Abstract

High-contrast imaging, particularly the direct detection of extrasolar planets, is a major science driver for the next generation of telescopes. This science requires the suppression of scattered starlight at extremely high levels and that telescopes be correctly designed today to meet these stringent requirements in the future. The challenge increases in systems with complicated aperture geometries such as obscured, segmented telescopes. Such systems can also require intensive modeling and simulation efforts in order to understand the trade-offs between different optical parameters. The feasibility and development of a contrast prediction tool for use in the design and systems engineering of these telescopes is described. The performance of a particular starlight suppression system on a large segmented telescope is described analytically. These analytical results and the results of a contrast predictor are then compared with the results of a full wave-optics simulation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Neuhäuser, M. Mugrauer, and A. Seifahrt, "GQ Lup, 2M1207 and AB Pic: planet companion candidates imaged directly and their relevance in orbital dynamics and mass estimation via theoretical models," presented at the International Astronomical Union Symposium on Binary Stars as Critical Tools and Tests in Contemporary Astrophysics, Prague, Czech Republic, 22-25 August 2006.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (7)

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J., K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, "The Gemini planet imager," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, B. L. Ellerbroek and D. Bonaccini Calia, eds., Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, "Extreme adaptive optics for the thirty meter telescope," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, B. L. Ellerbroek and D. Bonaccini Calia, eds., Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720N (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Yaitskova and C. Verinaud, "Adaptive optics correction of the wavefront distortions induced by segments misalignment in Extremely Large Telescope," in Ground-Based and Airborne Telescopes, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672N (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Vasisht, I. J. Crossfield, P. J. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Troy, M. Shao, J. C. Shelton, and J. K. Wallace, "Post-coronagraph wavefront sensing for the TMT planet formation imager," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, B. L. Ellerbroek and D. Bonaccini Calia, eds., Proc. SPIE 6272, 627253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Troy, I. J. Crossfield, G. Chanan, P. Dumont, J. J. Green, and B. Macintosh, "Effects of diffraction and static wavefront errors on high-contrast imaging from the thirty meter telescope," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, B. L. Ellerbroek and D. Bonaccini Calia, eds., Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722C (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Give'on, N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei, and Y. Avitzour, "On representing and correcting wavefront errors in high-contrast imaging systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1063-1073 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Ponslet, D. Blanco, M. Cho, T. Mast, J. Nelson, R. J. Ponchione, M. Sirota, V. Stephens, L. Stepp, A. Tubb, and E. C. Williams, "Development of the primary mirror segment support assemblies for the thirty meter telescope," in Optomechanical Technologies for Astronomy, E. Atad-Ettedgui, J. Antebi, and D. Lemke, eds., Proc. SPIE 6273, 627319 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Britton, "Arroyo," in Modeling and Systems Engineering for Astronomy, S. C. Craig and M. J. Cullum, eds., Proc. SPIE 5497, 290-300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Troy and G. Chanan, "Diffraction effects from giant segmented-mirror telescopes," Appl. Opt. 42, 3745-3753 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mennesson, M. Shao, B. Levine, J. Wallace, D. Liu, E. Serabyn, S. Unwin, and C. Beichman, "Optical planet discoverer: how to turn a 1.5 m telescope into a powerful exo-planetary systems imager," in High-Contrast Imaging for Exo-Planet Detection, A. Shultz and R. Lyon, eds., Proc. SPIE 4860, 32-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1995 (1)

M. Mayor and D. Queloz, "A Jupiter-mass companion to a solar-type star," Nature 378, 355-359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (1)

M. Mayor and D. Queloz, "A Jupiter-mass companion to a solar-type star," Nature 378, 355-359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (8)

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J., K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, "The Gemini planet imager," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, B. L. Ellerbroek and D. Bonaccini Calia, eds., Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, "Extreme adaptive optics for the thirty meter telescope," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, B. L. Ellerbroek and D. Bonaccini Calia, eds., Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720N (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Britton, "Arroyo," in Modeling and Systems Engineering for Astronomy, S. C. Craig and M. J. Cullum, eds., Proc. SPIE 5497, 290-300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Vasisht, I. J. Crossfield, P. J. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Troy, M. Shao, J. C. Shelton, and J. K. Wallace, "Post-coronagraph wavefront sensing for the TMT planet formation imager," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, B. L. Ellerbroek and D. Bonaccini Calia, eds., Proc. SPIE 6272, 627253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Troy, I. J. Crossfield, G. Chanan, P. Dumont, J. J. Green, and B. Macintosh, "Effects of diffraction and static wavefront errors on high-contrast imaging from the thirty meter telescope," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, B. L. Ellerbroek and D. Bonaccini Calia, eds., Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722C (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Ponslet, D. Blanco, M. Cho, T. Mast, J. Nelson, R. J. Ponchione, M. Sirota, V. Stephens, L. Stepp, A. Tubb, and E. C. Williams, "Development of the primary mirror segment support assemblies for the thirty meter telescope," in Optomechanical Technologies for Astronomy, E. Atad-Ettedgui, J. Antebi, and D. Lemke, eds., Proc. SPIE 6273, 627319 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Mennesson, M. Shao, B. Levine, J. Wallace, D. Liu, E. Serabyn, S. Unwin, and C. Beichman, "Optical planet discoverer: how to turn a 1.5 m telescope into a powerful exo-planetary systems imager," in High-Contrast Imaging for Exo-Planet Detection, A. Shultz and R. Lyon, eds., Proc. SPIE 4860, 32-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Yaitskova and C. Verinaud, "Adaptive optics correction of the wavefront distortions induced by segments misalignment in Extremely Large Telescope," in Ground-Based and Airborne Telescopes, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

C. A. Beichman, N. J. Woolf, and C. A. Lindensmith, "The terrestrial planet finder (TPF): a NASA origins program to search for habitable planets," JPL Pub. 99-3 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1999).

R. Neuhäuser, M. Mugrauer, and A. Seifahrt, "GQ Lup, 2M1207 and AB Pic: planet companion candidates imaged directly and their relevance in orbital dynamics and mass estimation via theoretical models," presented at the International Astronomical Union Symposium on Binary Stars as Critical Tools and Tests in Contemporary Astrophysics, Prague, Czech Republic, 22-25 August 2006.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Recombined pupils for various visible nuller designs with relative phase shifts labeled. The three types shown are (a) single-shear nuller, (b) perpendicular dual-shear nuller, and (c) parallel dual-shear nuller. The shear distance has been exaggerated for clarity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Obscured TMT primary mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavefront correction factors for the first 15 null-ordered Zernike modes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence on uncorrected segment aberration level of the (left) mean intensity in the nulled plane and (right) achieved contrast. Both plots exhibit the expected σ 2 dependence. Only piston mode is plotted on the left because the different aberrations' curves are indistinguishable.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence on segment aberration level after AO correction of the (left) mean intensity in the nulled plane and (right) achieved contrast. Both plots roughly exhibit the expected σ 2 dependence.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

AO correction factors, γ k using both the full wave-optics simulation described in Subsection 3.A and the simplified high-pass filter correction described in AppendixA A.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Segment astigmatism correction factors plotted versus initial pupil orientation. Although the Z5 and Z6 correction factors change significantly with rotation, the correction factor for the combined astigmatisms is nearly constant.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Controllable region of the phase power spectral densities of the Z5 and Z6 segment astigmatism cases at two different pupil orientations. The total amount of controllable energy in the PSD changes as the pupil rotates, which affects the achieved wavefront correction.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Contrast Curve Coefficients a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Predicted TMT PFI Contrast for Two Cases of Segment Aberrations

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( x , y ) = n = 1 N E n ( x r n ) .
E n ( x r n ) = θ ( x r n ) exp [ j ϕ n ( x r n ) ] .
ϕ n ( x r n ) = k = 1 c n k Z k ( x r n ) ,
E m null = j θ m ( x r m ) k = 1 χ m k Z k ( x r m ) ,
χ m k perp = 1 4 ( c m 1 k c m 2 k + c m 3 k c m 4 k ) .
χ m k lin = 1 2 [ c m 1 k 1 2 ( c m 2 k + c m 3 k ) ] .
E null = j m = 1 M θ m k χ m k Z k .
I null = m = 1 M θ m ( k Z k χ m k ) ( l Z l χ m l ) .
I null = m = 1 M θ m k χ m k 2 Z k 2 .
I null = k σ χ m k 2 = G k σ k 2 .
γ k = σ corr σ init .
I null = G k γ k 2 σ k 2 .
C = k = 1 K α k σ k 2 .

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