Abstract

We propose a sequence of transmission and reflection measurements that makes it possible to get a relatively accurate estimate for refractive index of optically isotropic powder materials. This method makes use of immersion liquids and a multifunction spectrophotometer, which we have constructed recently. As an example we present data for CaF2.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. E. El-Hinnawi, Methods in Chemical and Mineral Microscopy (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1966).
  2. R. Budwig, "Refractive index matching methods for liquid flow investigations," Exp. Fluids 17, 350-355 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Jonasz, G. Fournier, and D. Stramski, "Photometric immersion refractometry: a method for determining the refractive index of marine microbial particles from beam attenuation," Appl. Opt. 36, 4214-4225 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Franklin and Z. Y. Wang, "Refractive index matching: a general method for enhancing the optical clarity of a hydrogel matrix," Chem. Mater. 14, 4487-4489 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. J. Nussbaumer, M. Halter, T. Tervoort, W. R. Caseri, and P. Smith, "A simple method for the determination of refractive indices of (rough) transparent solids," J. Mater. Sci. 40, 575-582 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K.-E. Peiponen, "A multifunction spectrophotometer for measurement of optical properties of transparent and turbid liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, N87-N91 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K.-E. Peiponen, "Complex refractive index of turbid liquids," Opt. Lett. 32, 862-864 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. I. H. Malitson, "A redetermination of some optical properties of calcium fluoride," Appl. Opt. 2, 1103-1107 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Kahan and D. E. McCarthy, "Angle-of-incidence dependence of calcium fluoride reflectivity," Phys. Rev. 142, 457-462 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Burnett, Z. H. Levine, and E. L. Shirley, "Intrinsic birefringence in calcium fluoride and barium fluoride," Phys. Rev. B 64, 241102 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E.D.Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids III (Academic, San Diego, 1998).

2007 (1)

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K.-E. Peiponen, "Complex refractive index of turbid liquids," Opt. Lett. 32, 862-864 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K.-E. Peiponen, "A multifunction spectrophotometer for measurement of optical properties of transparent and turbid liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, N87-N91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. J. Nussbaumer, M. Halter, T. Tervoort, W. R. Caseri, and P. Smith, "A simple method for the determination of refractive indices of (rough) transparent solids," J. Mater. Sci. 40, 575-582 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Franklin and Z. Y. Wang, "Refractive index matching: a general method for enhancing the optical clarity of a hydrogel matrix," Chem. Mater. 14, 4487-4489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. H. Burnett, Z. H. Levine, and E. L. Shirley, "Intrinsic birefringence in calcium fluoride and barium fluoride," Phys. Rev. B 64, 241102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

E.D.Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids III (Academic, San Diego, 1998).

1997 (1)

M. Jonasz, G. Fournier, and D. Stramski, "Photometric immersion refractometry: a method for determining the refractive index of marine microbial particles from beam attenuation," Appl. Opt. 36, 4214-4225 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. Budwig, "Refractive index matching methods for liquid flow investigations," Exp. Fluids 17, 350-355 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

E. E. El-Hinnawi, Methods in Chemical and Mineral Microscopy (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1966).

A. Kahan and D. E. McCarthy, "Angle-of-incidence dependence of calcium fluoride reflectivity," Phys. Rev. 142, 457-462 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

I. H. Malitson, "A redetermination of some optical properties of calcium fluoride," Appl. Opt. 2, 1103-1107 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Budwig, R.

R. Budwig, "Refractive index matching methods for liquid flow investigations," Exp. Fluids 17, 350-355 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, J. H.

J. H. Burnett, Z. H. Levine, and E. L. Shirley, "Intrinsic birefringence in calcium fluoride and barium fluoride," Phys. Rev. B 64, 241102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Caseri, W. R.

R. J. Nussbaumer, M. Halter, T. Tervoort, W. R. Caseri, and P. Smith, "A simple method for the determination of refractive indices of (rough) transparent solids," J. Mater. Sci. 40, 575-582 (2005).
[CrossRef]

El-Hinnawi, E. E.

E. E. El-Hinnawi, Methods in Chemical and Mineral Microscopy (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1966).

Fournier, G.

M. Jonasz, G. Fournier, and D. Stramski, "Photometric immersion refractometry: a method for determining the refractive index of marine microbial particles from beam attenuation," Appl. Opt. 36, 4214-4225 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franklin, J.

J. Franklin and Z. Y. Wang, "Refractive index matching: a general method for enhancing the optical clarity of a hydrogel matrix," Chem. Mater. 14, 4487-4489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Halter, M.

R. J. Nussbaumer, M. Halter, T. Tervoort, W. R. Caseri, and P. Smith, "A simple method for the determination of refractive indices of (rough) transparent solids," J. Mater. Sci. 40, 575-582 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jonasz, M.

M. Jonasz, G. Fournier, and D. Stramski, "Photometric immersion refractometry: a method for determining the refractive index of marine microbial particles from beam attenuation," Appl. Opt. 36, 4214-4225 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kahan, A.

A. Kahan and D. E. McCarthy, "Angle-of-incidence dependence of calcium fluoride reflectivity," Phys. Rev. 142, 457-462 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Levine, Z. H.

J. H. Burnett, Z. H. Levine, and E. L. Shirley, "Intrinsic birefringence in calcium fluoride and barium fluoride," Phys. Rev. B 64, 241102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malitson, I. H.

I. H. Malitson, "A redetermination of some optical properties of calcium fluoride," Appl. Opt. 2, 1103-1107 (1963).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, D. E.

A. Kahan and D. E. McCarthy, "Angle-of-incidence dependence of calcium fluoride reflectivity," Phys. Rev. 142, 457-462 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Niskanen, I.

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K.-E. Peiponen, "Complex refractive index of turbid liquids," Opt. Lett. 32, 862-864 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K.-E. Peiponen, "A multifunction spectrophotometer for measurement of optical properties of transparent and turbid liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, N87-N91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nussbaumer, R. J.

R. J. Nussbaumer, M. Halter, T. Tervoort, W. R. Caseri, and P. Smith, "A simple method for the determination of refractive indices of (rough) transparent solids," J. Mater. Sci. 40, 575-582 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peiponen, K.-E.

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K.-E. Peiponen, "Complex refractive index of turbid liquids," Opt. Lett. 32, 862-864 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K.-E. Peiponen, "A multifunction spectrophotometer for measurement of optical properties of transparent and turbid liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, N87-N91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Räty, J.

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K.-E. Peiponen, "Complex refractive index of turbid liquids," Opt. Lett. 32, 862-864 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K.-E. Peiponen, "A multifunction spectrophotometer for measurement of optical properties of transparent and turbid liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, N87-N91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shirley, E. L.

J. H. Burnett, Z. H. Levine, and E. L. Shirley, "Intrinsic birefringence in calcium fluoride and barium fluoride," Phys. Rev. B 64, 241102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P.

R. J. Nussbaumer, M. Halter, T. Tervoort, W. R. Caseri, and P. Smith, "A simple method for the determination of refractive indices of (rough) transparent solids," J. Mater. Sci. 40, 575-582 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

M. Jonasz, G. Fournier, and D. Stramski, "Photometric immersion refractometry: a method for determining the refractive index of marine microbial particles from beam attenuation," Appl. Opt. 36, 4214-4225 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tervoort, T.

R. J. Nussbaumer, M. Halter, T. Tervoort, W. R. Caseri, and P. Smith, "A simple method for the determination of refractive indices of (rough) transparent solids," J. Mater. Sci. 40, 575-582 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. Y.

J. Franklin and Z. Y. Wang, "Refractive index matching: a general method for enhancing the optical clarity of a hydrogel matrix," Chem. Mater. 14, 4487-4489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

M. Jonasz, G. Fournier, and D. Stramski, "Photometric immersion refractometry: a method for determining the refractive index of marine microbial particles from beam attenuation," Appl. Opt. 36, 4214-4225 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Malitson, "A redetermination of some optical properties of calcium fluoride," Appl. Opt. 2, 1103-1107 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

J. Franklin and Z. Y. Wang, "Refractive index matching: a general method for enhancing the optical clarity of a hydrogel matrix," Chem. Mater. 14, 4487-4489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (1)

R. Budwig, "Refractive index matching methods for liquid flow investigations," Exp. Fluids 17, 350-355 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

R. J. Nussbaumer, M. Halter, T. Tervoort, W. R. Caseri, and P. Smith, "A simple method for the determination of refractive indices of (rough) transparent solids," J. Mater. Sci. 40, 575-582 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K.-E. Peiponen, "A multifunction spectrophotometer for measurement of optical properties of transparent and turbid liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, N87-N91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K.-E. Peiponen, "Complex refractive index of turbid liquids," Opt. Lett. 32, 862-864 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. Kahan and D. E. McCarthy, "Angle-of-incidence dependence of calcium fluoride reflectivity," Phys. Rev. 142, 457-462 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. H. Burnett, Z. H. Levine, and E. L. Shirley, "Intrinsic birefringence in calcium fluoride and barium fluoride," Phys. Rev. B 64, 241102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E.D.Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids III (Academic, San Diego, 1998).

E. E. El-Hinnawi, Methods in Chemical and Mineral Microscopy (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1966).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the multifunction spectrophotometer: D, detector and P, polarizer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission data as a function of the refractive index of immersion liquid (filled circles) (a) at sodium D-line and (b) at 460 nm. The solid line is a Gaussian line for fitting the experimental data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission as a function of wavelength. The refractive indices of the immersion liquid in the insert are for the sodium D-line.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R s = r s r s * = ( cos θ i N 21 2 sin 2 θ i cos θ i + N 21 2 sin 2 θ i ) × ( cos θ i N 21 2 sin 2 θ i cos θ i + N 21 2 sin 2 θ i ) ,
S ( N 21 ) = i = 1 M ( R m i R s ( θ i , N 21 ) ) 2 ,
n 1 = V a n a + V b n b V a + V b .

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