Abstract

We present ground reference measurements of the directional scattering properties of conifer needles. As the development of multiangular remote sensing instruments sets a growing need for reliable ground reference measurement techniques and databases, there is an increasing demand for data on the spectral properties of conifer needles in forest reflectance modeling and the inversion of physically based models. These data are scarce due to technical and conceptual problems related to measuring thin needles, and the needle directional spectral properties are currently nonexistent even for single wavelengths. We present results from measuring the monochromatic backscattering of Scots pine needles in a controlled laboratory environment; we feel these results of the hot spot signatures of individual conifer needles are unique. The experiment was conducted at 1064nm with an instrument constructed specifically for backscatter measurement, based on techniques commonly used for laser backscattering measurements and CCD photometry. Strong backscattering peaks near 0° were observed for the needles, the amplitude of the brightening being up to approximately 40%.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  16. M. Mesarch, E. Walter-Shea, G. Asner, E. Middleton, and S. Chan, "A revised measurement methodology for conifer needles spectral optical properties: evaluating the influence of gaps between elements," Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 177-192 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  35. Y. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, and P. Helfenstein, "The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths," Icarus 159, 396-416 (2002).
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2007 (1)

D. Combes, L. Bousquet, S. Jacquemoud, H. Sinoquet, C. Varlet-Grancher, and I. Moya, "A new spectrogoniophotometer to measure leaf spectral and directional optical properties," Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 107-117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Z. Malenovský, J. Albrechtová, Z. Lhotáková, R. Zurita-Milla, J. Clevers, M. Schaepman and P. Cudlín, "Applicability of the PROSPECT model for Norway spruce needles," Int. J. Remote Sens. 27, 5315-5340 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Malenovský, "Quantitative remote sensing of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst): Spectroscopy from needles to crowns to canopies," Ph.D. dissertation (Wageningen University, 2006), ISBN: 90-8504-503-7.

2005 (7)

S. Kaasalainen, E. Ahokas, J. Hyyppä, and J. Suomalainen, "Study of surface brightness from backscattered laser intensity: calibration of laser data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 2, 255-259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, and T. Mielonen, "Laboratory calibration of backscattered intensity for laser scanning land targets," in ISPRS WG III/3, III/4, V/3 Workshop "Laser Scanning 2005," Enschede, the Netherlands, 12-14 September 2005, pp. 13-17.

N. Coops and C. Stone, "A comparison of field-based and modeled reflectance spectra from damaged Pinus radiata foliage," Aust. J. Botany 53, 417-429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Jacquemoud and L. Bousquet, "Modélisation des propriétés optiques des feuilles: état de l'art, perspectives et applications en télédétection," in Le 12ème Congrès de l'Association Québécoise de Télédétection, Ville de Saguenay (Canada), 10-12 May 2005.

J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, and P. Voipio, "BRDF measurement of understorey vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen, and moss," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 343-354 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Bousquet, S. Lachérade, S. Jacquemoud, and I. Moya, "Leaf BRDF measurements and model for specular and diffuse components differentiation," Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 201-211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, J. Näränen, F. Stenman, and M. Kaasalainen, "Small-angle goniometry for backscattering measurements in the broadband spectrum," Appl. Opt. 44, 1485-1490 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

A. Richardson and G. Berlyn, "Changes in foliar spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence of four temperate species following branch cutting," Tree Physiology 22, 499-506 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, B. W. Hapke, and A. S. Hale, "Low phase angle laboratory studies of the opposition effect: search for wavelength dependence," Planet. Space Sci. 50, 849-856 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, and P. Helfenstein, "The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths," Icarus 159, 396-416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

B. Pinty, N. Gobron, J.-L. Widlowski, S. A. W. Gerstl, M. M. Verstraete, M. Antunes, C. Bacour, F. Gascon, J.-P. Gastellu, N. Goel, S. Jacquemoud, P. North, W. Qin, and R. Thompson, "Radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11937-11956, doi: (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Pinty, "Radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: results from the second phase," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D06210, doi: (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Jacquemoud and S. Ustin, "Leaf optical properties: a state of the art," in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, Aussois (France), 8-12 Jan. 2001, pp. 223-232.

1999 (1)

M. Mesarch, E. Walter-Shea, G. Asner, E. Middleton, and S. Chan, "A revised measurement methodology for conifer needles spectral optical properties: evaluating the influence of gaps between elements," Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 177-192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

M. Middleton, E. Walter-Shea, M. Mesarch, S. Chan, and R. Rusin, "Optical properties of canopy elements in black spruce, jack pine and aspen stands Saskatchewan, Canada," Can. J. Remote Sens. 24, 108-119 (1998).

T. Dawson, P. Curran, and S. Plummer, "LIBERTY--modeling the effects of leaf biochemical concentration on reflectance spectra," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 50-60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Ganapol, L. Johnson, P. Hammer, C. Hlavka, and D. Peterson, "LEAFMOD: a new within-leaf radiative transfer model," Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 182-193 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Nilson and J. Ross, "Modeling radiative transfer through forest canopies: implications for canopy photosynthesis and remote sensing," in The Use of Remote Sensing in the Modeling of Forest Productivity, H.Gholz, K.Nakane, and H.Shimoda, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 1997), pp. 23-60.
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Fourty, F. Baret, S. Jacquemoud, G. Schmuck, and J. Verdebout, "Leaf optical properties with explicit description of its biochemical composition: direct and inverse problems," Remote Sens. Environ. 56, 104-117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

B. Hosgood, S. Jacquemoud, G. Andreoli, J. Verdebout, G. Pedrini, and G. Schmuck, Leaf Optical Properties Experiment 93 (LOPEX 93), Report EUR-16095-EN (European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute For Remote Sensing Application, Ispra, Italy, 1995).

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen, and A. Lagendijk, "Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple scattering events of light in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193-4196 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

T. Brakke, "Specular and diffuse components of radiation scattered by leaves," Agric. Forest Meteorol. 71, 283-295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Williams, "A comparison of spectral reflectance properties at the needle, branch, and canopy level for selected conifer species," Remote Sens. Environ. 35, 79-93 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. Jacquemoud and F. Baret, "PROSPECT: a model of leaf optical properties spectra," Remote Sens. Environ. 34, 75-91 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (4)

T. Brakke, J. Smith, and J. Harnden, "Bidirectional scattering of light from tree leaves," Remote Sens. Environ. 29, 175-183 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Walter-Shea and J. Norman, "Leaf optical properties," in Photon-Vegetation Interactions--Applications in Optical Remote Sensing and Plant Ecology, R.Myneni and J.Ross, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1989), pp. 229-251.

G. Carter, K. Paliwal, U. Pathre, T. Green, R. Mitchell, and D. Gjerstad, "Effect of competition and leaf age on visible and infrared reflectance in pine foliage," Plant , Cell Environ. 12, 309-315 (1989).

C. Daughtry, L. Biehl, and K. Ranson, "A new technique to measure the spectral properties of conifer needles," Remote Sens. Environ. 27, 81-91 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. Sheehy, "Some optical properties of leaves of eight temperate forage grasses," Ann. Bot. 39, 377-386 (1975).

1971 (1)

1965 (1)

Ahokas, E.

S. Kaasalainen, E. Ahokas, J. Hyyppä, and J. Suomalainen, "Study of surface brightness from backscattered laser intensity: calibration of laser data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 2, 255-259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Albrechtová, J.

Z. Malenovský, J. Albrechtová, Z. Lhotáková, R. Zurita-Milla, J. Clevers, M. Schaepman and P. Cudlín, "Applicability of the PROSPECT model for Norway spruce needles," Int. J. Remote Sens. 27, 5315-5340 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andreoli, G.

B. Hosgood, S. Jacquemoud, G. Andreoli, J. Verdebout, G. Pedrini, and G. Schmuck, Leaf Optical Properties Experiment 93 (LOPEX 93), Report EUR-16095-EN (European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute For Remote Sensing Application, Ispra, Italy, 1995).

Antunes, M.

B. Pinty, N. Gobron, J.-L. Widlowski, S. A. W. Gerstl, M. M. Verstraete, M. Antunes, C. Bacour, F. Gascon, J.-P. Gastellu, N. Goel, S. Jacquemoud, P. North, W. Qin, and R. Thompson, "Radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11937-11956, doi: (2001).
[CrossRef]

Asner, G.

M. Mesarch, E. Walter-Shea, G. Asner, E. Middleton, and S. Chan, "A revised measurement methodology for conifer needles spectral optical properties: evaluating the influence of gaps between elements," Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 177-192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bacour, C.

B. Pinty, N. Gobron, J.-L. Widlowski, S. A. W. Gerstl, M. M. Verstraete, M. Antunes, C. Bacour, F. Gascon, J.-P. Gastellu, N. Goel, S. Jacquemoud, P. North, W. Qin, and R. Thompson, "Radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11937-11956, doi: (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baret, F.

T. Fourty, F. Baret, S. Jacquemoud, G. Schmuck, and J. Verdebout, "Leaf optical properties with explicit description of its biochemical composition: direct and inverse problems," Remote Sens. Environ. 56, 104-117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Jacquemoud and F. Baret, "PROSPECT: a model of leaf optical properties spectra," Remote Sens. Environ. 34, 75-91 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Berlyn, G.

A. Richardson and G. Berlyn, "Changes in foliar spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence of four temperate species following branch cutting," Tree Physiology 22, 499-506 (2002).
[PubMed]

Biehl, L.

C. Daughtry, L. Biehl, and K. Ranson, "A new technique to measure the spectral properties of conifer needles," Remote Sens. Environ. 27, 81-91 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bousquet, L.

D. Combes, L. Bousquet, S. Jacquemoud, H. Sinoquet, C. Varlet-Grancher, and I. Moya, "A new spectrogoniophotometer to measure leaf spectral and directional optical properties," Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 107-117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bousquet, S. Lachérade, S. Jacquemoud, and I. Moya, "Leaf BRDF measurements and model for specular and diffuse components differentiation," Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 201-211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Jacquemoud and L. Bousquet, "Modélisation des propriétés optiques des feuilles: état de l'art, perspectives et applications en télédétection," in Le 12ème Congrès de l'Association Québécoise de Télédétection, Ville de Saguenay (Canada), 10-12 May 2005.

Brakke, T.

T. Brakke, "Specular and diffuse components of radiation scattered by leaves," Agric. Forest Meteorol. 71, 283-295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Brakke, J. Smith, and J. Harnden, "Bidirectional scattering of light from tree leaves," Remote Sens. Environ. 29, 175-183 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Breece, H.

Bruniquel-Pinel, V.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G.

G. Carter, K. Paliwal, U. Pathre, T. Green, R. Mitchell, and D. Gjerstad, "Effect of competition and leaf age on visible and infrared reflectance in pine foliage," Plant , Cell Environ. 12, 309-315 (1989).

Chan, S.

M. Mesarch, E. Walter-Shea, G. Asner, E. Middleton, and S. Chan, "A revised measurement methodology for conifer needles spectral optical properties: evaluating the influence of gaps between elements," Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 177-192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Middleton, E. Walter-Shea, M. Mesarch, S. Chan, and R. Rusin, "Optical properties of canopy elements in black spruce, jack pine and aspen stands Saskatchewan, Canada," Can. J. Remote Sens. 24, 108-119 (1998).

Clevers, J.

Z. Malenovský, J. Albrechtová, Z. Lhotáková, R. Zurita-Milla, J. Clevers, M. Schaepman and P. Cudlín, "Applicability of the PROSPECT model for Norway spruce needles," Int. J. Remote Sens. 27, 5315-5340 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Combes, D.

D. Combes, L. Bousquet, S. Jacquemoud, H. Sinoquet, C. Varlet-Grancher, and I. Moya, "A new spectrogoniophotometer to measure leaf spectral and directional optical properties," Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 107-117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coops, N.

N. Coops and C. Stone, "A comparison of field-based and modeled reflectance spectra from damaged Pinus radiata foliage," Aust. J. Botany 53, 417-429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cudlín, P.

Z. Malenovský, J. Albrechtová, Z. Lhotáková, R. Zurita-Milla, J. Clevers, M. Schaepman and P. Cudlín, "Applicability of the PROSPECT model for Norway spruce needles," Int. J. Remote Sens. 27, 5315-5340 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Curran, P.

T. Dawson, P. Curran, and S. Plummer, "LIBERTY--modeling the effects of leaf biochemical concentration on reflectance spectra," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 50-60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Daughtry, C.

C. Daughtry, L. Biehl, and K. Ranson, "A new technique to measure the spectral properties of conifer needles," Remote Sens. Environ. 27, 81-91 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, T.

T. Dawson, P. Curran, and S. Plummer, "LIBERTY--modeling the effects of leaf biochemical concentration on reflectance spectra," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 50-60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Disney, M.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fernandes, R.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fourty, T.

T. Fourty, F. Baret, S. Jacquemoud, G. Schmuck, and J. Verdebout, "Leaf optical properties with explicit description of its biochemical composition: direct and inverse problems," Remote Sens. Environ. 56, 104-117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ganapol, B.

B. Ganapol, L. Johnson, P. Hammer, C. Hlavka, and D. Peterson, "LEAFMOD: a new within-leaf radiative transfer model," Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 182-193 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gascon, F.

B. Pinty, N. Gobron, J.-L. Widlowski, S. A. W. Gerstl, M. M. Verstraete, M. Antunes, C. Bacour, F. Gascon, J.-P. Gastellu, N. Goel, S. Jacquemoud, P. North, W. Qin, and R. Thompson, "Radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11937-11956, doi: (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gastellu, J.-P.

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B. Pinty, N. Gobron, J.-L. Widlowski, S. A. W. Gerstl, M. M. Verstraete, M. Antunes, C. Bacour, F. Gascon, J.-P. Gastellu, N. Goel, S. Jacquemoud, P. North, W. Qin, and R. Thompson, "Radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11937-11956, doi: (2001).
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B. Pinty, N. Gobron, J.-L. Widlowski, S. A. W. Gerstl, M. M. Verstraete, M. Antunes, C. Bacour, F. Gascon, J.-P. Gastellu, N. Goel, S. Jacquemoud, P. North, W. Qin, and R. Thompson, "Radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11937-11956, doi: (2001).
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R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, B. W. Hapke, and A. S. Hale, "Low phase angle laboratory studies of the opposition effect: search for wavelength dependence," Planet. Space Sci. 50, 849-856 (2002).
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D. Combes, L. Bousquet, S. Jacquemoud, H. Sinoquet, C. Varlet-Grancher, and I. Moya, "A new spectrogoniophotometer to measure leaf spectral and directional optical properties," Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 107-117 (2007).
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B. Pinty, N. Gobron, J.-L. Widlowski, S. A. W. Gerstl, M. M. Verstraete, M. Antunes, C. Bacour, F. Gascon, J.-P. Gastellu, N. Goel, S. Jacquemoud, P. North, W. Qin, and R. Thompson, "Radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11937-11956, doi: (2001).
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B. Ganapol, L. Johnson, P. Hammer, C. Hlavka, and D. Peterson, "LEAFMOD: a new within-leaf radiative transfer model," Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 182-193 (1998).
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Kaasalainen, S.

S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, J. Näränen, F. Stenman, and M. Kaasalainen, "Small-angle goniometry for backscattering measurements in the broadband spectrum," Appl. Opt. 44, 1485-1490 (2005).
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J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
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L. Bousquet, S. Lachérade, S. Jacquemoud, and I. Moya, "Leaf BRDF measurements and model for specular and diffuse components differentiation," Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 201-211 (2005).
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J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
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J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
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J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
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M. Mesarch, E. Walter-Shea, G. Asner, E. Middleton, and S. Chan, "A revised measurement methodology for conifer needles spectral optical properties: evaluating the influence of gaps between elements," Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 177-192 (1999).
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Mielonen, T.

S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, and T. Mielonen, "Laboratory calibration of backscattered intensity for laser scanning land targets," in ISPRS WG III/3, III/4, V/3 Workshop "Laser Scanning 2005," Enschede, the Netherlands, 12-14 September 2005, pp. 13-17.

Miloslavskaya, O.

Y. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, and P. Helfenstein, "The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths," Icarus 159, 396-416 (2002).
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G. Carter, K. Paliwal, U. Pathre, T. Green, R. Mitchell, and D. Gjerstad, "Effect of competition and leaf age on visible and infrared reflectance in pine foliage," Plant , Cell Environ. 12, 309-315 (1989).

Mõttus, M.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
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D. Combes, L. Bousquet, S. Jacquemoud, H. Sinoquet, C. Varlet-Grancher, and I. Moya, "A new spectrogoniophotometer to measure leaf spectral and directional optical properties," Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 107-117 (2007).
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L. Bousquet, S. Lachérade, S. Jacquemoud, and I. Moya, "Leaf BRDF measurements and model for specular and diffuse components differentiation," Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 201-211 (2005).
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Y. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, and P. Helfenstein, "The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths," Icarus 159, 396-416 (2002).
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J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, and P. Voipio, "BRDF measurement of understorey vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen, and moss," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 343-354 (2005).
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S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, J. Näränen, F. Stenman, and M. Kaasalainen, "Small-angle goniometry for backscattering measurements in the broadband spectrum," Appl. Opt. 44, 1485-1490 (2005).
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Y. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, and P. Helfenstein, "The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths," Icarus 159, 396-416 (2002).
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Nelson, R. M.

R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, B. W. Hapke, and A. S. Hale, "Low phase angle laboratory studies of the opposition effect: search for wavelength dependence," Planet. Space Sci. 50, 849-856 (2002).
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B. Pinty, N. Gobron, J.-L. Widlowski, S. A. W. Gerstl, M. M. Verstraete, M. Antunes, C. Bacour, F. Gascon, J.-P. Gastellu, N. Goel, S. Jacquemoud, P. North, W. Qin, and R. Thompson, "Radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11937-11956, doi: (2001).
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North, P. R. J.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
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Y. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, and P. Helfenstein, "The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths," Icarus 159, 396-416 (2002).
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G. Carter, K. Paliwal, U. Pathre, T. Green, R. Mitchell, and D. Gjerstad, "Effect of competition and leaf age on visible and infrared reflectance in pine foliage," Plant , Cell Environ. 12, 309-315 (1989).

Pathre, U.

G. Carter, K. Paliwal, U. Pathre, T. Green, R. Mitchell, and D. Gjerstad, "Effect of competition and leaf age on visible and infrared reflectance in pine foliage," Plant , Cell Environ. 12, 309-315 (1989).

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J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, and P. Voipio, "BRDF measurement of understorey vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen, and moss," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 343-354 (2005).
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S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, J. Näränen, F. Stenman, and M. Kaasalainen, "Small-angle goniometry for backscattering measurements in the broadband spectrum," Appl. Opt. 44, 1485-1490 (2005).
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B. Ganapol, L. Johnson, P. Hammer, C. Hlavka, and D. Peterson, "LEAFMOD: a new within-leaf radiative transfer model," Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 182-193 (1998).
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Piironen, J.

Y. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, and P. Helfenstein, "The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths," Icarus 159, 396-416 (2002).
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B. Pinty, N. Gobron, J.-L. Widlowski, S. A. W. Gerstl, M. M. Verstraete, M. Antunes, C. Bacour, F. Gascon, J.-P. Gastellu, N. Goel, S. Jacquemoud, P. North, W. Qin, and R. Thompson, "Radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11937-11956, doi: (2001).
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J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
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J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, and P. Voipio, "BRDF measurement of understorey vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen, and moss," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 343-354 (2005).
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J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rochdi, N.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbush, V.

Y. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, and P. Helfenstein, "The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths," Icarus 159, 396-416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ross, J.

T. Nilson and J. Ross, "Modeling radiative transfer through forest canopies: implications for canopy photosynthesis and remote sensing," in The Use of Remote Sensing in the Modeling of Forest Productivity, H.Gholz, K.Nakane, and H.Shimoda, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 1997), pp. 23-60.
[CrossRef]

Roy, D. N. Ghosh

Ruiloba, R.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rusin, R.

M. Middleton, E. Walter-Shea, M. Mesarch, S. Chan, and R. Rusin, "Optical properties of canopy elements in black spruce, jack pine and aspen stands Saskatchewan, Canada," Can. J. Remote Sens. 24, 108-119 (1998).

Schaepman, M.

Z. Malenovský, J. Albrechtová, Z. Lhotáková, R. Zurita-Milla, J. Clevers, M. Schaepman and P. Cudlín, "Applicability of the PROSPECT model for Norway spruce needles," Int. J. Remote Sens. 27, 5315-5340 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schleter, J.

Schmuck, G.

T. Fourty, F. Baret, S. Jacquemoud, G. Schmuck, and J. Verdebout, "Leaf optical properties with explicit description of its biochemical composition: direct and inverse problems," Remote Sens. Environ. 56, 104-117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Hosgood, S. Jacquemoud, G. Andreoli, J. Verdebout, G. Pedrini, and G. Schmuck, Leaf Optical Properties Experiment 93 (LOPEX 93), Report EUR-16095-EN (European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute For Remote Sensing Application, Ispra, Italy, 1995).

Sheehy, J.

J. Sheehy, "Some optical properties of leaves of eight temperate forage grasses," Ann. Bot. 39, 377-386 (1975).

Shkuratov, Y.

Y. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, and P. Helfenstein, "The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths," Icarus 159, 396-416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sinoquet, H.

D. Combes, L. Bousquet, S. Jacquemoud, H. Sinoquet, C. Varlet-Grancher, and I. Moya, "A new spectrogoniophotometer to measure leaf spectral and directional optical properties," Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 107-117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J.

T. Brakke, J. Smith, and J. Harnden, "Bidirectional scattering of light from tree leaves," Remote Sens. Environ. 29, 175-183 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smolander, H.

J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, and P. Voipio, "BRDF measurement of understorey vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen, and moss," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 343-354 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smolander, S.

J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, and P. Voipio, "BRDF measurement of understorey vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen, and moss," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 343-354 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smythe, W.

Y. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, and P. Helfenstein, "The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths," Icarus 159, 396-416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smythe, W. D.

R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, B. W. Hapke, and A. S. Hale, "Low phase angle laboratory studies of the opposition effect: search for wavelength dependence," Planet. Space Sci. 50, 849-856 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soler, C.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stenberg, P.

J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, and P. Voipio, "BRDF measurement of understorey vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen, and moss," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 343-354 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stenman, F.

Stone, C.

N. Coops and C. Stone, "A comparison of field-based and modeled reflectance spectra from damaged Pinus radiata foliage," Aust. J. Botany 53, 417-429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Straight, R. C.

Suomalainen, J.

S. Kaasalainen, E. Ahokas, J. Hyyppä, and J. Suomalainen, "Study of surface brightness from backscattered laser intensity: calibration of laser data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 2, 255-259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taberner, M.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R.

B. Pinty, N. Gobron, J.-L. Widlowski, S. A. W. Gerstl, M. M. Verstraete, M. Antunes, C. Bacour, F. Gascon, J.-P. Gastellu, N. Goel, S. Jacquemoud, P. North, W. Qin, and R. Thompson, "Radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11937-11956, doi: (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ustin, S.

S. Jacquemoud and S. Ustin, "Leaf optical properties: a state of the art," in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, Aussois (France), 8-12 Jan. 2001, pp. 223-232.

van Albada, M. P.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen, and A. Lagendijk, "Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple scattering events of light in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193-4196 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Tiggelen, B. A.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen, and A. Lagendijk, "Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple scattering events of light in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193-4196 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varlet-Grancher, C.

D. Combes, L. Bousquet, S. Jacquemoud, H. Sinoquet, C. Varlet-Grancher, and I. Moya, "A new spectrogoniophotometer to measure leaf spectral and directional optical properties," Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 107-117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verdebout, J.

T. Fourty, F. Baret, S. Jacquemoud, G. Schmuck, and J. Verdebout, "Leaf optical properties with explicit description of its biochemical composition: direct and inverse problems," Remote Sens. Environ. 56, 104-117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Hosgood, S. Jacquemoud, G. Andreoli, J. Verdebout, G. Pedrini, and G. Schmuck, Leaf Optical Properties Experiment 93 (LOPEX 93), Report EUR-16095-EN (European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute For Remote Sensing Application, Ispra, Italy, 1995).

Verhoef, W.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verstraete, M.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verstraete, M. M.

B. Pinty, N. Gobron, J.-L. Widlowski, S. A. W. Gerstl, M. M. Verstraete, M. Antunes, C. Bacour, F. Gascon, J.-P. Gastellu, N. Goel, S. Jacquemoud, P. North, W. Qin, and R. Thompson, "Radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11937-11956, doi: (2001).
[CrossRef]

Voipio, P.

J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, and P. Voipio, "BRDF measurement of understorey vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen, and moss," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 343-354 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walter-Shea, E.

M. Mesarch, E. Walter-Shea, G. Asner, E. Middleton, and S. Chan, "A revised measurement methodology for conifer needles spectral optical properties: evaluating the influence of gaps between elements," Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 177-192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Middleton, E. Walter-Shea, M. Mesarch, S. Chan, and R. Rusin, "Optical properties of canopy elements in black spruce, jack pine and aspen stands Saskatchewan, Canada," Can. J. Remote Sens. 24, 108-119 (1998).

E. Walter-Shea and J. Norman, "Leaf optical properties," in Photon-Vegetation Interactions--Applications in Optical Remote Sensing and Plant Ecology, R.Myneni and J.Ross, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1989), pp. 229-251.

Weidner, V.

Widlowski, J.-L.

B. Pinty, N. Gobron, J.-L. Widlowski, S. A. W. Gerstl, M. M. Verstraete, M. Antunes, C. Bacour, F. Gascon, J.-P. Gastellu, N. Goel, S. Jacquemoud, P. North, W. Qin, and R. Thompson, "Radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11937-11956, doi: (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen, and A. Lagendijk, "Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple scattering events of light in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193-4196 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D.

D. Williams, "A comparison of spectral reflectance properties at the needle, branch, and canopy level for selected conifer species," Remote Sens. Environ. 35, 79-93 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Xie, D.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, G.

Zubko, E.

Y. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, and P. Helfenstein, "The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths," Icarus 159, 396-416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zurita-Milla, R.

Z. Malenovský, J. Albrechtová, Z. Lhotáková, R. Zurita-Milla, J. Clevers, M. Schaepman and P. Cudlín, "Applicability of the PROSPECT model for Norway spruce needles," Int. J. Remote Sens. 27, 5315-5340 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Agric. Forest Meteorol. (1)

T. Brakke, "Specular and diffuse components of radiation scattered by leaves," Agric. Forest Meteorol. 71, 283-295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Bot. (1)

J. Sheehy, "Some optical properties of leaves of eight temperate forage grasses," Ann. Bot. 39, 377-386 (1975).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Aust. J. Botany (1)

N. Coops and C. Stone, "A comparison of field-based and modeled reflectance spectra from damaged Pinus radiata foliage," Aust. J. Botany 53, 417-429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Remote Sens. (1)

M. Middleton, E. Walter-Shea, M. Mesarch, S. Chan, and R. Rusin, "Optical properties of canopy elements in black spruce, jack pine and aspen stands Saskatchewan, Canada," Can. J. Remote Sens. 24, 108-119 (1998).

Icarus (1)

Y. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, and P. Helfenstein, "The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths," Icarus 159, 396-416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. (1)

S. Kaasalainen, E. Ahokas, J. Hyyppä, and J. Suomalainen, "Study of surface brightness from backscattered laser intensity: calibration of laser data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 2, 255-259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

Z. Malenovský, J. Albrechtová, Z. Lhotáková, R. Zurita-Milla, J. Clevers, M. Schaepman and P. Cudlín, "Applicability of the PROSPECT model for Norway spruce needles," Int. J. Remote Sens. 27, 5315-5340 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, "The third Radiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Pinty, N. Gobron, J.-L. Widlowski, S. A. W. Gerstl, M. M. Verstraete, M. Antunes, C. Bacour, F. Gascon, J.-P. Gastellu, N. Goel, S. Jacquemoud, P. North, W. Qin, and R. Thompson, "Radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11937-11956, doi: (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Pinty, "Radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: results from the second phase," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D06210, doi: (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen, and A. Lagendijk, "Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple scattering events of light in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193-4196 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, B. W. Hapke, and A. S. Hale, "Low phase angle laboratory studies of the opposition effect: search for wavelength dependence," Planet. Space Sci. 50, 849-856 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Plant (1)

G. Carter, K. Paliwal, U. Pathre, T. Green, R. Mitchell, and D. Gjerstad, "Effect of competition and leaf age on visible and infrared reflectance in pine foliage," Plant , Cell Environ. 12, 309-315 (1989).

Remote Sens. Environ. (11)

J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, and P. Voipio, "BRDF measurement of understorey vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen, and moss," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 343-354 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Mesarch, E. Walter-Shea, G. Asner, E. Middleton, and S. Chan, "A revised measurement methodology for conifer needles spectral optical properties: evaluating the influence of gaps between elements," Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 177-192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Daughtry, L. Biehl, and K. Ranson, "A new technique to measure the spectral properties of conifer needles," Remote Sens. Environ. 27, 81-91 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Brakke, J. Smith, and J. Harnden, "Bidirectional scattering of light from tree leaves," Remote Sens. Environ. 29, 175-183 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Williams, "A comparison of spectral reflectance properties at the needle, branch, and canopy level for selected conifer species," Remote Sens. Environ. 35, 79-93 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Bousquet, S. Lachérade, S. Jacquemoud, and I. Moya, "Leaf BRDF measurements and model for specular and diffuse components differentiation," Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 201-211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Combes, L. Bousquet, S. Jacquemoud, H. Sinoquet, C. Varlet-Grancher, and I. Moya, "A new spectrogoniophotometer to measure leaf spectral and directional optical properties," Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 107-117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Fourty, F. Baret, S. Jacquemoud, G. Schmuck, and J. Verdebout, "Leaf optical properties with explicit description of its biochemical composition: direct and inverse problems," Remote Sens. Environ. 56, 104-117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Dawson, P. Curran, and S. Plummer, "LIBERTY--modeling the effects of leaf biochemical concentration on reflectance spectra," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 50-60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Ganapol, L. Johnson, P. Hammer, C. Hlavka, and D. Peterson, "LEAFMOD: a new within-leaf radiative transfer model," Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 182-193 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Jacquemoud and F. Baret, "PROSPECT: a model of leaf optical properties spectra," Remote Sens. Environ. 34, 75-91 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tree Physiology (1)

A. Richardson and G. Berlyn, "Changes in foliar spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence of four temperate species following branch cutting," Tree Physiology 22, 499-506 (2002).
[PubMed]

Other (7)

Z. Malenovský, "Quantitative remote sensing of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst): Spectroscopy from needles to crowns to canopies," Ph.D. dissertation (Wageningen University, 2006), ISBN: 90-8504-503-7.

S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, and T. Mielonen, "Laboratory calibration of backscattered intensity for laser scanning land targets," in ISPRS WG III/3, III/4, V/3 Workshop "Laser Scanning 2005," Enschede, the Netherlands, 12-14 September 2005, pp. 13-17.

S. Jacquemoud and S. Ustin, "Leaf optical properties: a state of the art," in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, Aussois (France), 8-12 Jan. 2001, pp. 223-232.

S. Jacquemoud and L. Bousquet, "Modélisation des propriétés optiques des feuilles: état de l'art, perspectives et applications en télédétection," in Le 12ème Congrès de l'Association Québécoise de Télédétection, Ville de Saguenay (Canada), 10-12 May 2005.

B. Hosgood, S. Jacquemoud, G. Andreoli, J. Verdebout, G. Pedrini, and G. Schmuck, Leaf Optical Properties Experiment 93 (LOPEX 93), Report EUR-16095-EN (European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute For Remote Sensing Application, Ispra, Italy, 1995).

E. Walter-Shea and J. Norman, "Leaf optical properties," in Photon-Vegetation Interactions--Applications in Optical Remote Sensing and Plant Ecology, R.Myneni and J.Ross, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1989), pp. 229-251.

T. Nilson and J. Ross, "Modeling radiative transfer through forest canopies: implications for canopy photosynthesis and remote sensing," in The Use of Remote Sensing in the Modeling of Forest Productivity, H.Gholz, K.Nakane, and H.Shimoda, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 1997), pp. 23-60.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scattering geometry: ε and ι are the angles of emergence and incidence, respectively. The principal plane is defined by the light source (e.g., the Sun), target, and observer, and α is the phase angle between them. (φ and φ 0 are the corresponding azimuths for emergence and incidence.) Backscatter occurs at α = 0 ° . (See also [27].)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Definitions of measured needle characteristics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of the measurement setup. The distance from the iris aperture to the sample was ∼25.5 cm and from the sample to the CCD camera was 92.5 cm , respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized intensity of a piece of calibrated 50% reflectance test target. The test target was used to perform the approximate brightness calibration in the needle hot spot measurements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative intensity (relative to the 50% brightness target) of the abaxial side of five Scots pine needles as a function of viewing geometry.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative intensity (relative to the 50% brightness target) of the adaxial side of five Scots pine needles as a function of viewing geometry.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative intensity of a larger ( 5 cm × 5 cm ) piece of the 50% target material. This provides an approximation of how much the reduced angular resolution and the sampling of a small, needle-sized target have affected the accuracy of the measurement.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative intensity of the adaxial side of two birch leaves as a function of viewing geometry.

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