Abstract

A compact and integrated terahertz (THz) wave photonic crystal switch is proposed in silicon. The switch operates based on a dynamic shift of the photonic bandgap by using an external applied electric field. The plane wave expansion method and the finite-difference time-domain method are used to verify and analyze the characteristics of the proposed THz wave switch. Numerical simulation results show that the THz wave switch has a high extinction ratio of 29.9  dB.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. V. Altukhov, E. G. Chirkova, V. P. Sinis, M. S. Kagan, Y. P. Gousev, S. G. Thomas, K. L. Wang, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and I. N. Yassievich, "Towards Si1−xGex quantum-well resonant-state terahertz laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3909-3911 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910-928 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, "Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express. 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X. C. Zhang, "T-ray computed tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1312-1314 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, "Terahertz phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 1156-1158 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, R.-P. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz time-domain spectroscopy studies of the optical constants of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB," Appl. Opt. 42, 2372-2376 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  17. Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627-3629 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Qiu, "Effective index method for heterostructure-slab-waveguide-based two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1163-1165 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis," Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, "Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express. 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. Dragoman and M. Dragoman, "Terahertz fields and applications," Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 1-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

2002 (5)

M. Qiu, "Effective index method for heterostructure-slab-waveguide-based two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1163-1165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X. C. Zhang, "T-ray computed tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1312-1314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910-928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Sharkawy, S. Shi, D. W. Prather, and R. A. Soref, "Electro-optical switching using coupled photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 10, 1048-1059 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (4)

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis," Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Altukhov, E. G. Chirkova, V. P. Sinis, M. S. Kagan, Y. P. Gousev, S. G. Thomas, K. L. Wang, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and I. N. Yassievich, "Towards Si1−xGex quantum-well resonant-state terahertz laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3909-3911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ha, Y. C. Yang, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C. S. Kee, H. Lim, and J. C. Lee, "Tuanble omnidirectional refraction bands and defect modes of a one-dimensional photonic band gap structure with liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 15-17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627-3629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, "Terahertz phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 1156-1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

I. C. Khoon and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993).

Abbot, D.

Alexander, P.

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, "Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express. 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alton, J.

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, "Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express. 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altukhov, I. V.

I. V. Altukhov, E. G. Chirkova, V. P. Sinis, M. S. Kagan, Y. P. Gousev, S. G. Thomas, K. L. Wang, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and I. N. Yassievich, "Towards Si1−xGex quantum-well resonant-state terahertz laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3909-3911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbieri, S.

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, "Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express. 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beere, H. E.

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, "Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express. 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, C.-Y.

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chirkova, E. G.

I. V. Altukhov, E. G. Chirkova, V. P. Sinis, M. S. Kagan, Y. P. Gousev, S. G. Thomas, K. L. Wang, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and I. N. Yassievich, "Towards Si1−xGex quantum-well resonant-state terahertz laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3909-3911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dragoman, D.

D. Dragoman and M. Dragoman, "Terahertz fields and applications," Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 1-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dragoman, M.

D. Dragoman and M. Dragoman, "Terahertz fields and applications," Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 1-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fekete, L.

Ferguson, B.

Gladden, L.

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, "Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express. 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossard, A. C.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gousev, Y. P.

I. V. Altukhov, E. G. Chirkova, V. P. Sinis, M. S. Kagan, Y. P. Gousev, S. G. Thomas, K. L. Wang, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and I. N. Yassievich, "Towards Si1−xGex quantum-well resonant-state terahertz laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3909-3911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D.

Ha, Y. K.

Y. K. Ha, Y. C. Yang, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C. S. Kee, H. Lim, and J. C. Lee, "Tuanble omnidirectional refraction bands and defect modes of a one-dimensional photonic band gap structure with liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 15-17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johns, M. L.

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, "Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express. 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

Jukam, N.

N. Jukam and M. S. Sherwin, "Two-dimensional terahertz photonic crystals fabricated by deep reactive ion etching in Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 21-23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kadlec, F.

Kagan, M. S.

I. V. Altukhov, E. G. Chirkova, V. P. Sinis, M. S. Kagan, Y. P. Gousev, S. G. Thomas, K. L. Wang, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and I. N. Yassievich, "Towards Si1−xGex quantum-well resonant-state terahertz laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3909-3911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kee, C. S.

Y. K. Ha, Y. C. Yang, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C. S. Kee, H. Lim, and J. C. Lee, "Tuanble omnidirectional refraction bands and defect modes of a one-dimensional photonic band gap structure with liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 15-17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kersting, R.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, "Terahertz phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 1156-1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khoon, I. C.

I. C. Khoon and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993).

Kim, J. E.

Y. K. Ha, Y. C. Yang, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C. S. Kee, H. Lim, and J. C. Lee, "Tuanble omnidirectional refraction bands and defect modes of a one-dimensional photonic band gap structure with liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 15-17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, R.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzel, P.

Lee, J. C.

Y. K. Ha, Y. C. Yang, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C. S. Kee, H. Lim, and J. C. Lee, "Tuanble omnidirectional refraction bands and defect modes of a one-dimensional photonic band gap structure with liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 15-17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, H.

Y. K. Ha, Y. C. Yang, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C. S. Kee, H. Lim, and J. C. Lee, "Tuanble omnidirectional refraction bands and defect modes of a one-dimensional photonic band gap structure with liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 15-17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, "Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express. 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemec, H.

Nguyen, K. L.

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, "Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express. 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odnoblyudov, M. A.

I. V. Altukhov, E. G. Chirkova, V. P. Sinis, M. S. Kagan, Y. P. Gousev, S. G. Thomas, K. L. Wang, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and I. N. Yassievich, "Towards Si1−xGex quantum-well resonant-state terahertz laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3909-3911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627-3629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, C. L.

Pan, C.-L.

Pan, R. P.

Pan, R.-P.

Park, H. Y.

Y. K. Ha, Y. C. Yang, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C. S. Kee, H. Lim, and J. C. Lee, "Tuanble omnidirectional refraction bands and defect modes of a one-dimensional photonic band gap structure with liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 15-17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, M.

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, "Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express. 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prather, D. W.

Qiu, M.

M. Qiu, "Effective index method for heterostructure-slab-waveguide-based two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1163-1165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, "Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express. 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharkawy, A.

Sherwin, M. S.

N. Jukam and M. S. Sherwin, "Two-dimensional terahertz photonic crystals fabricated by deep reactive ion etching in Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 21-23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

Shimoda, Y.

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627-3629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910-928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sinis, V. P.

I. V. Altukhov, E. G. Chirkova, V. P. Sinis, M. S. Kagan, Y. P. Gousev, S. G. Thomas, K. L. Wang, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and I. N. Yassievich, "Towards Si1−xGex quantum-well resonant-state terahertz laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3909-3911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

Strasser, G.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, "Terahertz phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 1156-1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, S. G.

I. V. Altukhov, E. G. Chirkova, V. P. Sinis, M. S. Kagan, Y. P. Gousev, S. G. Thomas, K. L. Wang, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and I. N. Yassievich, "Towards Si1−xGex quantum-well resonant-state terahertz laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3909-3911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, T. R.

Tsai, T.-R.

Unterrainer, K.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, "Terahertz phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 1156-1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. L.

I. V. Altukhov, E. G. Chirkova, V. P. Sinis, M. S. Kagan, Y. P. Gousev, S. G. Thomas, K. L. Wang, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and I. N. Yassievich, "Towards Si1−xGex quantum-well resonant-state terahertz laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3909-3911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Worrall, C. H.

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, "Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express. 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

I. C. Khoon and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993).

Yang, Y. C.

Y. K. Ha, Y. C. Yang, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C. S. Kee, H. Lim, and J. C. Lee, "Tuanble omnidirectional refraction bands and defect modes of a one-dimensional photonic band gap structure with liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 15-17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yassievich, I. N.

I. V. Altukhov, E. G. Chirkova, V. P. Sinis, M. S. Kagan, Y. P. Gousev, S. G. Thomas, K. L. Wang, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and I. N. Yassievich, "Towards Si1−xGex quantum-well resonant-state terahertz laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3909-3911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627-3629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

Zhang, X.-C.

Zide, J. M. O.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627-3629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Qiu, "Effective index method for heterostructure-slab-waveguide-based two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1163-1165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ha, Y. C. Yang, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C. S. Kee, H. Lim, and J. C. Lee, "Tuanble omnidirectional refraction bands and defect modes of a one-dimensional photonic band gap structure with liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 15-17 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam and M. S. Sherwin, "Two-dimensional terahertz photonic crystals fabricated by deep reactive ion etching in Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 21-23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Altukhov, E. G. Chirkova, V. P. Sinis, M. S. Kagan, Y. P. Gousev, S. G. Thomas, K. L. Wang, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and I. N. Yassievich, "Towards Si1−xGex quantum-well resonant-state terahertz laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3909-3911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, "Terahertz phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 1156-1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910-928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Express. (1)

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, "Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express. 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Dragoman and M. Dragoman, "Terahertz fields and applications," Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 1-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

I. C. Khoon and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Top-view of the novel THz wave switch.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TM band structure for the THz wave switch (a) n L C = 1.53 , (b) n L C = 1.75 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) PWE method calculated dispersion curves of the THz wave switch structure, which was formed by a missing row of air holes along the Γ–K direction. Insets are the supercells for calculations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Steady-state magnetic field distribution of the THz wave switch (a) ON state n L C = 1.53 , (b) OFF state n L C = 1.75 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relation between normalized transmission and frequency.

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