Abstract

The on-axis wavefront aberrations of a one-dimensional subwavelength-grating antireflection coating on an f/1.7 lens surface are shown to be small with noticeable contributions of defocus, astigmatism, and piston. The astigmatism is 0.02 wave, and the magnitude of the piston approaches one wave peak-to-valley. The difference in aberrations between orthogonally polarized wavefronts, or the retardance aberration, shows 0.01 wave of astigmatismlike variation and more than 0.01 wave of retardance-induced defocuslike variation. A small coupling between polarization states occurs in the form of the familiar Maltese cross, yielding a maximum of 3% coupling in the four diagonal edges of the pupil.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2005 (1)

S. Kitagawa, K. Yamamoto, and M. Okada, "Polarization separation element (sub-wavelength structure)," Proc. SPIE 5720, 269-279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

1995 (4)

1994 (2)

1990 (1)

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Kitagawa, K. Yamamoto, and M. Okada, "Polarization separation element (sub-wavelength structure)," Proc. SPIE 5720, 269-279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of three-step antireflection SWG of Santos and Bernardo.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Intensity transmittance of SWG.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Wavelength-dependent intensity transmission at normal incidence and 24° angle of incidence. MgF2 transmission also plotted for comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Intensity transmittance from 400 nm to 1000 nm. AOI is increasing in the direction of the arrow (50° max). Solid curves are s polarized; dashed curves are p polarized.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Phase of SWG.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Grating is applied to lens with the gratings lines horizontal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Planes of incidence on lens for an axial source are radial.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Exaggerated cross section of lens with SWG antireflection coating.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Polarization aberration function for a collimated on-axis beam is the spatially varying Jones matrix of the ray paths. Here, these four complex functions are shown as four magnitudes and four phases. The four phases are measurable as four interferograms.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Pupil map of retardance (waves) shows defocuslike and astigmatismlike variations.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Pupil map of retardance orientation in degrees from horizontal. The retardance is linear, and its orientation varies by less than 6°.

Equations (1)

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J ( x , y ) = [ ρ x x ( x , y ) exp [ i ϕ x x ( x , y ) ] ρ y x ( x , y ) exp [ i ϕ y x ( x , y ) ] ρ x y ( x , y ) exp [ i ϕ x y ( x , y ) ] ρ y y ( x , y ) exp [ i ϕ y y ( x , y ) ] ] .

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