Abstract

Numerous types of wavefront correctors have been employed in adaptive optics (AO) systems for correcting the ocular wavefront aberration. While all have improved image quality, none have yielded diffraction-limited imaging for large pupils (6mm), where the aberrations are most severe and the benefit of AO the greatest. To this end, we modeled the performance of discrete actuator, segmented piston-only, and segmented piston∕tip∕tilt wavefront correctors in conjunction with wavefront aberrations measured on normal human eyes in two large populations. The wavefront error was found to be as large as 53μm, depending heavily on the pupil diameter (27.5mm) and the particular refractive state. The required actuator number for diffraction-limited imaging was determined for three pupil sizes (4.5, 6, and 7.5mm), three second-order aberration states, and four imaging wavelengths (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0μm). The number across the pupil varied from only a few actuators in the discrete case to greater than 100 for the piston-only corrector. The results presented will help guide the development of wavefront correctors for the next generation of ophthalmic instrumentation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with retinal function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 8, 3354-3367 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Merino, C. Dainty, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, "Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 8, 3345-3353 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Doble, M. Helmbrecht, M. Hart, and T. Juneau, "Advanced wave-front correction technology for the next generation of adaptive optics equipped ophthalmic instrumentation," Proc. SPIE 5688, 125-132 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, P. B. Kruger, H. Hofer, B. Singer, and D. R. Williams, "Accommodation with higher-order monochromatic aberrations corrected with adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 4552-4569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernandez, L. Vabre, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, and W. Drexler, "Adaptive optics with a magnetic deformable mirror: applications in the human eye," Opt. Express 14, 8900-8917 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. T. Miller, L. N. Thibos, and X. Hong, "Requirements for segmented correctors for diffraction-limited performance in the human eye," Opt. Express 13, 275-289 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dalimier and C. Dainty, "Comparative analysis of deformable mirrors for ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express 13, 4275-4285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazvay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Doble, "High-resolution, in vivo retinal imaging using adaptive optics and its future role in ophthalmology," Expert Rev. Medical Devices 2, 205-216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

N. Doble and D. R. Williams, "The application of MEMS technology for adaptive optics in vision science," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 629-635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, "Neural compensation for the eye's optical aberrations," J. Vision 4, 281-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, T.-K. Uhm, and S.-K. Youn, "First-order analysis of thin-plate deformable mirrors," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 44, 1412-1416 (2004).

P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics with a programmable phase modulator: applications in the human eye," Opt. Express 12, 4059-4071 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb, M. J. Albanese, Y. Zhou, T. Bifano, and S. A. Burns, "Stroke amplifier for deformable mirrors," Appl. Opt. 43, 5330-5333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

V. Larichev, P. V. Ivanov, N. G. Iroshnikov, V. I. Shmalhauzen, and L. J. Otten, "Adaptive system for eye-fundus imaging," Quantum Electron. 32, 902-908 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Ling, Y. Zhang, X. Rao, X. Li, C. Wang, Y. Hu, and W. Jiang, "Small table-top adaptive optical systems for human retinal imaging," Proc. SPIE 4825, 99-108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Doble, G. Yoon, L. Chen, P. Bierden, B. Singer, S. Olivier, and D. R. Williams, "The use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 27, 1579-1581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Perreault, T. G. Bifano, B. M. Levine, and M. N. Horenstein, "Adaptive optic correction using microelectromechanical deformable mirrors," Opt. Eng. 41, 561-566 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D.-U. Bartsch, L. Zhu, P. C. Sun, S. Fainman, and W. R. Freeman, "Retinal imaging with a low-cost micromachined membrane deformable mirror," J. Biomedical Opt. 7, 451-456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, and VISA Standards Taskforce Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652-S660 (2002).
[PubMed]

G. Y. Yoon and D. R. Williams, "Visual performance after correcting the monochromatic and chromatic aberrations of the eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 266-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bara, "Contrast improvement for confocal retinal imaging using phase correcting plates," Opt. Lett. 27, 400-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2329-2348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1998

J. C. He, S. Marcos, R. H. Webb, and S. A. Burns, "Measurement of the wave-front aberration of the eye by a fast psychophysical procedure," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2449-2456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Vargas-Martin, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Correction of the aberrations in the human eye with a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator: limits to performance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2552-2562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Li, N. Mukohzaka, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, Y. Kobayashi, and T Hara, "Phase modulation characteristics analysis of optically-addressed parallel-aligned nematic liquid crystal phase-only spatial light modulator combined with a liquid crystal display," Opt. Rev. 5, 174-178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. R Oppenheimer, D. L. Palmer, R. G. Dekany, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. A. Ealey, and T. R. Price, "Investigating a Xinetics Inc. deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 3126, 569-579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos and A. Bradley, "Use of liquid-crystal adaptive-optics to alter the refractive state of the eye," Optom. Vision Sci. 74, 581-587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884-2892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Arnold, "Influence functions of a thin shallow meniscus-shaped mirror," Appl. Opt. 36, 2019-2028 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

1991

1989

1977

1967

Ahnelt, P.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazvay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albanese, M. J.

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, and VISA Standards Taskforce Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652-S660 (2002).
[PubMed]

Aragon, J. L.

Arnold, L.

Artal, P.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazvay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics with a programmable phase modulator: applications in the human eye," Opt. Express 12, 4059-4071 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, "Neural compensation for the eye's optical aberrations," J. Vision 4, 281-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernandez and P. Artal, "Membrane deformable mirror for adaptive optics: performance limits in visual optics," Opt. Express 11, 1056-1069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, "Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 497-506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernandez, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Closed-loop adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 26, 746-748 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Vargas-Martin, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Correction of the aberrations in the human eye with a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator: limits to performance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2552-2562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Awwal, A. A. S.

J. Porter, H. Queener, J. Lin, K. Thorn, and A. A. S. Awwal, eds., Adaptive Optics for Vision Science: Principles, Practices, Design and Applications (Wiley, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Bara, S.

Bartsch, D.-U.

D.-U. Bartsch, L. Zhu, P. C. Sun, S. Fainman, and W. R. Freeman, "Retinal imaging with a low-cost micromachined membrane deformable mirror," J. Biomedical Opt. 7, 451-456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bierden, P.

N. Doble, G. Yoon, L. Chen, P. Bierden, B. Singer, S. Olivier, and D. R. Williams, "The use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 27, 1579-1581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bifano, T.

Bifano, T. G.

J. A. Perreault, T. G. Bifano, B. M. Levine, and M. N. Horenstein, "Adaptive optic correction using microelectromechanical deformable mirrors," Opt. Eng. 41, 561-566 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, C. E.

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B. R Oppenheimer, D. L. Palmer, R. G. Dekany, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. A. Ealey, and T. R. Price, "Investigating a Xinetics Inc. deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 3126, 569-579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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D.-U. Bartsch, L. Zhu, P. C. Sun, S. Fainman, and W. R. Freeman, "Retinal imaging with a low-cost micromachined membrane deformable mirror," J. Biomedical Opt. 7, 451-456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thibos, L. N.

D. T. Miller, L. N. Thibos, and X. Hong, "Requirements for segmented correctors for diffraction-limited performance in the human eye," Opt. Express 13, 275-289 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2329-2348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, and VISA Standards Taskforce Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652-S660 (2002).
[PubMed]

L. N. Thibos and A. Bradley, "Use of liquid-crystal adaptive-optics to alter the refractive state of the eye," Optom. Vision Sci. 74, 581-587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thorn, K.

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, "Coherence gating and adaptive optics in the eye," Proc. SPIE 4956, 65-72 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Porter, H. Queener, J. Lin, K. Thorn, and A. A. S. Awwal, eds., Adaptive Optics for Vision Science: Principles, Practices, Design and Applications (Wiley, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Thorn, K. E.

Torti, C.

Toyoda, H.

F. H. Li, N. Mukohzaka, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, Y. Kobayashi, and T Hara, "Phase modulation characteristics analysis of optically-addressed parallel-aligned nematic liquid crystal phase-only spatial light modulator combined with a liquid crystal display," Opt. Rev. 5, 174-178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1998).

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J. H. Lee, T.-K. Uhm, and S.-K. Youn, "First-order analysis of thin-plate deformable mirrors," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 44, 1412-1416 (2004).

Unterhuber, A.

Ustun, T. E.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 8, 3354-3367 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Vargas-Martin, F.

Vdovin, G. V.

Wang, C.

N. Ling, Y. Zhang, X. Rao, X. Li, C. Wang, Y. Hu, and W. Jiang, "Small table-top adaptive optical systems for human retinal imaging," Proc. SPIE 4825, 99-108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Webb, R.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, and VISA Standards Taskforce Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652-S660 (2002).
[PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Weinreb, R. N.

Welsh, B.

M. C. Roggemann and B. Welsh, Imaging Through Turbulence (CRC, 1996).

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Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with retinal function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, J. S. Werner, S. M. Jones, D. Chen, S. S. Olivier, Y. Zhang, J. Rha, B. Cense, and D. T. Miller, "Two deformable mirror adaptive optics system for In vivo retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography," presented at the 2006 Biomedical Optics Topical Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., USA, 22 March 2006.

Williams, D. R.

L. Chen, P. B. Kruger, H. Hofer, B. Singer, and D. R. Williams, "Accommodation with higher-order monochromatic aberrations corrected with adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1-8 (2006).
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N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
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P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, "Neural compensation for the eye's optical aberrations," J. Vision 4, 281-287 (2004).
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N. Doble and D. R. Williams, "The application of MEMS technology for adaptive optics in vision science," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 629-635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Yoon and D. R. Williams, "Visual performance after correcting the monochromatic and chromatic aberrations of the eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 266-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Doble, G. Yoon, L. Chen, P. Bierden, B. Singer, S. Olivier, and D. R. Williams, "The use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 27, 1579-1581 (2002).
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H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, "Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye's aberrations," Opt. Express 8, 631-643 (2001).
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H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, "Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 497-506 (2001).
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Yamauchi, Y.

Yoon, G.

N. Doble, G. Yoon, L. Chen, P. Bierden, B. Singer, S. Olivier, and D. R. Williams, "The use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 27, 1579-1581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, G. Y.

Yoshida, N.

F. H. Li, N. Mukohzaka, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, Y. Kobayashi, and T Hara, "Phase modulation characteristics analysis of optically-addressed parallel-aligned nematic liquid crystal phase-only spatial light modulator combined with a liquid crystal display," Opt. Rev. 5, 174-178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Youn, S.-K.

J. H. Lee, T.-K. Uhm, and S.-K. Youn, "First-order analysis of thin-plate deformable mirrors," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 44, 1412-1416 (2004).

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, Y.

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 4552-4569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ling, Y. Zhang, X. Rao, X. Li, C. Wang, Y. Hu, and W. Jiang, "Small table-top adaptive optical systems for human retinal imaging," Proc. SPIE 4825, 99-108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, J. S. Werner, S. M. Jones, D. Chen, S. S. Olivier, Y. Zhang, J. Rha, B. Cense, and D. T. Miller, "Two deformable mirror adaptive optics system for In vivo retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography," presented at the 2006 Biomedical Optics Topical Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., USA, 22 March 2006.

Zhao, M.

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, L.

D.-U. Bartsch, L. Zhu, P. C. Sun, S. Fainman, and W. R. Freeman, "Retinal imaging with a low-cost micromachined membrane deformable mirror," J. Biomedical Opt. 7, 451-456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zienkiewicz, O. C.

O. C. Zienkiewicz, The Finite Element Method in Engineering Science, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1971).

Appl. Opt.

Expert Rev. Medical Devices

N. Doble, "High-resolution, in vivo retinal imaging using adaptive optics and its future role in ophthalmology," Expert Rev. Medical Devices 2, 205-216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

N. Doble and D. R. Williams, "The application of MEMS technology for adaptive optics in vision science," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 629-635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with retinal function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomedical Opt.

D.-U. Bartsch, L. Zhu, P. C. Sun, S. Fainman, and W. R. Freeman, "Retinal imaging with a low-cost micromachined membrane deformable mirror," J. Biomedical Opt. 7, 451-456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc.

J. H. Lee, T.-K. Uhm, and S.-K. Youn, "First-order analysis of thin-plate deformable mirrors," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 44, 1412-1416 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Refract. Surg.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, and VISA Standards Taskforce Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652-S660 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Vision

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, "Neural compensation for the eye's optical aberrations," J. Vision 4, 281-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. A. Perreault, T. G. Bifano, B. M. Levine, and M. N. Horenstein, "Adaptive optic correction using microelectromechanical deformable mirrors," Opt. Eng. 41, 561-566 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

D. Merino, C. Dainty, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, "Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 8, 3345-3353 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 8, 3354-3367 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, "Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye's aberrations," Opt. Express 8, 631-643 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. T. Miller, L. N. Thibos, and X. Hong, "Requirements for segmented correctors for diffraction-limited performance in the human eye," Opt. Express 13, 275-289 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dalimier and C. Dainty, "Comparative analysis of deformable mirrors for ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express 13, 4275-4285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 4552-4569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernandez, L. Vabre, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, and W. Drexler, "Adaptive optics with a magnetic deformable mirror: applications in the human eye," Opt. Express 14, 8900-8917 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernandez and P. Artal, "Membrane deformable mirror for adaptive optics: performance limits in visual optics," Opt. Express 11, 1056-1069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Diaz-Santana, C. Torti, I. Munro, P. Gasson, and C. Dainty, "Benefit of higher closed-loop bandwidths in ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express 11, 2597-2605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics with a programmable phase modulator: applications in the human eye," Opt. Express 12, 4059-4071 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Rev.

F. H. Li, N. Mukohzaka, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, Y. Kobayashi, and T Hara, "Phase modulation characteristics analysis of optically-addressed parallel-aligned nematic liquid crystal phase-only spatial light modulator combined with a liquid crystal display," Opt. Rev. 5, 174-178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vision Sci.

L. N. Thibos and A. Bradley, "Use of liquid-crystal adaptive-optics to alter the refractive state of the eye," Optom. Vision Sci. 74, 581-587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

N. Doble, M. Helmbrecht, M. Hart, and T. Juneau, "Advanced wave-front correction technology for the next generation of adaptive optics equipped ophthalmic instrumentation," Proc. SPIE 5688, 125-132 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. R Oppenheimer, D. L. Palmer, R. G. Dekany, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. A. Ealey, and T. R. Price, "Investigating a Xinetics Inc. deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 3126, 569-579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, "Coherence gating and adaptive optics in the eye," Proc. SPIE 4956, 65-72 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Ling, Y. Zhang, X. Rao, X. Li, C. Wang, Y. Hu, and W. Jiang, "Small table-top adaptive optical systems for human retinal imaging," Proc. SPIE 4825, 99-108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron.

V. Larichev, P. V. Ivanov, N. G. Iroshnikov, V. I. Shmalhauzen, and L. J. Otten, "Adaptive system for eye-fundus imaging," Quantum Electron. 32, 902-908 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazvay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford U. Press, 1998).

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1998).

J. Porter, H. Queener, J. Lin, K. Thorn, and A. A. S. Awwal, eds., Adaptive Optics for Vision Science: Principles, Practices, Design and Applications (Wiley, 2006).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, J. S. Werner, S. M. Jones, D. Chen, S. S. Olivier, Y. Zhang, J. Rha, B. Cense, and D. T. Miller, "Two deformable mirror adaptive optics system for In vivo retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography," presented at the 2006 Biomedical Optics Topical Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., USA, 22 March 2006.

O. C. Zienkiewicz, The Finite Element Method in Engineering Science, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1971).

M. C. Roggemann and B. Welsh, Imaging Through Turbulence (CRC, 1996).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Log 10 of the wavefront variance plotted as a function of Zernike order for the two populations ( 7.5 m m pupil). Diamonds and corresponding dashed curves represent the mean and mean ±2 times the standard deviation of the log 10 (wavefront variance), respectively, for the 70 eyes measured in the Rochester (black) and Indiana (gray) studies.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic cross sections of the three types of wavefront correctors evaluated. For illustration, the reflective surface of each corrector is configured for compensating the same wavefront aberration. See text for description of the corrector types.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Compensation of aberrations across a 7.5 m m pupil using a discrete actuator DM, piston-only, and piston∕tip∕tilt segmented correctors. Each of the mirrors has seven actuators or segments across the pupil diameter. Wavefront phase is represented by a gray-scale image (black and white tones depict minimum and maximum phase, respectively). (a) Measured uncorrected wave aberration for one subject's eye from the Rochester population with defocus zeroed. (b) Conjugate mirror surface that minimizes the rms wavefront error for the subject's wave aberrations in (a) for the discrete actuator device. (c) Residual aberrations after correction of the wave aberrations in (a) with the corrector phase profile in (b). The phase rms and PV are specified at the bottom of each image. The corresponding corrected point spread function and Strehl ratio is given in (d), with the former computed using scalar diffraction theory that incorporated the residual wave aberration and a circular pupil ( λ = 0.6 μ m ) . (e)–(g) Mirror phase profile, residual aberrations, and the corrected point spread for the piston-only case, respectively. (h)–(j) Analogous figures for the segmented piston∕tip∕tilt mirror. Note: The segmented piston∕tip∕tilt device does have three actuators per segment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PV wavefront error that encompasses 25% (top), 50% (middle), and 95% (bottom) of the population in the Rochester (black curves) and Indiana (gray curves) populations as a function of pupil diameter. For the Rochester data, three cases are presented: (i) all aberrations present (short dashed curves), (ii) all aberrations present with zeroed Zernike defocus (long dashed curves), and (iii) all aberrations present with zeroed defocus and astigmatism (solid curves). For the Indiana data, the three cases are (i) residual aberrations after a conventional refraction using trial lenses (short dashed curves), (ii) all aberrations present with zeroed Zernike defocus (long dashed curves), and (iii) all aberrations present with zeroed defocus and astigmatism (solid curves).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Corrected Strehl ratio for discrete actuator DMs as a function of actuator number for pupil diameters of 7.5 (top), 6 (middle), and 4.5 m m (bottom). The wavelength is 0.6 μ m . For each plot, three curves are shown for the Rochester (black) and Indiana (gray) populations, and correspond to the presence of all aberrations (short dashed curve), all aberrations with zeroed Zernike defocus (long dashed curves), and all aberrations with zeroed second-order aberrations (solid curves). Note that the all aberrations condition for the Rochester population includes the subject's refractive error, while that for the Indiana population includes only the residual defocus and astigmatism after a spherocylindrical correction with trial lenses. The error bars for the single representative curve correspond to ± 1 standard deviation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Corrected Strehl for different wavelengths (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1 μ m ) and number of actuators across the 7.5 m m pupil for the Indiana population. Residual defocus was zeroed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Corrected Strehl ratio for piston-only, segmented correctors as a function of segment number for pupil diameters of 7.5 (top), 6 (middle), and 4.5 mm (bottom). The wavelength is 0.6 μ m . For each plot, three curves are shown for the Rochester (black) and Indiana (gray) populations and correspond to the presence of all aberrations (short dashed curve), all aberrations with zeroed Zernike defocus (long dashed curves), and all aberrations with zeroed second-order aberrations (solid curves). Note: For the 6 m m pupil diameter, the results for the Indiana population with all aberrations present follows very closely the predicted performance for the Rochester case with zeroed second-order aberrations. The error bars for the single representative curve correspond to ± 1 standard deviation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Corrected Strehl ratio for piston∕tip∕tilt segmented correctors as a function of segment number for pupil diameters of 7.5 (top), 6 (middle), and 4.5 m m (bottom). The wavelength is 0.6 μ m . For each plot, three curves are shown for the Rochester (black) and Indiana (gray) populations and correspond to the presence of all aberrations (short dashed curve), all aberrations with zeroed Zernike defocus (long dashed curves), and all aberrations with zeroed second-order aberrations (solid curves). The error bars for the single representative curve correspond to ± 1 standard deviation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Predicted Wavefront Corrector Parameters for Diffraction-Limited Imaging in the Eye

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ c o r ( x , y ) = n = 1 N A n g n ( x x n , y y n ) ,
g n ( x , y ) = exp ( ( x x n ) 2 2 σ 2 ) exp ( ( y y n ) 2 2 σ 2 ) ,
I c o r = [ I ( 1 , 1 ) I ( 1 , 2 ) I ( 1 , N ) I ( 2 , 1 ) I ( 2 , 2 ) I ( 2 , N ) I ( P , 1 ) I ( P , 2 ) I ( P , N ) ] .
A n = I c o r ϕ eye ,
A n = [ A 1 A 2 A N ] ϕ eye = [ ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ϕ P ] .

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