Abstract

We present what we believe to be a novel, simple, and compact axicon-based resonator Nd:YAG laser in which a nanosecond pulsed Bessel–Gauss beam is generated directly for the first time. Using the theory of the Bessel–Gauss beam, theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are consistent with the experimental results.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Durnin, "Exact solution for nondiffracting beams. I. The scalar theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 651-654 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Gori and G. Guattari, "Bessel-Gauss beams," Opt. Commun. 64, 491-495 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. H. McLeod, "The axicon: a new type of optical element," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 592-597 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Scott and N. McArdle, "Efficient generation of a nearly diffraction-free beam using an axicon," Opt. Eng. 31, 2640-2643 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Durnin, J. J. Micely, Jr., and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Turunen, A. Vasara, and A. T. Friberg, "Holographic generation of diffraction-free beams," Appl. Opt. 27, 3959-3962 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  8. W. X. Cong, N. X. Chen, and B. Y. Gu, "Generation of nondiffracting beams by diffractive phase elements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2362-2364 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. I. Hernandez-Aranda, S. Chavez-Cerda, and J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, "Theory of the unstable Bessel resonator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1909-1917 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Uehara and H. Kikuchi, "Generation of nearly diffraction-free laser beams," Appl. Phys. B 48, 125-129 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Onae, T. Kurosawa, Y. Miki, and E. Sakuma, "Nearly diffraction-free CO2 laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4529-4532 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. N. Khilo, E. G. Katranji, and A. A. Ryzhevich, "Axicon-based Bessel resonator: analytical description and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1986-1992 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "Bessel-Gauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 355-340 (2004).
  14. J. Amako, K. Yoshimura, D. Sawaki, and T. Shimoda, "Laser-based microprocesses using diffraction-free beams generated by a diffractive axicon," Proc. SPIE 5713, 497-507 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, A. Stabinis, V. Jarutis, V. Pasiskevicius, S. Wang, J. Tellefsen, and F. Laurell, "Noncollinear second-harmonic generation in periodically poled KTiOPO4 excited by the Bessel beam," Opt. Lett. 24, 1053-1055 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. Velchev and W. Ubachs, "Higher-order stimulated Brillouin scattering with nondiffracting beams," Opt. Lett. 26, 530-532 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. A. Ambardekar and Y. Q. Li, "Optical levitation and manipulation of stuck particles with pulsed optical tweezers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1797-1799 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Mcgloin and K. Dholakia, "Bessel beams: diffraction in a new light," Contemp. Phys. 46, 15-28 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. de Angelis, L. Cacciapuoti, G. Pierattini, and G. M. Tino, "Axially symmetric hollow beams using refractive conical lenses," Opt. Laser Eng. 39, 283-291 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Muys and E. Vandamme, "Direct generation of Bessel beams," Appl. Opt. 41, 6375-6379 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Rogel-Salazar, G. H. C. New, and S. Chavez-Cerda, "Bessel-Gauss beam optical resonator," Opt. Commun. 190, 117-122 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).
  23. J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, R. Rodriguez-Masegosa, and S. Chavez-Cerda, "Bessel-Gauss resonator with a spherical output mirror: geometrical- and wave-optics analysis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2113-2122 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (4)

R. I. Hernandez-Aranda, S. Chavez-Cerda, and J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, "Theory of the unstable Bessel resonator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1909-1917 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Ambardekar and Y. Q. Li, "Optical levitation and manipulation of stuck particles with pulsed optical tweezers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1797-1799 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mcgloin and K. Dholakia, "Bessel beams: diffraction in a new light," Contemp. Phys. 46, 15-28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Amako, K. Yoshimura, D. Sawaki, and T. Shimoda, "Laser-based microprocesses using diffraction-free beams generated by a diffractive axicon," Proc. SPIE 5713, 497-507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "Bessel-Gauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 355-340 (2004).

2003 (2)

M. de Angelis, L. Cacciapuoti, G. Pierattini, and G. M. Tino, "Axially symmetric hollow beams using refractive conical lenses," Opt. Laser Eng. 39, 283-291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, R. Rodriguez-Masegosa, and S. Chavez-Cerda, "Bessel-Gauss resonator with a spherical output mirror: geometrical- and wave-optics analysis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2113-2122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1992 (2)

A. Onae, T. Kurosawa, Y. Miki, and E. Sakuma, "Nearly diffraction-free CO2 laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4529-4532 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Scott and N. McArdle, "Efficient generation of a nearly diffraction-free beam using an axicon," Opt. Eng. 31, 2640-2643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1988 (1)

1987 (3)

J. Durnin, J. J. Micely, Jr., and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Durnin, "Exact solution for nondiffracting beams. I. The scalar theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 651-654 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. Gori and G. Guattari, "Bessel-Gauss beams," Opt. Commun. 64, 491-495 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

1954 (1)

Amako, J.

J. Amako, K. Yoshimura, D. Sawaki, and T. Shimoda, "Laser-based microprocesses using diffraction-free beams generated by a diffractive axicon," Proc. SPIE 5713, 497-507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ambardekar, A. A.

Buchter, S. C.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "Bessel-Gauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 355-340 (2004).

Cacciapuoti, L.

M. de Angelis, L. Cacciapuoti, G. Pierattini, and G. M. Tino, "Axially symmetric hollow beams using refractive conical lenses," Opt. Laser Eng. 39, 283-291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chavez-Cerda, S.

Chen, N. X.

Cong, W. X.

de Angelis, M.

M. de Angelis, L. Cacciapuoti, G. Pierattini, and G. M. Tino, "Axially symmetric hollow beams using refractive conical lenses," Opt. Laser Eng. 39, 283-291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

D. Mcgloin and K. Dholakia, "Bessel beams: diffraction in a new light," Contemp. Phys. 46, 15-28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Micely, Jr., and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Durnin, "Exact solution for nondiffracting beams. I. The scalar theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 651-654 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. J. Micely, Jr., and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elfstom, H.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "Bessel-Gauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 355-340 (2004).

Friberg, A. T.

Gori, F.

F. Gori and G. Guattari, "Bessel-Gauss beams," Opt. Commun. 64, 491-495 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B. Y.

Guattari, G.

F. Gori and G. Guattari, "Bessel-Gauss beams," Opt. Commun. 64, 491-495 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gutierrez-Vega, J. C.

Hakola, A.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "Bessel-Gauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 355-340 (2004).

Hernandez-Aranda, R. I.

Jarutis, V.

Kajava, T.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "Bessel-Gauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 355-340 (2004).

Katranji, E. G.

Khilo, A. N.

Kikuchi, H.

K. Uehara and H. Kikuchi, "Generation of nearly diffraction-free laser beams," Appl. Phys. B 48, 125-129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kurosawa, T.

A. Onae, T. Kurosawa, Y. Miki, and E. Sakuma, "Nearly diffraction-free CO2 laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4529-4532 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

Li, Y. Q.

McArdle, N.

G. Scott and N. McArdle, "Efficient generation of a nearly diffraction-free beam using an axicon," Opt. Eng. 31, 2640-2643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mcgloin, D.

D. Mcgloin and K. Dholakia, "Bessel beams: diffraction in a new light," Contemp. Phys. 46, 15-28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, J. H.

Micely, J. J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Micely, Jr., and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miki, Y.

A. Onae, T. Kurosawa, Y. Miki, and E. Sakuma, "Nearly diffraction-free CO2 laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4529-4532 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Muys, P.

New, G. H. C.

J. Rogel-Salazar, G. H. C. New, and S. Chavez-Cerda, "Bessel-Gauss beam optical resonator," Opt. Commun. 190, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Onae, A.

A. Onae, T. Kurosawa, Y. Miki, and E. Sakuma, "Nearly diffraction-free CO2 laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4529-4532 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Paakkonen, P.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "Bessel-Gauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 355-340 (2004).

Pasiskevicius, V.

Pierattini, G.

M. de Angelis, L. Cacciapuoti, G. Pierattini, and G. M. Tino, "Axially symmetric hollow beams using refractive conical lenses," Opt. Laser Eng. 39, 283-291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, A.

Rodriguez-Masegosa, R.

Rogel-Salazar, J.

J. Rogel-Salazar, G. H. C. New, and S. Chavez-Cerda, "Bessel-Gauss beam optical resonator," Opt. Commun. 190, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ryzhevich, A. A.

Sakuma, E.

A. Onae, T. Kurosawa, Y. Miki, and E. Sakuma, "Nearly diffraction-free CO2 laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4529-4532 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sawaki, D.

J. Amako, K. Yoshimura, D. Sawaki, and T. Shimoda, "Laser-based microprocesses using diffraction-free beams generated by a diffractive axicon," Proc. SPIE 5713, 497-507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scott, G.

G. Scott and N. McArdle, "Efficient generation of a nearly diffraction-free beam using an axicon," Opt. Eng. 31, 2640-2643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shimoda, T.

J. Amako, K. Yoshimura, D. Sawaki, and T. Shimoda, "Laser-based microprocesses using diffraction-free beams generated by a diffractive axicon," Proc. SPIE 5713, 497-507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

Simonen, J.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "Bessel-Gauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 355-340 (2004).

Smilgevicius, V.

Stabinis, A.

Tellefsen, J.

Tino, G. M.

M. de Angelis, L. Cacciapuoti, G. Pierattini, and G. M. Tino, "Axially symmetric hollow beams using refractive conical lenses," Opt. Laser Eng. 39, 283-291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

Ubachs, W.

Uehara, K.

K. Uehara and H. Kikuchi, "Generation of nearly diffraction-free laser beams," Appl. Phys. B 48, 125-129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vandamme, E.

Vasara, A.

Velchev, I.

Wang, S.

Yoshimura, K.

J. Amako, K. Yoshimura, D. Sawaki, and T. Shimoda, "Laser-based microprocesses using diffraction-free beams generated by a diffractive axicon," Proc. SPIE 5713, 497-507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. Uehara and H. Kikuchi, "Generation of nearly diffraction-free laser beams," Appl. Phys. B 48, 125-129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Contemp. Phys. (1)

D. Mcgloin and K. Dholakia, "Bessel beams: diffraction in a new light," Contemp. Phys. 46, 15-28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Onae, T. Kurosawa, Y. Miki, and E. Sakuma, "Nearly diffraction-free CO2 laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4529-4532 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

Opt. Commun. (3)

J. Rogel-Salazar, G. H. C. New, and S. Chavez-Cerda, "Bessel-Gauss beam optical resonator," Opt. Commun. 190, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "Bessel-Gauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 355-340 (2004).

F. Gori and G. Guattari, "Bessel-Gauss beams," Opt. Commun. 64, 491-495 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. Scott and N. McArdle, "Efficient generation of a nearly diffraction-free beam using an axicon," Opt. Eng. 31, 2640-2643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

M. de Angelis, L. Cacciapuoti, G. Pierattini, and G. M. Tino, "Axially symmetric hollow beams using refractive conical lenses," Opt. Laser Eng. 39, 283-291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Micely, Jr., and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Amako, K. Yoshimura, D. Sawaki, and T. Shimoda, "Laser-based microprocesses using diffraction-free beams generated by a diffractive axicon," Proc. SPIE 5713, 497-507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transformation of a plane wave into a conical wave by transmission through an air axicon.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Q-switched axicon-based Nd:YAG laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Oscilloscope photograph of a single Q-switched Bessel–Gauss pulse ( 100   ns / division ) .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CCD image and output radial intensity distribution captured by analyzer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Radial intensity distribution at z = 6   cm both in experiment and simulation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Radial intensity profile of the pulsed Bessel–Gauss beam in the far field ( z = 40   cm ) both in experiment and simulation.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L = a 2 tan θ a 2 θ = a 2 ( n 1 ) γ ,
θ = arcsin ( n sin γ ) γ ( n 1 ) γ .
E ( r , z ) = i k 2 exp [ i ( k z + k r 2 / 2 z ) ] 0 E ( ρ , 0 ) × exp [ i k ρ 2 / 2 z ] J 0 ( k ρ r z ) ρ d ρ .
E ( ρ , 0 ) = E 0 J 0 ( α ρ ) exp [ ( ρ / ω 0 ) 2 ] ,
U ( ρ , z ) = C ω 0 ω ( z ) exp { i [ ( k α 2 2 k ) z Φ ( z ) ] } J 0 ( α ρ 1 + i z / z R ) × exp { [ 1 ω ( z ) i k R ( z ) ] ( ρ 2 + θ 2 z 2 ) } ,
r 0 = 2.405 α = 2.405 k sin θ = 3.383 λ ( n 1 ) γ .

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