Abstract

Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is an important technology for expanding the capacity of optical network. The optical component based on the superimposed Bragg gratings shows that it can be used as one of advantageous multichannel components because of its excellent angle and wavelength selectivities. An optimized method for recording multiple Bragg gratings for wavelength demultiplexing in optical telecommunication band is proposed to achieve gratings with equal diffraction efficiency. A structure of three layers with twenty four gratings is demonstrated in a LiNbO3:Fe crystal by employing the optimized recording method. Then an initial wavelength demultiplexing experiment based on the formed gratings is carried out in optical telecommunication C-band. The results obtained by measuring and analyzing the transmitted spectra of the fabricated gratings show that the diffraction efficiencies of the gratings are uniform. It is suggested that this kind of multiple gratings can be used for increasing the number of the demultiplexed wavelengths in recording medium with unit volume for WDM.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2006

D. Yang, H. Xiang, J. Zhao, J. Li, and H. Wang, "The write-in characteristics of multiple volume holographic gratings for wavelength demultiplexing with wide spectra," Acta Photonica Sin. 35, 24-27 (2006). (in Chinese).

H. Wang, D. Yang, J. Zhao, and X. Guo, "Fabrication method of multiple VBGs with directly layered structure and its experimental demonstration," Proc. SPIE 6149, 101-106 (2006).

2005

2003

2002

J. W. An, N. Kim, and K. Y. Lee, "50 GHz-spaced 42-channel demultiplexer based on the photopolymer volume grating," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 665-666 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. W. An, N. Kim, and K. W. Lee, "Volume holographic wavelength demultiplexer based on rotation multiplexing in the 90 geometry," Opt. Commun. 197, 247-254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Breer and K. Buse, "Wavelength demultiplexing with volume phase holograms in photorefractive lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. B 66, 339-345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993

1991

Y. Taketomi, J. E. Ford, H. Sasaki, J. Ma, Y. Fainman, and S. H. Lee, "Incremental recording for photorefractive hologram multiplexing," Opt. Lett. 16, 1774-1776 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fries and S. Bauschulte, "Wavelength dependence of the electrooptic coefficients in LiNbO3:Fe," Phys. Status Solidi A 125, 369-374 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, K. Kato, and I. Nishi, "Arrayed-waveguide grating for wavelength division multi/demultiplexer with nanometer resolution," Electron. Lett. 26, 87-88 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1983

J. Minowa and Y. Fujii, "Dielectric multilayer thin-film filters for WDM transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 116-121 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1969

B. H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2974 (1969).

Acta Photonica Sin.

D. Yang, H. Xiang, J. Zhao, J. Li, and H. Wang, "The write-in characteristics of multiple volume holographic gratings for wavelength demultiplexing with wide spectra," Acta Photonica Sin. 35, 24-27 (2006). (in Chinese).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

S. Breer and K. Buse, "Wavelength demultiplexing with volume phase holograms in photorefractive lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. B 66, 339-345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

B. H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2974 (1969).

Electron. Lett.

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, K. Kato, and I. Nishi, "Arrayed-waveguide grating for wavelength division multi/demultiplexer with nanometer resolution," Electron. Lett. 26, 87-88 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Minowa and Y. Fujii, "Dielectric multilayer thin-film filters for WDM transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 116-121 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

J. W. An, N. Kim, and K. Y. Lee, "50 GHz-spaced 42-channel demultiplexer based on the photopolymer volume grating," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 665-666 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. W. An, N. Kim, and K. W. Lee, "Volume holographic wavelength demultiplexer based on rotation multiplexing in the 90 geometry," Opt. Commun. 197, 247-254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Status Solidi A

S. Fries and S. Bauschulte, "Wavelength dependence of the electrooptic coefficients in LiNbO3:Fe," Phys. Status Solidi A 125, 369-374 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

H. Wang, D. Yang, J. Zhao, and X. Guo, "Fabrication method of multiple VBGs with directly layered structure and its experimental demonstration," Proc. SPIE 6149, 101-106 (2006).

Other

D. Yang, H. Xiang, H. Wang, P. Zhang, and J. Zhao, "Multiple volume Bragg gratings with layered structure and their fabrication methods," in Proceedings of Photorefractive Effects, Materials, and Devices, Vol. 99 of 2005 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. 767-771.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multiple Bragg gratings in layered structures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for recording layered multiple Bragg gratings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction spectral distributions of the fabricated three layer gratings.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Exposure Times of Gratings and Rotation Angles of Crystal

Tables Icon

Table 2 Peak Diffraction Wavelengths and Diffraction Efficiencies of 24 Gratings

Equations (25)

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LiNbO 3 : Fe
η = sin 2 [ π d Δ n λ cos θ B ] ,
Δ n
θ B
η 0
Δ n w = λ i cos θ B i arcsin η 0 π d ( n w n i ) 3 ( γ w γ i ) ,
n w
γ w
n i
γ i
λ = 632.8   nm
25   mW
25   cm
5   cm
P1 = 2.688   mW
P2 = 2.687   mW
LiNbO 3
a × b × c = 10 × 2 × 10 mm 3
Δ t i
23 %
2   mm
28%
2   nm
0.8   nm
0.4   nm

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