Abstract

We demonstrate that a short hollow dielectric tube can act as a dielectric waveguide and transform the multimode, highly diverging terahertz quantum cascade laser beam into the lowest order dielectric waveguide hybrid mode, EH11, which then couples efficiently to the free-space Gaussian mode, TEM00. This simple approach should enable terahertz quantum cascade lasers to be employed in applications where a spatially coherent beam is required.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006

J. C. Dickinson, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, C. S. Joseph, Z. G. Root, R. H. Giles, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz imaging of subjects with concealed weapons," in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications IV, D. L. Woolard, R. J. Hwu, M. J. Rosker, and J. O. Jensen, eds., Proc. SPIE 6212, 62120Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, "Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Antenna model for wire lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bründermann, M. Havenith, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, J. Kunsch, L. Mechold, and M. Abraham, "Turn-key compact high temperature terahertz quantum cascade lasers: imaging and room temperature detection," Opt. Express 14, 1829-1841 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890-5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2001

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, W. E. Nixon, and S. Carter, "Fully polarimetric W-band ISAR imagery of scale-model tactical targets using a 1.56 THz compact range," in Algorithms for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery VIII, E. G. Zelnio, ed., Proc. SPIE 4382, 229-240 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1996

B. N. Ellison, B. J. Maddison, C. M. Mann, D. N. Matheson, M. L. Oldfield, S. Marazita, T. W. Crowe, P. Maaskant, and W. M. Kelly, "First results for a 2.5 THz Schottky diode waveguide mixer," presented at the 7th International Symposium Space THz Technology, Charlottesville, Virginia, 12-14 March 1996.

1989

E. N. Grossman, "The coupling of submillimeter corner-cube antennas to Gaussian beams," Infrared Phys. 29, 875-885 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1982

H. P. Röser, M. Yamanaka, R. Wattenbach, and G. V. Schultz, "Investigations of optically pumped submillimeter wave laser modes," Intl. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 3, 839-868 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978

H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, and N. R. Ericson, "Far-IR heterodyne radiometric measurements with quasioptical Schottky diode mixers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151-154 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

H. Kräutle, E. Sauter, and G. V. Schultz, "Antenna characteristics of whisker diodes used as submillimeter receivers," Infrared Phys. 17, 477-483 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

J. J. Degnan, "The waveguide laser: a review," Appl. Phys. 11, 1-33 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973

1972

R. L. Abrams, "Coupling losses in hollow waveguide laser resonators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 838-843 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1966

1964

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).

1961

E. Snitzer, "Cylindrical dielectric waveguide modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 491 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1941

J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill, 1941), Chap. 5.

Abraham, M.

Abrams, R. L.

R. L. Abrams, "Coupling losses in hollow waveguide laser resonators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 838-843 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Antenna model for wire lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ajili, L.

Alton, J.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674-1676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Barbieri, S.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674-1676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barcan, A.

Baryshev, A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baselmans, J. J. A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

Beere, H. E.

Bründermann, E.

Capasso, F.

Carter, S.

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, W. E. Nixon, and S. Carter, "Fully polarimetric W-band ISAR imagery of scale-model tactical targets using a 1.56 THz compact range," in Algorithms for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery VIII, E. G. Zelnio, ed., Proc. SPIE 4382, 229-240 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

Clifton, B. J.

H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, and N. R. Ericson, "Far-IR heterodyne radiometric measurements with quasioptical Schottky diode mixers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151-154 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Crowe, T. W.

B. N. Ellison, B. J. Maddison, C. M. Mann, D. N. Matheson, M. L. Oldfield, S. Marazita, T. W. Crowe, P. Maaskant, and W. M. Kelly, "First results for a 2.5 THz Schottky diode waveguide mixer," presented at the 7th International Symposium Space THz Technology, Charlottesville, Virginia, 12-14 March 1996.

Curl, R. F.

Darno, J.

Davies, A. G.

Debbage, P.

Degnan, J. J.

Dengler, R.

Dickinson, J. C.

J. C. Dickinson, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, C. S. Joseph, Z. G. Root, R. H. Giles, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz imaging of subjects with concealed weapons," in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications IV, D. L. Woolard, R. J. Hwu, M. J. Rosker, and J. O. Jensen, eds., Proc. SPIE 6212, 62120Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, W. E. Nixon, and S. Carter, "Fully polarimetric W-band ISAR imagery of scale-model tactical targets using a 1.56 THz compact range," in Algorithms for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery VIII, E. G. Zelnio, ed., Proc. SPIE 4382, 229-240 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ellison, B. N.

B. N. Ellison, B. J. Maddison, C. M. Mann, D. N. Matheson, M. L. Oldfield, S. Marazita, T. W. Crowe, P. Maaskant, and W. M. Kelly, "First results for a 2.5 THz Schottky diode waveguide mixer," presented at the 7th International Symposium Space THz Technology, Charlottesville, Virginia, 12-14 March 1996.

Ericson, N. R.

H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, and N. R. Ericson, "Far-IR heterodyne radiometric measurements with quasioptical Schottky diode mixers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151-154 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Fasching, G.

Fetterman, H. R.

H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, and N. R. Ericson, "Far-IR heterodyne radiometric measurements with quasioptical Schottky diode mixers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151-154 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, W. D.

H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, and N. R. Ericson, "Far-IR heterodyne radiometric measurements with quasioptical Schottky diode mixers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151-154 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, "Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).

Fowler, J.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674-1676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. R.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Antenna model for wire lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gatesman, A. J.

J. C. Dickinson, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, C. S. Joseph, Z. G. Root, R. H. Giles, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz imaging of subjects with concealed weapons," in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications IV, D. L. Woolard, R. J. Hwu, M. J. Rosker, and J. O. Jensen, eds., Proc. SPIE 6212, 62120Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giles, R. H.

J. C. Dickinson, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, C. S. Joseph, Z. G. Root, R. H. Giles, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz imaging of subjects with concealed weapons," in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications IV, D. L. Woolard, R. J. Hwu, M. J. Rosker, and J. O. Jensen, eds., Proc. SPIE 6212, 62120Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, M.

Gmachl, C.

Goyette, T. M.

J. C. Dickinson, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, C. S. Joseph, Z. G. Root, R. H. Giles, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz imaging of subjects with concealed weapons," in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications IV, D. L. Woolard, R. J. Hwu, M. J. Rosker, and J. O. Jensen, eds., Proc. SPIE 6212, 62120Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, W. E. Nixon, and S. Carter, "Fully polarimetric W-band ISAR imagery of scale-model tactical targets using a 1.56 THz compact range," in Algorithms for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery VIII, E. G. Zelnio, ed., Proc. SPIE 4382, 229-240 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, E. N.

E. N. Grossman, "The coupling of submillimeter corner-cube antennas to Gaussian beams," Infrared Phys. 29, 875-885 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hajenius, M.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harris, G.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, "Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).

Harris, J. S.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, "Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).

Hatami, F.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, "Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).

Havenith, M.

Hovenier, J. N.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Antenna model for wire lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoyler, N.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, "Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).

Hu, Q.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Antenna model for wire lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hübers, H.-W.

Hutchinson, A. L.

Joseph, C. S.

J. C. Dickinson, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, C. S. Joseph, Z. G. Root, R. H. Giles, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz imaging of subjects with concealed weapons," in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications IV, D. L. Woolard, R. J. Hwu, M. J. Rosker, and J. O. Jensen, eds., Proc. SPIE 6212, 62120Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kasalynas, I.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Antenna model for wire lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, W. M.

B. N. Ellison, B. J. Maddison, C. M. Mann, D. N. Matheson, M. L. Oldfield, S. Marazita, T. W. Crowe, P. Maaskant, and W. M. Kelly, "First results for a 2.5 THz Schottky diode waveguide mixer," presented at the 7th International Symposium Space THz Technology, Charlottesville, Virginia, 12-14 March 1996.

Kim, S. M.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, "Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).

King, D.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, "Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).

Klaassen, T. O.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Antenna model for wire lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klapwijk, T. M.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Antenna model for wire lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

Kosterev, A. A.

Kräutle, H.

H. Kräutle, E. Sauter, and G. V. Schultz, "Antenna characteristics of whisker diodes used as submillimeter receivers," Infrared Phys. 17, 477-483 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kremser, C.

Kröll, J.

Kumar, S.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Antenna model for wire lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kunsch, J.

Kurian, A. W.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, "Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).

Linfield, E. H.

Maaskant, P.

B. N. Ellison, B. J. Maddison, C. M. Mann, D. N. Matheson, M. L. Oldfield, S. Marazita, T. W. Crowe, P. Maaskant, and W. M. Kelly, "First results for a 2.5 THz Schottky diode waveguide mixer," presented at the 7th International Symposium Space THz Technology, Charlottesville, Virginia, 12-14 March 1996.

Maddison, B. J.

B. N. Ellison, B. J. Maddison, C. M. Mann, D. N. Matheson, M. L. Oldfield, S. Marazita, T. W. Crowe, P. Maaskant, and W. M. Kelly, "First results for a 2.5 THz Schottky diode waveguide mixer," presented at the 7th International Symposium Space THz Technology, Charlottesville, Virginia, 12-14 March 1996.

Mahler, L.

Mann, C. M.

B. N. Ellison, B. J. Maddison, C. M. Mann, D. N. Matheson, M. L. Oldfield, S. Marazita, T. W. Crowe, P. Maaskant, and W. M. Kelly, "First results for a 2.5 THz Schottky diode waveguide mixer," presented at the 7th International Symposium Space THz Technology, Charlottesville, Virginia, 12-14 March 1996.

Marazita, S.

B. N. Ellison, B. J. Maddison, C. M. Mann, D. N. Matheson, M. L. Oldfield, S. Marazita, T. W. Crowe, P. Maaskant, and W. M. Kelly, "First results for a 2.5 THz Schottky diode waveguide mixer," presented at the 7th International Symposium Space THz Technology, Charlottesville, Virginia, 12-14 March 1996.

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).

Matheson, D. N.

B. N. Ellison, B. J. Maddison, C. M. Mann, D. N. Matheson, M. L. Oldfield, S. Marazita, T. W. Crowe, P. Maaskant, and W. M. Kelly, "First results for a 2.5 THz Schottky diode waveguide mixer," presented at the 7th International Symposium Space THz Technology, Charlottesville, Virginia, 12-14 March 1996.

Mechold, L.

Mittleman, D. M.

Nixon, W. E.

J. C. Dickinson, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, C. S. Joseph, Z. G. Root, R. H. Giles, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz imaging of subjects with concealed weapons," in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications IV, D. L. Woolard, R. J. Hwu, M. J. Rosker, and J. O. Jensen, eds., Proc. SPIE 6212, 62120Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, W. E. Nixon, and S. Carter, "Fully polarimetric W-band ISAR imagery of scale-model tactical targets using a 1.56 THz compact range," in Algorithms for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery VIII, E. G. Zelnio, ed., Proc. SPIE 4382, 229-240 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oldfield, M. L.

B. N. Ellison, B. J. Maddison, C. M. Mann, D. N. Matheson, M. L. Oldfield, S. Marazita, T. W. Crowe, P. Maaskant, and W. M. Kelly, "First results for a 2.5 THz Schottky diode waveguide mixer," presented at the 7th International Symposium Space THz Technology, Charlottesville, Virginia, 12-14 March 1996.

Orlova, E. E.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Antenna model for wire lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, C. D.

H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, and N. R. Ericson, "Far-IR heterodyne radiometric measurements with quasioptical Schottky diode mixers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151-154 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, S. G.

Reno, J. L.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Antenna model for wire lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

Root, Z. G.

J. C. Dickinson, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, C. S. Joseph, Z. G. Root, R. H. Giles, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz imaging of subjects with concealed weapons," in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications IV, D. L. Woolard, R. J. Hwu, M. J. Rosker, and J. O. Jensen, eds., Proc. SPIE 6212, 62120Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Röser, H. P.

H. P. Röser, M. Yamanaka, R. Wattenbach, and G. V. Schultz, "Investigations of optically pumped submillimeter wave laser modes," Intl. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 3, 839-868 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sauter, E.

H. Kräutle, E. Sauter, and G. V. Schultz, "Antenna characteristics of whisker diodes used as submillimeter receivers," Infrared Phys. 17, 477-483 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).

Schultz, G. V.

H. P. Röser, M. Yamanaka, R. Wattenbach, and G. V. Schultz, "Investigations of optically pumped submillimeter wave laser modes," Intl. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 3, 839-868 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Kräutle, E. Sauter, and G. V. Schultz, "Antenna characteristics of whisker diodes used as submillimeter receivers," Infrared Phys. 17, 477-483 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A. D.

Siegel, P. H.

Siegman, A. E.

Sivco, D. L.

Snitzer, E.

E. Snitzer, "Cylindrical dielectric waveguide modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 491 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Stratton, J. A.

J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill, 1941), Chap. 5.

Tamosiunas, V.

Tannenwald, P. E.

H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, and N. R. Ericson, "Far-IR heterodyne radiometric measurements with quasioptical Schottky diode mixers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151-154 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Tredicucci, A.

Unterrainer, K.

Waldman, J.

J. C. Dickinson, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, C. S. Joseph, Z. G. Root, R. H. Giles, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz imaging of subjects with concealed weapons," in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications IV, D. L. Woolard, R. J. Hwu, M. J. Rosker, and J. O. Jensen, eds., Proc. SPIE 6212, 62120Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, W. E. Nixon, and S. Carter, "Fully polarimetric W-band ISAR imagery of scale-model tactical targets using a 1.56 THz compact range," in Algorithms for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery VIII, E. G. Zelnio, ed., Proc. SPIE 4382, 229-240 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wattenbach, R.

H. P. Röser, M. Yamanaka, R. Wattenbach, and G. V. Schultz, "Investigations of optically pumped submillimeter wave laser modes," Intl. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 3, 839-868 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Antenna model for wire lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, M.

H. P. Röser, M. Yamanaka, R. Wattenbach, and G. V. Schultz, "Investigations of optically pumped submillimeter wave laser modes," Intl. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 3, 839-868 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. Q.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys.

J. J. Degnan, "The waveguide laser: a review," Appl. Phys. 11, 1-33 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674-1676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, and N. R. Ericson, "Far-IR heterodyne radiometric measurements with quasioptical Schottky diode mixers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151-154 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, "Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).

Electron. Lett.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. L. Abrams, "Coupling losses in hollow waveguide laser resonators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 838-843 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys.

H. Kräutle, E. Sauter, and G. V. Schultz, "Antenna characteristics of whisker diodes used as submillimeter receivers," Infrared Phys. 17, 477-483 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Grossman, "The coupling of submillimeter corner-cube antennas to Gaussian beams," Infrared Phys. 29, 875-885 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Intl. J. Infrared Millim. Waves

H. P. Röser, M. Yamanaka, R. Wattenbach, and G. V. Schultz, "Investigations of optically pumped submillimeter wave laser modes," Intl. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 3, 839-868 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

E. Snitzer, "Cylindrical dielectric waveguide modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 491 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Antenna model for wire lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

J. C. Dickinson, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, C. S. Joseph, Z. G. Root, R. H. Giles, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz imaging of subjects with concealed weapons," in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications IV, D. L. Woolard, R. J. Hwu, M. J. Rosker, and J. O. Jensen, eds., Proc. SPIE 6212, 62120Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, W. E. Nixon, and S. Carter, "Fully polarimetric W-band ISAR imagery of scale-model tactical targets using a 1.56 THz compact range," in Algorithms for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery VIII, E. G. Zelnio, ed., Proc. SPIE 4382, 229-240 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. N. Ellison, B. J. Maddison, C. M. Mann, D. N. Matheson, M. L. Oldfield, S. Marazita, T. W. Crowe, P. Maaskant, and W. M. Kelly, "First results for a 2.5 THz Schottky diode waveguide mixer," presented at the 7th International Symposium Space THz Technology, Charlottesville, Virginia, 12-14 March 1996.

J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill, 1941), Chap. 5.

IRlabs, Inc., Tucson, Arizona, USA.

Thomas Keating Ltd, Billinghurst, West Sussex, England.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Emission spectrum of the QCL with a spectrometer resolution of 4.5   GHz .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Mode profiles of the TQCL beam in (a) the horizontal and (b) the vertical directions at distances of 35, 51, 76, 102, and 127   mm from the TQCL.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Photo of the tube mounted inside the temperature controlled LHe dewar.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Mode profiles of the TQCL beam in (a) the horizontal and (b) the vertical directions at distances of 33, 58, 109, and 160   mm from the exit of the tube after transformation by the dielectric waveguide.

Equations (91)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

EH 11
TEM 00
138   mW
( 30   kHz )
E H 11
TEM 00
TEM 00
100 μ m
100 μ m
100 μ m
140 μ m
1   mm
2   mm
1.7   mm
25   mm
30   Hz
1   ms
0.15 cm 1
2.960   THz
( λ = 101.4 μ m )
3.6   mW
0.3   mm
5   mm
12   mm
100 / 1
λ ( a > λ )
λ / a
TM 0 m
TE 0 m
EH n m
( a λ )
λ / a
EH 1 m
dB / m
α n m = 8.686 ( u n m 2 π ) 2 λ 2 a 3  Re ( ν n ) ( d B / m ) ,
u n m
m th
J n 1 ( u n m ) = 0
ν n = { 1 N 2 1 for  TE 0 m   modes   ( n = 0 ) N 2 N 2 1 for   TM 0 m   modes   ( n = 0 ) N 2 + 1 2 N 2 1 for   EH n m   modes   ( n 0 ) ,
N = ε 1 / ε 0
λ 2 / a 3
( u n m ) 2
E H 11
1.8   mm
43   mm
1   dB
EH 11
7.5   mm
25   mm
4.4   dB
0.9   mm
43   mm
λ = 101.4 μ m
α E H 11 = 1.12 d B ,
α T E 01 = 0.97 d B ,
α T M 01 = 4.7 d B ,
ν real = 2.2
ν imag = 0.05
T E 01
EH 11
EH 11
E H 11
TM 01
TM 01
EH 11
EH 11
TEM 00
ω 0 / a = 0.6435
ω 0
TEM 00
EH 11
TEM 00
0.6   mm
12   mm
0.9   mm
ω 0 h / a = 0.83 ,
ω 0 ν / a = 0.66 .
TEM 00
10   dB
( z R )
z R = π ω 0 2 / λ = 14 m m ,
θ = 2 λ / π ω 0 = 0.095 r a d = 5.4 ° .
4.4   dB
1.12   dB
EH 11
3.3   dB
E H 11
TEM 00
4.5   GHz
127   mm
160   mm

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