Abstract

We demonstrate the use of tilted fiber gratings to assist the generation of localized infrared surface plasmons with short propagation lengths and a sensitivity of dλ/dn=3365  nm in the aqueous index regime. It was also found that the resonances could be spectrally tuned over 1000  nm at the same spatial region with high coupling efficiency (in excess of 25  dB) by altering the polarization of the light illuminating the device.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. A. Vasiliev and O. I. Medvedkov, "Long-period refractive index fiber gratings: properties, applications, and fabrication techniques," Proc. SPIE 4083, 212-223 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, "A fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Piliarik, J. Homola, Z. Mankova, and J. Ctyroky, "Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on a single-mode polarization-maintaining optical fiber," Sens. Actuators B 90, 236-242 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Homola, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors:review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Patskovsky, A. Kabsahin, M. Meunier, and J. Luong, "Properties and sensing characteristics of surface plasmon resonance in infrared light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1644-1650 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Academic, New York, 1997).
  7. J. M. Brockman, B. Nelson, and R. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging measurement of ultra-thin organic films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277-1292 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Iga, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, "Gold thickness dependence of SPR-based hetero-core structured optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuators B 106, 363-368 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Allsop, R. Neal, S. Rehman, C. Zhang, D. Webb, D. Mapps, and I. Bennion, "Surface plasmon resonance generation utilizing gratings for biochemical sensing," in Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper WA4.
  11. J. Homola and S. Yee, "Novel polarization control scheme for spectral surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 51, 331-359 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants (Academic, San Diego, 1998).
  13. E. M. Yeatman, "Resolution and sensitivity in surface plasmon microscopy and sensing," Biosens. Bioelectron. 11, 635-649 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. C. Jorgenson and S. Yee, "A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 12, 213-220 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Tsao, Optical Fiber Waveguide Analysis (Oxford, New York, 1992).

2006 (1)

T. Allsop, R. Neal, S. Rehman, C. Zhang, D. Webb, D. Mapps, and I. Bennion, "Surface plasmon resonance generation utilizing gratings for biochemical sensing," in Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper WA4.

2005 (1)

M. Iga, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, "Gold thickness dependence of SPR-based hetero-core structured optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuators B 106, 363-368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Piliarik, J. Homola, Z. Mankova, and J. Ctyroky, "Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on a single-mode polarization-maintaining optical fiber," Sens. Actuators B 90, 236-242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Patskovsky, A. Kabsahin, M. Meunier, and J. Luong, "Properties and sensing characteristics of surface plasmon resonance in infrared light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1644-1650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, "A fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. A. Vasiliev and O. I. Medvedkov, "Long-period refractive index fiber gratings: properties, applications, and fabrication techniques," Proc. SPIE 4083, 212-223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Brockman, B. Nelson, and R. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging measurement of ultra-thin organic films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors:review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. Homola and S. Yee, "Novel polarization control scheme for spectral surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 51, 331-359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants (Academic, San Diego, 1998).

1997 (2)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277-1292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Academic, New York, 1997).

1996 (1)

E. M. Yeatman, "Resolution and sensitivity in surface plasmon microscopy and sensing," Biosens. Bioelectron. 11, 635-649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. C. Jorgenson and S. Yee, "A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 12, 213-220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. Tsao, Optical Fiber Waveguide Analysis (Oxford, New York, 1992).

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, S. Rehman, C. Zhang, D. Webb, D. Mapps, and I. Bennion, "Surface plasmon resonance generation utilizing gratings for biochemical sensing," in Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper WA4.

Andreev, A.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, "A fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, S. Rehman, C. Zhang, D. Webb, D. Mapps, and I. Bennion, "Surface plasmon resonance generation utilizing gratings for biochemical sensing," in Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper WA4.

Brockman, J. M.

J. M. Brockman, B. Nelson, and R. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging measurement of ultra-thin organic films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corn, R.

J. M. Brockman, B. Nelson, and R. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging measurement of ultra-thin organic films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ctyroky, J.

M. Piliarik, J. Homola, Z. Mankova, and J. Ctyroky, "Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on a single-mode polarization-maintaining optical fiber," Sens. Actuators B 90, 236-242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ecke, W.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, "A fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277-1292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, G.

E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants (Academic, San Diego, 1998).

Homola, J.

M. Piliarik, J. Homola, Z. Mankova, and J. Ctyroky, "Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on a single-mode polarization-maintaining optical fiber," Sens. Actuators B 90, 236-242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors:review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola and S. Yee, "Novel polarization control scheme for spectral surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 51, 331-359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Iga, M.

M. Iga, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, "Gold thickness dependence of SPR-based hetero-core structured optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuators B 106, 363-368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jorgenson, R. C.

R. C. Jorgenson and S. Yee, "A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 12, 213-220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kabsahin, A.

Luong, J.

Mankova, Z.

M. Piliarik, J. Homola, Z. Mankova, and J. Ctyroky, "Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on a single-mode polarization-maintaining optical fiber," Sens. Actuators B 90, 236-242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mapps, D.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, S. Rehman, C. Zhang, D. Webb, D. Mapps, and I. Bennion, "Surface plasmon resonance generation utilizing gratings for biochemical sensing," in Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper WA4.

Medvedkov, O. I.

S. A. Vasiliev and O. I. Medvedkov, "Long-period refractive index fiber gratings: properties, applications, and fabrication techniques," Proc. SPIE 4083, 212-223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meunier, M.

Mueller, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, "A fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neal, R.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, S. Rehman, C. Zhang, D. Webb, D. Mapps, and I. Bennion, "Surface plasmon resonance generation utilizing gratings for biochemical sensing," in Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper WA4.

Nelson, B.

J. M. Brockman, B. Nelson, and R. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging measurement of ultra-thin organic films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants (Academic, San Diego, 1998).

Patskovsky, S.

Piliarik, M.

M. Piliarik, J. Homola, Z. Mankova, and J. Ctyroky, "Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on a single-mode polarization-maintaining optical fiber," Sens. Actuators B 90, 236-242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Academic, New York, 1997).

Rehman, S.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, S. Rehman, C. Zhang, D. Webb, D. Mapps, and I. Bennion, "Surface plasmon resonance generation utilizing gratings for biochemical sensing," in Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper WA4.

Schroeder, K.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, "A fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seki, A.

M. Iga, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, "Gold thickness dependence of SPR-based hetero-core structured optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuators B 106, 363-368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, C.

C. Tsao, Optical Fiber Waveguide Analysis (Oxford, New York, 1992).

Vasiliev, S. A.

S. A. Vasiliev and O. I. Medvedkov, "Long-period refractive index fiber gratings: properties, applications, and fabrication techniques," Proc. SPIE 4083, 212-223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

M. Iga, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, "Gold thickness dependence of SPR-based hetero-core structured optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuators B 106, 363-368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, S. Rehman, C. Zhang, D. Webb, D. Mapps, and I. Bennion, "Surface plasmon resonance generation utilizing gratings for biochemical sensing," in Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper WA4.

Willsch, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, "A fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yeatman, E. M.

E. M. Yeatman, "Resolution and sensitivity in surface plasmon microscopy and sensing," Biosens. Bioelectron. 11, 635-649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S.

J. Homola and S. Yee, "Novel polarization control scheme for spectral surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 51, 331-359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Jorgenson and S. Yee, "A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 12, 213-220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, S. Rehman, C. Zhang, D. Webb, D. Mapps, and I. Bennion, "Surface plasmon resonance generation utilizing gratings for biochemical sensing," in Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper WA4.

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. M. Brockman, B. Nelson, and R. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging measurement of ultra-thin organic films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

E. M. Yeatman, "Resolution and sensitivity in surface plasmon microscopy and sensing," Biosens. Bioelectron. 11, 635-649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277-1292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, "A fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. A. Vasiliev and O. I. Medvedkov, "Long-period refractive index fiber gratings: properties, applications, and fabrication techniques," Proc. SPIE 4083, 212-223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (5)

M. Piliarik, J. Homola, Z. Mankova, and J. Ctyroky, "Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on a single-mode polarization-maintaining optical fiber," Sens. Actuators B 90, 236-242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors:review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Iga, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, "Gold thickness dependence of SPR-based hetero-core structured optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuators B 106, 363-368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Jorgenson and S. Yee, "A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 12, 213-220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola and S. Yee, "Novel polarization control scheme for spectral surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 51, 331-359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants (Academic, San Diego, 1998).

C. Tsao, Optical Fiber Waveguide Analysis (Oxford, New York, 1992).

T. Allsop, R. Neal, S. Rehman, C. Zhang, D. Webb, D. Mapps, and I. Bennion, "Surface plasmon resonance generation utilizing gratings for biochemical sensing," in Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper WA4.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Academic, New York, 1997).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme used for the characterization of the tilted, lapped and coated fiber Bragg grating device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The transmission spectra of fiber SPR devices illuminated with light of various polarization states. (a) Device in a solution with an index of 1.360 (Ag thickness 35   nm , angle 7°, length 2.8   cm ). (b) Device in a solution with an index of 1.380 (Ag thickness 35   nm , angle 3°, length 5.0   cm ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The spectral characteristics of three devices with 3, 7 and 9 degree tilt angles. The two curves for 7 degrees correspond to two different incident polarizations. (a) Wavelength dependence and (b) strength dependence of the device as a function of the surrounding medium's refractive index. Also shown as a control in (b) is the coupling of a lapped and coated fiber with no grating inscribed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Theoretical transmission spectra of a SPR fiber device including a random variation of the thickness of the silver coating. (b) The theoretical coupling strength of the SPR as a function of surrounding index. Mean Coating thickness 35   nm with standard deviation of 6   nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The characteristic propagation length of the surface plasmons as a function of wavelength.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

β = k ( ε m · n s 2 ε m + n s 2 ) = k n 2   sin ( ξ ) ,
R = | E r p E 0 p | 2 = | r n 2 n m p + r n m n s p · exp ( 2 i K z , n m d ) 1 + r n 2 n m p · r n m n s p · exp ( 2 i K z , n m d ) | 2
Γ i = n s 3 k 0 ε i 2 ε r 2 ,
W k = 2 ( Γ i + Γ r ) / ( n 2 k 0   cos ( ξ ) ) ,
L x = 1 2 ( Im ( k 0 ε m · n s 2 ε m + n s 2 ) + Γ r ) .

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