Abstract

Nighttime stellar photometric measurements have been carried out with a commercial digital single-lens reflex camera to determine the atmospheric optical thickness on large fields of view (FOV). Specific procedures of image analysis allow to extract an equivalent irradiance for a number of stars and for the sky light background; thus, a measure of the optical thickness in each star direction can be retrieved. A larger FOV is obtained by stitching several photographs shot in quick sequence on adjacent regions of the sky: such measurements provide almost instantaneous maps of optical thickness and skylight background that indicate the degree of homogeneity of the aerosol load. Additional information provided by the combined use of the camera and a lidar is presented. The zenithal optical thickness is used with values of the aerosol backscatter provided by a lidar system to obtain the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star-Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 8, 1-14 (2002).

2001 (1)

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

1996 (1)

P. Giannone, Elementi di Astronomia (Pitagora, 1996), pp. 153-156.

1985 (1)

R. M. Green, Spherical Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, 1985), pp. 305-330.

1973 (1)

R. G. Roosen, R. J. Angione, and C. H. Clemcke, "Worldwide variations in atmospheric transmission, 1, Baseline results from Smithsonian observations," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 54, 307-316 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

F. E. Volz, "Turbidity at Uppsala from 1909 to 1922 from Sjostroms solar radiation measurements," Report 28 (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, 1968), pp. 100-104.

1962 (1)

R. H. Hardie, "Photoelectric reductions," in Astronomical Techniques, W. A. Hiltner, ed., Stars and Stellar Systems, II (U. of Chicago Press, 1962), pp. 178-208.

Abuhassan, N.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Althausen, D.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star-Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 8, 1-14 (2002).

Angione, R. J.

R. G. Roosen, R. J. Angione, and C. H. Clemcke, "Worldwide variations in atmospheric transmission, 1, Baseline results from Smithsonian observations," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 54, 307-316 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star-Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 8, 1-14 (2002).

Barnes, J. E.

Beck, R.

Beichman, C.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bronner, S.

Capps, R.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, J. M.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chatenet, B.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Chester, T.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Clemcke, C. H.

R. G. Roosen, R. J. Angione, and C. H. Clemcke, "Worldwide variations in atmospheric transmission, 1, Baseline results from Smithsonian observations," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 54, 307-316 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cutri, R. M.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Elias, J.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, T.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, J.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Fullmer, L.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giannone, P.

P. Giannone, Elementi di Astronomia (Pitagora, 1996), pp. 153-156.

Gizis, J.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. M.

R. M. Green, Spherical Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, 1985), pp. 305-330.

Halthore, R.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Hardie, R. H.

R. H. Hardie, "Photoelectric reductions," in Astronomical Techniques, W. A. Hiltner, ed., Stars and Stellar Systems, II (U. of Chicago Press, 1962), pp. 178-208.

Herber, A.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star-Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 8, 1-14 (2002).

Holben, B. N.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Howard, E.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huchra, J.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hurt, R.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jarrett, T.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karneli, A.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Kaufman, Y. J.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Kirkpatrick, J. D.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kopan, E. L.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Liebert, J.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Light, R.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lonsdale, C.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Markham, B.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Marsh, K. A.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McCallon, H. L.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monet, D. G.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Müller, D.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star-Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 8, 1-14 (2002).

Newcomb, W. W.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

O'Neill, N. T.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Parikh, N. C.

Pietras, C.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Pinker, R. T.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Price, S.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roosen, R. G.

R. G. Roosen, R. J. Angione, and C. H. Clemcke, "Worldwide variations in atmospheric transmission, 1, Baseline results from Smithsonian observations," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 54, 307-316 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, J. S.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Schneider, S.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seitzer, P.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Skrutskie, M. F.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sluttsker, I.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Smirnov, A.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Stiening, R.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tam, R.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanrè, D.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Van Dyk, S.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vande Castle, J.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Volz, F. E.

F. E. Volz, "Turbidity at Uppsala from 1909 to 1922 from Sjostroms solar radiation measurements," Report 28 (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, 1968), pp. 100-104.

von Hoyningen-Huene, W.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star-Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 8, 1-14 (2002).

Voss, K.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Wagner, F.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star-Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 8, 1-14 (2002).

Wandinger, U.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star-Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 8, 1-14 (2002).

Weinberg, M. D.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wheelock, S.

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zibordi, G.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. J. (1)

M. F. Skrutskie, R. M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M. D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J. M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D. G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J. D. Kirkpatrick, J. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E. L. Kopan, K. A. Marsh, H. L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, and S. Wheelock, "The two micron all sky survey," Astron. J. 131, 1163-1183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

R. G. Roosen, R. J. Angione, and C. H. Clemcke, "Worldwide variations in atmospheric transmission, 1, Baseline results from Smithsonian observations," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 54, 307-316 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

B. N. Holben, D. Tanrè, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Sluttsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O'Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, "An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET," J. Geophys. Res. 12, 067-097 (2001).

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star-Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 8, 1-14 (2002).

Other (7)

F. E. Volz, "Turbidity at Uppsala from 1909 to 1922 from Sjostroms solar radiation measurements," Report 28 (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, 1968), pp. 100-104.

ESA, "The Tycho Catalogue," Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg, http://vizier.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/VizieR.

"The IDL astronomy user's library," NASA, http://idlastro.gsfc.nasa.gov.

Software Bisque, "The sky astronomy software," www.bisque.com.

R. M. Green, Spherical Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, 1985), pp. 305-330.

P. Giannone, Elementi di Astronomia (Pitagora, 1996), pp. 153-156.

R. H. Hardie, "Photoelectric reductions," in Astronomical Techniques, W. A. Hiltner, ed., Stars and Stellar Systems, II (U. of Chicago Press, 1962), pp. 178-208.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Digital camera and its altazimuthal mount installed in the dome.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) a, Trace of a star on the CCD image plane. b, Representation in 3D of the trace in a after background noise removal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Example of normalized irradiances versus the secant of the zenith angle (Langley plot) in very clear sky conditions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Example of Langley plot in the presence of variable sky conditions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) a, Image resulting from the composition of six photographs; b, celestial and local coordinates of a; c, map of the optical thickness along the direction of observation (the useful stars are indicated by asterisks); d, same as c after removal of the air mass effect; e, relative irradiance of skylight background.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Series of measurements, at half-hour intervals. a, Optical thickness corrected for air mass (see Fig. 5d); b, skylight background (see Fig. 5e) for the night of 29–September 2004.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Vertical profiles of the lidar aerosol-to-molecules backscatter ratio versus time indicating the presence of aerosol layers in the boundary layer through the night and of a cloud at ∼10 km in the interval 23:30–01:30 for the same night as in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Lidar integrated backscattering cross section: a, for the entire column; b, for the PBL.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

a, Optical thickness obtained with the camera at the zenith versus time; b, same as a but with the cloud thickness removed.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Evolution of the EBR in the PBL and through the cloud.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Standard meteorological observations versus time: a, wind speed and direction; b, pressure; c, relative humidity; d, temperature.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

m λ = m λ 2.5 log 10 ( I λ / I λ ) .
ln   I i ( 0 ) = ln   I 0 ( ) τ   sec   χ i ,
τ i = [ ln   I 0 ( ) ln ( I i ( 0 ) ) ] / sec   χ i .
sec   χ i = sec   χ i 10 3 [ 1 .8 ( sec   χ i 1 ) 2.9 ( sec   χ i 1 ) 2 0.8 ( sec   χ i 1 ) 3 ] ,

Metrics