Abstract

We investigated grating-coupled transmission-type surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for sensing applications. In the transmission-type SPR structure, propagating surface plasmons are outcoupled to radiation modes by dielectric and metallic gratings on a metal film. The results calculated in air and water suggest that the proposed structures present extremely linear sensing characteristics. In terms of a figure of merit, a metallic grating-based structure performs 5.4 and 3.7 times better than that of a dielectric grating in air and water, respectively.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  25. L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, "Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes," Nano Lett. 5, 2034-2038 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

K. M. Byun, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, "Investigation of the profile effect on the sensitivity enhancement of nanowire-mediated localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors," Sens. Actuators B 117, 401-407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Kim, "Effect of resonant localized plasmon coupling on the sensitivity enhancement of nanowire-based surface plasmon resonance biosensors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2307-2314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, "Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes," Nano Lett. 5, 2034-2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Hung, I. I. Smolyaninov, Q. Balzano, and C. C. Davis, "Strong optical coupling effects through a continuous metal film with a surface dielectric grating," in Plasmonics: Metallic Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties III, M. I. Stockman, ed., Proc. SPIE 5927, 386-394 (2005).

J. Cesario, R. Quidant, G. Badenes, and S. Enoch, "Electromagnetic coupling between a metal nanoparticle grating and a metallic surface," Opt. Lett. 30, 3404-3406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Byun, S. J. Kim, and D. Kim, "Design study of highly sensitive nanowire-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensors using rigorous coupled wave analysis," Opt. Express 13, 3737-3742 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lenaerts, F. Michel, B. Tilkens, Y. Lion, and Y. Renotte, "High transmission efficiency for surface plasmon resonance by use of a dielectric grating," Appl. Opt. 44, 6017-6022 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, "A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596-10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, D. Erni, C. Hafner, and R. Vahldieck, "Multiple multipole method with automatic multipole setting applied to the simulation of surface plasmons in metallic nanostructures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 101-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Lermé, "Introduction of quantum finite-size effects in the Mie's theory for a multilayered metal sphere in the dipolar approximation: application to free and matrix-embedded noble metal clusters," Eur. Phys. J. D 10, 265-277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. J. Jory, P. S. Vukusic, and J. R. Sambles, "Development of a prototype gas sensor using surface plasmon resonance on gratings," Sens. Actuators B 17, 203-209 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

P. S. Vukusic, G. P. Bryan-Brown, and J. R. Sambles, "Surface plasmon resonance on gratings as a novel means for gas sensing," Sens. Actuators B 8, 155-160 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

N. Garcia, "Exact calculations of p-polarized electromagnetic fields incident on grating surfaces: surface polariton resonances," Opt. Commun. 45, 307-310 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1977 (1)

W. Rothballer, "The influence of surface plasma oscillations on the diffraction orders of sinusoidal surface gratings," Opt. Commun. 20, 429-433 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

E. Kretschmann, "Decay of non radiative surface plasmons into light on rough silver films: comparison of experimental and theoretical results," Opt. Commun. 6, 185-187 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

A. Otto, "Excitation of surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection," Z. Phys. 216, 398-410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

J. Lermé, "Introduction of quantum finite-size effects in the Mie's theory for a multilayered metal sphere in the dipolar approximation: application to free and matrix-embedded noble metal clusters," Eur. Phys. J. D 10, 265-277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, "A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596-10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

Nano Lett. (1)

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, "Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes," Nano Lett. 5, 2034-2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (3)

W. Rothballer, "The influence of surface plasma oscillations on the diffraction orders of sinusoidal surface gratings," Opt. Commun. 20, 429-433 (1977).
[CrossRef]

N. Garcia, "Exact calculations of p-polarized electromagnetic fields incident on grating surfaces: surface polariton resonances," Opt. Commun. 45, 307-310 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Kretschmann, "Decay of non radiative surface plasmons into light on rough silver films: comparison of experimental and theoretical results," Opt. Commun. 6, 185-187 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y.-J. Hung, I. I. Smolyaninov, Q. Balzano, and C. C. Davis, "Strong optical coupling effects through a continuous metal film with a surface dielectric grating," in Plasmonics: Metallic Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties III, M. I. Stockman, ed., Proc. SPIE 5927, 386-394 (2005).

Sens. Actuators B (4)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Vukusic, G. P. Bryan-Brown, and J. R. Sambles, "Surface plasmon resonance on gratings as a novel means for gas sensing," Sens. Actuators B 8, 155-160 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Jory, P. S. Vukusic, and J. R. Sambles, "Development of a prototype gas sensor using surface plasmon resonance on gratings," Sens. Actuators B 17, 203-209 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Byun, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, "Investigation of the profile effect on the sensitivity enhancement of nanowire-mediated localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors," Sens. Actuators B 117, 401-407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

A. Otto, "Excitation of surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection," Z. Phys. 216, 398-410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
[PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a transmission-type SPR configuration with dielectric or metallic gratings. A thin metal film with a thickness of d m is deposited on a prism substrate. Dielectric or metallic gratings with a period Λ and a fill factor f are regularly patterned on the metal layer. TM-polarized light is incident through the prism substrate at a fixed wavelength of λ = 633   nm . The diffracted light transmits into a superstrate environment (air or water).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission characteristics of a transmission-type SPR structure with a dielectric grating. The effects of the grating thickness on the transmittance efficiency (1T) and the resonance angles are shown. The silver metal film thickness is d m = 40   nm . The dielectric grating has a period of Λ = 600   nm and f = 0.5 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated reflectance and transmittance curves (1T) for a dielectric grating as a function of incidence angle. The grating thickness is d g = 180   nm . At θ in = 55.92 ° , T max = 65.28 % .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission characteristics of a transmission-type SPR structure with a metallic grating. The effects of the grating thickness on the transmittance efficiency (1T) and the resonance angles are shown. The silver metal film thickness is d m = 40   nm . The silver metal grating has a period of Λ = 600   nm and f = 0.5 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated reflectance and transmittance curves (1T) for a dielectric grating as a function of incidence angle. The grating thickness is d g = 24   nm . At θ in = 43.34 ° , T max = 52.97 % .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Transmittance and (b) linear regression analysis between resonance angle and superstrate refractive index of a transmission-type SPR sensor with a dielectric grating at d g = 180   nm in air. As the refractive index of the superstrate increases from 1.00 to 1.05 in steps of 0.01, the transmittance peak shifts from 55.92° to 58.51° in the direction of the arrow. θ in ( T max ) denotes the incidence angle at maximum transmittance.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Transmittance and (b) linear regression analysis between resonance angle and superstrate refractive index of a transmission-type SPR sensor with a metallic grating at d g = 24   nm in air. As the refractive index of the superstrate increases, the transmittance peak shifts from 43.34° to 46.38°.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Transmittance and (b) linear regression analysis between resonance angle and superstrate refractive index of a transmission-type SPR sensor with a dielectric grating at d g = 80   nm in water. As the refractive index of the superstrate increases from 1.33 to 1.38 in steps of 0.01, the transmittance peak shifts from 61.74° to 64.38° in the direction of the arrow.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Transmittance and (b) linear regression analysis between resonance angle and superstrate refractive index of a transmission-type SPR sensor with a metallic grating at d g = 22   nm in water. As the refractive index of the superstrate increases, the transmittance peak shifts from 48.63° to 52.12°.

Equations (3)

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k SPR = k 0 ( ε d ε m ε d + ε m ) 1 / 2 = w c ε p   sin   θ SPR ,
k   sin   θ d = k SPR q K , q = 0, ± 1, ± 2 ,  …  ,
F O M = m ( eV / RIU ) FWHM ( eV ) T max ,

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