Abstract

We have measured the autofluorescence from suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the growth medium and after one, two, and three washes. The bacterium was grown in two different media, nutrient broth and King's B broth. The bacterium was harvested after 12, 24, and 48 h of growth. The fluorescence was measured with excitation every 10 nm from 200 nm to 600 nm. The fluorescence profiles were analyzed using principal component analysis. We found that most of the information is in the first three principal components. Stark differences in the value of the first principal component were noted between the samples in broth and those with one, two, or three washings. The second and third principal components noted differences between the samples washed once and those washed two or three times. There was no significant difference between samples washed two and three times. There are small differences noted between the samples grown in the two different broths, and no differences were noted among the samples harvested at different times.

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  2. T. M. Rossi and I. M. Warner, "Bacterial identification using fluorescence spectroscopy," in Rapid Detection and Identification of Microorganisms, W. H. Nelson, ed. (Verlag Chemie, 1985), pp. 1-50.
  3. L. Reinisch, J. Tribble, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Non-invasive optical diagnosis of bacteria causing otitis media," Laryngoscope 104, 264-268 (1994).
  4. M. J. Sorrel, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155-163 (1994).
  5. B. C. Spector, L. Reinisch, D. Smith, and J. A. Werkhaven, "Noninvasive fluorescent identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media in a chinchilla model," Laryngoscope 110, 1119-1123 (2000).
  6. B. V. Bronk and L. Reinisch, "Variability of steady state bacterial fluorescence with respect to growth conditions," Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 436-440 (1993).
  7. S. Elliott, J. R. Lead, and A. Baker, "Characterization of the fluorescence from freshwater, planktonic bacteria," Water Res. 40, 2075-2083 (2006).
  8. S. Elliott, J. R. Lead, and A. Baker, "Thermal quenching of fluorescence of freshwater, planktonic bacteria," Anal. Chim. Acta 564, 219-225 (2006).
  9. C. B. Smith, J. E. Anderson, and S. R. Webb, "Detection of Bacillus endospores using total luminescence spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 2517-2521 (2004).
  10. J. Ho, "Future of biological aerosol detection," Anal. Chim. Acta 457, 125-148 (2002).
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  23. D. C. Shelly, I. M. Warner, and J. M Quarles, "A multiparameter approach to the fingerprinting of fluorescent Pseudomonads," Clin. Chem. 26, 1419-1424 (1980).

2006

S. Elliott, J. R. Lead, and A. Baker, "Characterization of the fluorescence from freshwater, planktonic bacteria," Water Res. 40, 2075-2083 (2006).

S. Elliott, J. R. Lead, and A. Baker, "Thermal quenching of fluorescence of freshwater, planktonic bacteria," Anal. Chim. Acta 564, 219-225 (2006).

J. Kunnil, S. Sarasanandarajah, E. Chacko, and L. Reinisch, "Effect of washing on identification of Bacillus spores by principal-component analysis of fluorescence data," Appl. Opt. 45, 3659-3664 (2006).

2004

C. B. Smith, J. E. Anderson, and S. R. Webb, "Detection of Bacillus endospores using total luminescence spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 2517-2521 (2004).

2003

H. E. Giana, L. Silveira, R. A. Zangaro, and M. T. T. Pacheco, "Rapid identification of bacterial species by fluorescence spectroscopy and classification through principal components analysis," J. Fluoresc. 13, 489-493 (2003).

2002

J. Ho, "Future of biological aerosol detection," Anal. Chim. Acta 457, 125-148 (2002).

2000

L. M. Brosseau, D. Vesley, N. Rice, J., Goodell, M. Nellis, and P. Hairston, "Differences in detected fluorescence among several bacterial species measured with a direct-reading particle sizer and fluorescence detector," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 32, 545-558 (2000).

B. C. Spector, L. Reinisch, D. Smith, and J. A. Werkhaven, "Noninvasive fluorescent identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media in a chinchilla model," Laryngoscope 110, 1119-1123 (2000).

1998

1994

D. H. Bergey and J. G. Holt, "Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed., J.G.Holt (Williams and Wilkins Europe, Ltd., 1994).

L. Reinisch, J. Tribble, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Non-invasive optical diagnosis of bacteria causing otitis media," Laryngoscope 104, 264-268 (1994).

M. J. Sorrel, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155-163 (1994).

1993

B. V. Bronk and L. Reinisch, "Variability of steady state bacterial fluorescence with respect to growth conditions," Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 436-440 (1993).

1992

A. Balows, The Prokaryotes: A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria: Ecophysiology, Isolation, Identification, and Applications, A. Balows, H. Truper, M. Dworkin, M. Harder, and K.Schleifer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1992).

1987

1986

1985

J. T. Coburn, F. E. Lytle, and D. M. Huber, "Identification of bacterial pathogens by laser excited fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 57, 1669-1673 (1985).

T. M. Rossi and I. M. Warner, "Bacterial identification using fluorescence spectroscopy," in Rapid Detection and Identification of Microorganisms, W. H. Nelson, ed. (Verlag Chemie, 1985), pp. 1-50.

1983

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum Press, 1983).

1980

D. C. Shelly, J. M. Quarles, and I. M. Warner, "Identification of fluorescent Pseudomonas species," Clin. Chem. 26, 1127-1132 (1980).

D. C. Shelly, I. M. Warner, and J. M Quarles, "A multiparameter approach to the fingerprinting of fluorescent Pseudomonads," Clin. Chem. 26, 1419-1424 (1980).

1979

I. Munro, I. Pecht, and L. Stryer, "Sub nanosecond motions of tryptophan residues in proteins," Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 76, 56-60 (1979).

Anderson, J. E.

C. B. Smith, J. E. Anderson, and S. R. Webb, "Detection of Bacillus endospores using total luminescence spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 2517-2521 (2004).

Baker, A.

S. Elliott, J. R. Lead, and A. Baker, "Characterization of the fluorescence from freshwater, planktonic bacteria," Water Res. 40, 2075-2083 (2006).

S. Elliott, J. R. Lead, and A. Baker, "Thermal quenching of fluorescence of freshwater, planktonic bacteria," Anal. Chim. Acta 564, 219-225 (2006).

Balows, A.

A. Balows, The Prokaryotes: A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria: Ecophysiology, Isolation, Identification, and Applications, A. Balows, H. Truper, M. Dworkin, M. Harder, and K.Schleifer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1992).

Bergey, D. H.

D. H. Bergey and J. G. Holt, "Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed., J.G.Holt (Williams and Wilkins Europe, Ltd., 1994).

Britt, D.

Bronk, B. V.

B. V. Bronk and L. Reinisch, "Variability of steady state bacterial fluorescence with respect to growth conditions," Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 436-440 (1993).

Brosseau, L. M.

L. M. Brosseau, D. Vesley, N. Rice, J., Goodell, M. Nellis, and P. Hairston, "Differences in detected fluorescence among several bacterial species measured with a direct-reading particle sizer and fluorescence detector," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 32, 545-558 (2000).

Chacko, E.

Coburn, J. T.

J. T. Coburn, F. E. Lytle, and D. M. Huber, "Identification of bacterial pathogens by laser excited fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 57, 1669-1673 (1985).

Dalterio, R. A.

Elliott, S.

S. Elliott, J. R. Lead, and A. Baker, "Thermal quenching of fluorescence of freshwater, planktonic bacteria," Anal. Chim. Acta 564, 219-225 (2006).

S. Elliott, J. R. Lead, and A. Baker, "Characterization of the fluorescence from freshwater, planktonic bacteria," Water Res. 40, 2075-2083 (2006).

Eversole, J. D.

Giana, H. E.

H. E. Giana, L. Silveira, R. A. Zangaro, and M. T. T. Pacheco, "Rapid identification of bacterial species by fluorescence spectroscopy and classification through principal components analysis," J. Fluoresc. 13, 489-493 (2003).

Goodell, J.

L. M. Brosseau, D. Vesley, N. Rice, J., Goodell, M. Nellis, and P. Hairston, "Differences in detected fluorescence among several bacterial species measured with a direct-reading particle sizer and fluorescence detector," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 32, 545-558 (2000).

Hairston, P.

L. M. Brosseau, D. Vesley, N. Rice, J., Goodell, M. Nellis, and P. Hairston, "Differences in detected fluorescence among several bacterial species measured with a direct-reading particle sizer and fluorescence detector," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 32, 545-558 (2000).

Ho, J.

J. Ho, "Future of biological aerosol detection," Anal. Chim. Acta 457, 125-148 (2002).

Holt, J. G.

D. H. Bergey and J. G. Holt, "Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed., J.G.Holt (Williams and Wilkins Europe, Ltd., 1994).

Huber, D. M.

J. T. Coburn, F. E. Lytle, and D. M. Huber, "Identification of bacterial pathogens by laser excited fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 57, 1669-1673 (1985).

Jollifee, I. T.

I. T.Jollifee, Principal Component Analysis (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

Kunnil, J.

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum Press, 1983).

Lead, J. R.

S. Elliott, J. R. Lead, and A. Baker, "Thermal quenching of fluorescence of freshwater, planktonic bacteria," Anal. Chim. Acta 564, 219-225 (2006).

S. Elliott, J. R. Lead, and A. Baker, "Characterization of the fluorescence from freshwater, planktonic bacteria," Water Res. 40, 2075-2083 (2006).

Lytle, F. E.

J. T. Coburn, F. E. Lytle, and D. M. Huber, "Identification of bacterial pathogens by laser excited fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 57, 1669-1673 (1985).

Munro, I.

I. Munro, I. Pecht, and L. Stryer, "Sub nanosecond motions of tryptophan residues in proteins," Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 76, 56-60 (1979).

Nellis, M.

L. M. Brosseau, D. Vesley, N. Rice, J., Goodell, M. Nellis, and P. Hairston, "Differences in detected fluorescence among several bacterial species measured with a direct-reading particle sizer and fluorescence detector," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 32, 545-558 (2000).

Nelson, W. H.

Ossoff, R. H.

L. Reinisch, J. Tribble, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Non-invasive optical diagnosis of bacteria causing otitis media," Laryngoscope 104, 264-268 (1994).

M. J. Sorrel, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155-163 (1994).

Pacheco, M. T. T.

H. E. Giana, L. Silveira, R. A. Zangaro, and M. T. T. Pacheco, "Rapid identification of bacterial species by fluorescence spectroscopy and classification through principal components analysis," J. Fluoresc. 13, 489-493 (2003).

Pecht, I.

I. Munro, I. Pecht, and L. Stryer, "Sub nanosecond motions of tryptophan residues in proteins," Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 76, 56-60 (1979).

Pinto, J. F.

Quarles, J. M

D. C. Shelly, I. M. Warner, and J. M Quarles, "A multiparameter approach to the fingerprinting of fluorescent Pseudomonads," Clin. Chem. 26, 1419-1424 (1980).

Quarles, J. M.

D. C. Shelly, J. M. Quarles, and I. M. Warner, "Identification of fluorescent Pseudomonas species," Clin. Chem. 26, 1127-1132 (1980).

Reinisch, L.

J. Kunnil, S. Sarasanandarajah, E. Chacko, and L. Reinisch, "Effect of washing on identification of Bacillus spores by principal-component analysis of fluorescence data," Appl. Opt. 45, 3659-3664 (2006).

B. C. Spector, L. Reinisch, D. Smith, and J. A. Werkhaven, "Noninvasive fluorescent identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media in a chinchilla model," Laryngoscope 110, 1119-1123 (2000).

M. J. Sorrel, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155-163 (1994).

L. Reinisch, J. Tribble, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Non-invasive optical diagnosis of bacteria causing otitis media," Laryngoscope 104, 264-268 (1994).

B. V. Bronk and L. Reinisch, "Variability of steady state bacterial fluorescence with respect to growth conditions," Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 436-440 (1993).

Rice, N.

L. M. Brosseau, D. Vesley, N. Rice, J., Goodell, M. Nellis, and P. Hairston, "Differences in detected fluorescence among several bacterial species measured with a direct-reading particle sizer and fluorescence detector," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 32, 545-558 (2000).

Roselle, D. C.

Rossi, T. M.

T. M. Rossi and I. M. Warner, "Bacterial identification using fluorescence spectroscopy," in Rapid Detection and Identification of Microorganisms, W. H. Nelson, ed. (Verlag Chemie, 1985), pp. 1-50.

Sarasanandarajah, S.

Seaver, M.

Shelly, D. C.

D. C. Shelly, I. M. Warner, and J. M Quarles, "A multiparameter approach to the fingerprinting of fluorescent Pseudomonads," Clin. Chem. 26, 1419-1424 (1980).

D. C. Shelly, J. M. Quarles, and I. M. Warner, "Identification of fluorescent Pseudomonas species," Clin. Chem. 26, 1127-1132 (1980).

Silveira, L.

H. E. Giana, L. Silveira, R. A. Zangaro, and M. T. T. Pacheco, "Rapid identification of bacterial species by fluorescence spectroscopy and classification through principal components analysis," J. Fluoresc. 13, 489-493 (2003).

Smith, C. B.

C. B. Smith, J. E. Anderson, and S. R. Webb, "Detection of Bacillus endospores using total luminescence spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 2517-2521 (2004).

Smith, D.

B. C. Spector, L. Reinisch, D. Smith, and J. A. Werkhaven, "Noninvasive fluorescent identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media in a chinchilla model," Laryngoscope 110, 1119-1123 (2000).

Sorrel, M. J.

M. J. Sorrel, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155-163 (1994).

Spector, B. C.

B. C. Spector, L. Reinisch, D. Smith, and J. A. Werkhaven, "Noninvasive fluorescent identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media in a chinchilla model," Laryngoscope 110, 1119-1123 (2000).

Sperry, J. F.

Stryer, L.

I. Munro, I. Pecht, and L. Stryer, "Sub nanosecond motions of tryptophan residues in proteins," Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 76, 56-60 (1979).

Suib, S. L.

Tanguay, J. F.

Tribble, J.

L. Reinisch, J. Tribble, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Non-invasive optical diagnosis of bacteria causing otitis media," Laryngoscope 104, 264-268 (1994).

M. J. Sorrel, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155-163 (1994).

Vesley, D.

L. M. Brosseau, D. Vesley, N. Rice, J., Goodell, M. Nellis, and P. Hairston, "Differences in detected fluorescence among several bacterial species measured with a direct-reading particle sizer and fluorescence detector," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 32, 545-558 (2000).

Warner, I. M.

T. M. Rossi and I. M. Warner, "Bacterial identification using fluorescence spectroscopy," in Rapid Detection and Identification of Microorganisms, W. H. Nelson, ed. (Verlag Chemie, 1985), pp. 1-50.

D. C. Shelly, I. M. Warner, and J. M Quarles, "A multiparameter approach to the fingerprinting of fluorescent Pseudomonads," Clin. Chem. 26, 1419-1424 (1980).

D. C. Shelly, J. M. Quarles, and I. M. Warner, "Identification of fluorescent Pseudomonas species," Clin. Chem. 26, 1127-1132 (1980).

Webb, S. R.

C. B. Smith, J. E. Anderson, and S. R. Webb, "Detection of Bacillus endospores using total luminescence spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 2517-2521 (2004).

Werkhaven, J. A.

B. C. Spector, L. Reinisch, D. Smith, and J. A. Werkhaven, "Noninvasive fluorescent identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media in a chinchilla model," Laryngoscope 110, 1119-1123 (2000).

M. J. Sorrel, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155-163 (1994).

L. Reinisch, J. Tribble, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Non-invasive optical diagnosis of bacteria causing otitis media," Laryngoscope 104, 264-268 (1994).

Zangaro, R. A.

H. E. Giana, L. Silveira, R. A. Zangaro, and M. T. T. Pacheco, "Rapid identification of bacterial species by fluorescence spectroscopy and classification through principal components analysis," J. Fluoresc. 13, 489-493 (2003).

Aerosol Sci. Technol.

L. M. Brosseau, D. Vesley, N. Rice, J., Goodell, M. Nellis, and P. Hairston, "Differences in detected fluorescence among several bacterial species measured with a direct-reading particle sizer and fluorescence detector," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 32, 545-558 (2000).

Anal. Chim. Acta

J. Ho, "Future of biological aerosol detection," Anal. Chim. Acta 457, 125-148 (2002).

Anal. Chem.

J. T. Coburn, F. E. Lytle, and D. M. Huber, "Identification of bacterial pathogens by laser excited fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 57, 1669-1673 (1985).

Anal. Chim. Acta

S. Elliott, J. R. Lead, and A. Baker, "Thermal quenching of fluorescence of freshwater, planktonic bacteria," Anal. Chim. Acta 564, 219-225 (2006).

Appl. Spectrosc.

B. V. Bronk and L. Reinisch, "Variability of steady state bacterial fluorescence with respect to growth conditions," Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 436-440 (1993).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Spectrosc.

Clin. Chem.

D. C. Shelly, J. M. Quarles, and I. M. Warner, "Identification of fluorescent Pseudomonas species," Clin. Chem. 26, 1127-1132 (1980).

Clin. Chem.

D. C. Shelly, I. M. Warner, and J. M Quarles, "A multiparameter approach to the fingerprinting of fluorescent Pseudomonads," Clin. Chem. 26, 1419-1424 (1980).

Laryngoscope

L. Reinisch, J. Tribble, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Non-invasive optical diagnosis of bacteria causing otitis media," Laryngoscope 104, 264-268 (1994).

B. C. Spector, L. Reinisch, D. Smith, and J. A. Werkhaven, "Noninvasive fluorescent identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media in a chinchilla model," Laryngoscope 110, 1119-1123 (2000).

Lasers Surg. Med.

M. J. Sorrel, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155-163 (1994).

Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA

I. Munro, I. Pecht, and L. Stryer, "Sub nanosecond motions of tryptophan residues in proteins," Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 76, 56-60 (1979).

Spectrochim. Acta Part A

C. B. Smith, J. E. Anderson, and S. R. Webb, "Detection of Bacillus endospores using total luminescence spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 2517-2521 (2004).

Water Res.

S. Elliott, J. R. Lead, and A. Baker, "Characterization of the fluorescence from freshwater, planktonic bacteria," Water Res. 40, 2075-2083 (2006).

Other

T. M. Rossi and I. M. Warner, "Bacterial identification using fluorescence spectroscopy," in Rapid Detection and Identification of Microorganisms, W. H. Nelson, ed. (Verlag Chemie, 1985), pp. 1-50.

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum Press, 1983).

H. E. Giana, L. Silveira, R. A. Zangaro, and M. T. T. Pacheco, "Rapid identification of bacterial species by fluorescence spectroscopy and classification through principal components analysis," J. Fluoresc. 13, 489-493 (2003).

I. T.Jollifee, Principal Component Analysis (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

D. H. Bergey and J. G. Holt, "Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed., J.G.Holt (Williams and Wilkins Europe, Ltd., 1994).

A. Balows, The Prokaryotes: A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria: Ecophysiology, Isolation, Identification, and Applications, A. Balows, H. Truper, M. Dworkin, M. Harder, and K.Schleifer, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1992).

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