence measurements in highly absorbing flames," Appl. Phys. B 42, 97-102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Jermy and D. A. Greenhalgh, "Planar dropsizing by elastic and fluorescence scattering in sprays too dense for phase doppler measurement," Appl. Phys. B 71, 703-710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Eng. Commun. (1)

J. Fan, H. Zhao, and K. Cen, "Particle concentration and size measurements in two-phase turbulent coaxial jets measurements in two-phase turbulent coaxial jets," Chem. Eng. Commun. 156, 115-129 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (1)

J. Fan, H. Zhao, and K. Cen, "An experimental study of two-phase turbulent coaxial jets," Exp. Fluids 13, 279-287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Multiphase Flows (2)

Y. Tsuji, Y. Morikawa, T. Tanaka, and K. Karimine, "Measurement of an axisymmetric jet laden with coarse particles," Int. J. Multiphase Flows 14, 565-574 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Eaton and J. R. Fessler, "Preferential concentration of particls by turbulence," Int. J. Multiphase Flows 20, 169-209 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluid Mech. (2)

E. K. Longmire and J. R. Eaton, "Structure of a particle-laden round jet," J. Fluid Mech. 236, 217-257 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Becker, H. C. Hottel, and G. C. Williams, "On the light-scatter technique for the study of turbulence and mixing," J. Fluid Mech. 30, 259-284 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

H. Koh, J. Jeon, D. Kim, Y. Yoon, and J.-Y. Koo, "Analysis of signal attenuation for quantification of a planar imaging technique," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1829-1838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Fluids (1)

J. R. Fessler, J. D. Kulick, and J. K. Eaton, "Preferential concentration of heavy particles in a turbulent channel flow," Phys. Fluids 6, 3742-3749 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (2)

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, "Combustion at the focus: laser diagnostics and control," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 89-123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Smith, N. P. Megalos, G. J. Nathan, and D.-K. Zhang, "The significance of particle clustering in pulversied coal flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 797-804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London (1)

Y. Hardalupas, A. M. K. P. Taylor, and J. H. Whitelaw, "Velocity and particle-flux characteristics of turbulent particle-laden jets," Proc. R. Soc. London 426, 31-78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

D. L. Black, M. Q. McQuay, and M. P. Bonin, "Laser-based techniques for particle-size measurement: a review of sizing methods and their industrial applications," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 22, 267-306 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

N. L. Smith, "The influence of the spectrum of jet turbulence on the stability, nox emissions and heat release profile of pulverised coal flames," Ph.D. thesis (University of Adelaide, 2000).

M. C. Jermy, E. Berrocal, and F. Moukaideche, "Errors in light sheet images of polydisperse sprays: Monte Carlo simulation of photon propagation," in 12th International Symposium on Application of Laser Technology to Fluid Mechanics (Calouste Gulbekian, 2004), paper 6.3.

M. C. Jermy, E. Berrocal, and F. Moukaideche, "Estimating the errors due to multiple scattering in spray imaging measurements: Experiments and simulation," in ILASS-2004 (ILASS Europe, 2004), p. P12.

L. Zimmer, Y. Ikeda, R. Domann, and H. Yannis, "Simultaneous LIF and Mie scattering measurements for a branch-like spray cluster in an industrial oil burner," in AIAA Paper 02-0340 (AIAA, 2002), p. 1-1.

D. G. Talley, J. F. Verdieck, S. W. Lee, V. G. Mcdonell, and G. S. Samuelsen, "Accounting for laser sheet extinction in applying PLLIF to sprays," in 34th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit (AIAA, 1996), pp. 96-469.

A. Beer, Einleitung in die höhere Optik (Bonn, 1854).

J. H. Lambert, Photometria (Augsburg, 1760).

P. A. M. Kalt and C. H. Birzer, "Calibrations for planar nephelometry in densely-seeded two phase flows," in Proceedings of the 4th Australian Conference on Laser Diagnostics in Fluid Mechanics and Combustion (The University of Adelaide, 2005).
[PubMed]

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, 1957).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Light beam passing through an absorbing medium.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Schematic representation of the cylindrical (and potentially overlapping) shadows cast by spherical particles for the case of collimated light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Behavior of the extinction models for different particle sizes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (a) Imaged plane of an n × m CCD . (b) Imaged pixel volume; x and y are in-plane resolution, z is laser sheet thickness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Calibration setup showing tank, laser, and camera.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Selected averaged beam images from PSP-20 seeded water tank.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Average signal intensity as a function of extinction path length for PSP-20 particles suspended in water.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Average intensity corrected for transmittance and normalized for particle loading.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Signal intensity for 150 ppm medium laser extinction for different out-of-plane depths l z .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Schematic of the effect of the size of collection optics on signal trapping.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Normalized signal ( F V = 150 ppm ) using extinction model corrections for signal trapping.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Relative certainty of measurements as a function of the transmittance I 1 / I 0 for a 10 bit detector.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d I x I x = A p n p A s l i c e = A p ( A s l i c e d x ) c A s l i c e = A p c d x .
I 1 I 0 = exp ( A p l c ) .
I 1 I 0 = 10 α l c ,
I 1 I 0 = Γ 1 n p = ( 1 A p / A s l i c e ) n p .
i = 1 f i = exp ( i = 0 ln f i )
I 1 I 0 = n p Γ 1 = exp ( n p ln Γ ) .
0 Φ K d λ = π r p 2 n p ω i ω s 0 ψ a v τ L τ 1 τ i τ s τ 2 τ p I 0 d λ .
Φ = Φ p + Φ b k g .
Φ p = π r p 2 ¯ C κ n p I ,
Φ p [ i , j ] = C κ ( π r p 2 ¯ ) n p [ i , j ] I [ i , j ] ,
Φ ˜ p = C κ ( π r p 2 ¯ ) n ˜ p I ˜ .
κ ˜ t r a n s = ( 1 π r p 2 ¯ x z ) n ˜ p ,
I ˜ n = ( i = 1 n Γ n p [ i ] ) I 0
= κ a t t e n [ n ] I ˜ n 1 .

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