Abstract

In board-to-board optical interconnects, the misalignment between the board and the backplane connections can cause both optical loss and interchannel cross talk. A vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA) is proposed to correct optical misalignment in an optical connector between the board and the backplane. Angular or lateral misalignment can be corrected with the designed module. The correction ability is determined by the acceptance angle of the VCSOA, which was characterized to be 9.4° full angle at a 3  dB gain drop for a 30   μW optical signal at 1   GHz. The lateral misalignment correction ability is 0 .16f, where f is the focal length of the mini lens to converge the input light onto the VCSOA.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Yuceturk, S. C. Esener, H. Dawei, and T. Sze, "Comparative study of very short distance electrical and optical interconnects based on channel characteristics," in Optics in Computing, Vol. 90 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 7-9.
  3. B. Robertson, "Design of an optical interconnect for photonic backplane applications," Appl. Opt. 37, 2974-2984 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Gross, D. Song, and S. Esener, "Board-to-board optical interconnects using a parabolic mirror for high angular misalignment tolerance," in Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, 2003).
  5. G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, and H. S. Hinton, "Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676-678 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Tuantranont, V. M. Bright, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. A. Neff, and Y. C. Lee, "Optical beam steering using MEMS-controllable microlens array," in Technical Digest. Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, S.C. (2001).
  7. M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. C. Esener, "Rate equations for modeling dispersive nonlinearity in Fabry-Perot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Express 11, 2689-2696 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Sanchez, W. Pengyue, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "All-optical 2R regeneration using a nonlinear vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifier," in Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, 2003).
  9. C. Berger, U. Bapst, G. L. Bona, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, P. Dill, M. A. Kossel, T. Morf, B. Offrein, and M. L. Schmatz, "Design and implementation of an optical interconnect demonstrator with board-integrated waveguides and microlens coupling," in 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings: Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics/WGM Microcavities (IEEE Cat. No. 04TH8728) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 19-20.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. Berger, U. Bapst, G. L. Bona, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, P. Dill, M. A. Kossel, T. Morf, B. Offrein, and M. L. Schmatz, "Design and implementation of an optical interconnect demonstrator with board-integrated waveguides and microlens coupling," in 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings: Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics/WGM Microcavities (IEEE Cat. No. 04TH8728) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 19-20.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

E. Yuceturk, S. C. Esener, H. Dawei, and T. Sze, "Comparative study of very short distance electrical and optical interconnects based on channel characteristics," in Optics in Computing, Vol. 90 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 7-9.

M. Sanchez, W. Pengyue, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "All-optical 2R regeneration using a nonlinear vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifier," in Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, 2003).

M. Gross, D. Song, and S. Esener, "Board-to-board optical interconnects using a parabolic mirror for high angular misalignment tolerance," in Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, 2003).

M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. C. Esener, "Rate equations for modeling dispersive nonlinearity in Fabry-Perot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Express 11, 2689-2696 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Tuantranont, V. M. Bright, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. A. Neff, and Y. C. Lee, "Optical beam steering using MEMS-controllable microlens array," in Technical Digest. Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, S.C. (2001).

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, and H. S. Hinton, "Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676-678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bapst, U.

C. Berger, U. Bapst, G. L. Bona, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, P. Dill, M. A. Kossel, T. Morf, B. Offrein, and M. L. Schmatz, "Design and implementation of an optical interconnect demonstrator with board-integrated waveguides and microlens coupling," in 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings: Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics/WGM Microcavities (IEEE Cat. No. 04TH8728) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 19-20.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, C.

C. Berger, U. Bapst, G. L. Bona, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, P. Dill, M. A. Kossel, T. Morf, B. Offrein, and M. L. Schmatz, "Design and implementation of an optical interconnect demonstrator with board-integrated waveguides and microlens coupling," in 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings: Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics/WGM Microcavities (IEEE Cat. No. 04TH8728) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 19-20.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boisset, G. C.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, and H. S. Hinton, "Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676-678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bona, G. L.

C. Berger, U. Bapst, G. L. Bona, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, P. Dill, M. A. Kossel, T. Morf, B. Offrein, and M. L. Schmatz, "Design and implementation of an optical interconnect demonstrator with board-integrated waveguides and microlens coupling," in 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings: Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics/WGM Microcavities (IEEE Cat. No. 04TH8728) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 19-20.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bright, V. M.

A. Tuantranont, V. M. Bright, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. A. Neff, and Y. C. Lee, "Optical beam steering using MEMS-controllable microlens array," in Technical Digest. Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, S.C. (2001).

Dangel, R.

C. Berger, U. Bapst, G. L. Bona, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, P. Dill, M. A. Kossel, T. Morf, B. Offrein, and M. L. Schmatz, "Design and implementation of an optical interconnect demonstrator with board-integrated waveguides and microlens coupling," in 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings: Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics/WGM Microcavities (IEEE Cat. No. 04TH8728) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 19-20.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawei, H.

E. Yuceturk, S. C. Esener, H. Dawei, and T. Sze, "Comparative study of very short distance electrical and optical interconnects based on channel characteristics," in Optics in Computing, Vol. 90 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 7-9.

Dellmann, L.

C. Berger, U. Bapst, G. L. Bona, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, P. Dill, M. A. Kossel, T. Morf, B. Offrein, and M. L. Schmatz, "Design and implementation of an optical interconnect demonstrator with board-integrated waveguides and microlens coupling," in 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings: Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics/WGM Microcavities (IEEE Cat. No. 04TH8728) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 19-20.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dill, P.

C. Berger, U. Bapst, G. L. Bona, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, P. Dill, M. A. Kossel, T. Morf, B. Offrein, and M. L. Schmatz, "Design and implementation of an optical interconnect demonstrator with board-integrated waveguides and microlens coupling," in 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings: Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics/WGM Microcavities (IEEE Cat. No. 04TH8728) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 19-20.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esener, S.

M. Sanchez, W. Pengyue, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "All-optical 2R regeneration using a nonlinear vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifier," in Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, 2003).

M. Gross, D. Song, and S. Esener, "Board-to-board optical interconnects using a parabolic mirror for high angular misalignment tolerance," in Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, 2003).

Esener, S. C.

M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. C. Esener, "Rate equations for modeling dispersive nonlinearity in Fabry-Perot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Express 11, 2689-2696 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yuceturk, S. C. Esener, H. Dawei, and T. Sze, "Comparative study of very short distance electrical and optical interconnects based on channel characteristics," in Optics in Computing, Vol. 90 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 7-9.

Gross, M.

M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. C. Esener, "Rate equations for modeling dispersive nonlinearity in Fabry-Perot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Express 11, 2689-2696 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gross, D. Song, and S. Esener, "Board-to-board optical interconnects using a parabolic mirror for high angular misalignment tolerance," in Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, 2003).

M. Sanchez, W. Pengyue, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "All-optical 2R regeneration using a nonlinear vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifier," in Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, 2003).

Hinton, H. S.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, and H. S. Hinton, "Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676-678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kossel, M. A.

C. Berger, U. Bapst, G. L. Bona, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, P. Dill, M. A. Kossel, T. Morf, B. Offrein, and M. L. Schmatz, "Design and implementation of an optical interconnect demonstrator with board-integrated waveguides and microlens coupling," in 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings: Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics/WGM Microcavities (IEEE Cat. No. 04TH8728) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 19-20.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. C.

A. Tuantranont, V. M. Bright, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. A. Neff, and Y. C. Lee, "Optical beam steering using MEMS-controllable microlens array," in Technical Digest. Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, S.C. (2001).

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morf, T.

C. Berger, U. Bapst, G. L. Bona, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, P. Dill, M. A. Kossel, T. Morf, B. Offrein, and M. L. Schmatz, "Design and implementation of an optical interconnect demonstrator with board-integrated waveguides and microlens coupling," in 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings: Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics/WGM Microcavities (IEEE Cat. No. 04TH8728) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 19-20.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neff, J. A.

A. Tuantranont, V. M. Bright, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. A. Neff, and Y. C. Lee, "Optical beam steering using MEMS-controllable microlens array," in Technical Digest. Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, S.C. (2001).

Offrein, B.

C. Berger, U. Bapst, G. L. Bona, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, P. Dill, M. A. Kossel, T. Morf, B. Offrein, and M. L. Schmatz, "Design and implementation of an optical interconnect demonstrator with board-integrated waveguides and microlens coupling," in 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings: Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics/WGM Microcavities (IEEE Cat. No. 04TH8728) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 19-20.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pengyue, W.

M. Sanchez, W. Pengyue, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "All-optical 2R regeneration using a nonlinear vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifier," in Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, 2003).

Robertson, B.

B. Robertson, "Design of an optical interconnect for photonic backplane applications," Appl. Opt. 37, 2974-2984 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, and H. S. Hinton, "Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676-678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, M.

M. Sanchez, W. Pengyue, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "All-optical 2R regeneration using a nonlinear vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifier," in Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, 2003).

Sanchez, M. D.

Schmatz, M. L.

C. Berger, U. Bapst, G. L. Bona, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, P. Dill, M. A. Kossel, T. Morf, B. Offrein, and M. L. Schmatz, "Design and implementation of an optical interconnect demonstrator with board-integrated waveguides and microlens coupling," in 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings: Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics/WGM Microcavities (IEEE Cat. No. 04TH8728) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 19-20.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, D.

M. Gross, D. Song, and S. Esener, "Board-to-board optical interconnects using a parabolic mirror for high angular misalignment tolerance," in Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, 2003).

Sze, T.

E. Yuceturk, S. C. Esener, H. Dawei, and T. Sze, "Comparative study of very short distance electrical and optical interconnects based on channel characteristics," in Optics in Computing, Vol. 90 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 7-9.

Tuantranont, A.

A. Tuantranont, V. M. Bright, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. A. Neff, and Y. C. Lee, "Optical beam steering using MEMS-controllable microlens array," in Technical Digest. Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, S.C. (2001).

Wen, P.

Yuceturk, E.

E. Yuceturk, S. C. Esener, H. Dawei, and T. Sze, "Comparative study of very short distance electrical and optical interconnects based on channel characteristics," in Optics in Computing, Vol. 90 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 7-9.

Zhang, J.

A. Tuantranont, V. M. Bright, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. A. Neff, and Y. C. Lee, "Optical beam steering using MEMS-controllable microlens array," in Technical Digest. Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, S.C. (2001).

Zhang, W.

A. Tuantranont, V. M. Bright, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. A. Neff, and Y. C. Lee, "Optical beam steering using MEMS-controllable microlens array," in Technical Digest. Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, S.C. (2001).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, and H. S. Hinton, "Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676-678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

E. Yuceturk, S. C. Esener, H. Dawei, and T. Sze, "Comparative study of very short distance electrical and optical interconnects based on channel characteristics," in Optics in Computing, Vol. 90 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 7-9.

M. Sanchez, W. Pengyue, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "All-optical 2R regeneration using a nonlinear vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifier," in Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, 2003).

C. Berger, U. Bapst, G. L. Bona, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, P. Dill, M. A. Kossel, T. Morf, B. Offrein, and M. L. Schmatz, "Design and implementation of an optical interconnect demonstrator with board-integrated waveguides and microlens coupling," in 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings: Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics/WGM Microcavities (IEEE Cat. No. 04TH8728) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 19-20.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tuantranont, V. M. Bright, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. A. Neff, and Y. C. Lee, "Optical beam steering using MEMS-controllable microlens array," in Technical Digest. Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, S.C. (2001).

M. Gross, D. Song, and S. Esener, "Board-to-board optical interconnects using a parabolic mirror for high angular misalignment tolerance," in Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, 2003).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Two typical structures to Interconnect light between a board and the backplane. Structure (a) uses collimated beam propagation, structure (b) uses focused beam propagation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Two configurations to correct misalignment using VCSOA (a) when the input beam has angular misalignment the lenslet focuses the beam onto the VCSOA, and the output beam from the VCSOA has constant direction; (b) when the input beam is shifted laterally, the lenslet collimates the beam, another minilens in front of the VCSOA focuses the beam onto the VCSOA, and lateral misalignment is corrected.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup to characterize the acceptance angle of a VCSOA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Experimental result for the acceptance angle of a VCSOA and the angle change of the output beam: input is small dc signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Experimental setup to measure the angular correction ability for VCSOA at ac signal of 30 μW at 1 GHz.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Photograph of the experimental setup to measure the ac performance of VCSOA.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) The signal block diagram to measure VCOSA angular correction ability.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Waveform of the input and output of the VCSOA for angular correction. (a) Input waveform, (b) output waveform.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Angular misalignment correction using VCSOA: ac input signal 30   μW at 1   GHz . The lower images show the output from the VCSOA for different input beam angles.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Bandwidth measurement of VCSOA using optical component analyzer. On the upper left is the measured transfer function for H 1 (VCSEL) and H 2 (VCSEL + VCSOA); on the upper right is the transfer function derived for VCSOA, at the bottom is the block diagram for the experimental setup.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Bandwidth of a VCSEL with the same structure as the VCSOA used.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) The ac gain of VCSOA at different input frequencies. (a) The ac gain versus frequency, (b) tuning condition to get a constant ac optical input to the VCSOA.

Equations (3)

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Δ θ = Δ x f ,
H VCSOA = H 2 ( f ) H 1 ( f ) , i n d B s c a l e .
G a c = ( P out - Max P out - Min ) ( P in - Max P in - Min ) ,

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